• A-weighted sound pressureStandards

    The sound pressure, in decibelsNOTES: 1. In this Standard, most sound pressure level descriptors are A-weighted; however, there may be a requirement to measure C0weighted sound levels for sources with significant low-frequency energy or Z-weighted spectrum levels2. The reference sound pressure po is 20 microPascals

  • A-weighted sound pressure levelStandards

    The level of the frequency A-weighted sound pressure, as determined by an integrating averaging sound level meter complying with AS IEC 61672.1

  • A17-grade timberStandards

    A stress grade of timber for which the specific suite of characteristic values given in Table H3.1, Appendix H, are applicable. NOTE: A17-grades are assigned to seasoned hardwood timber in accordance with grading Standards AS 2082. 

  • abnormal fire hazard (area of)Standards

    An area as defined in Appendix B

  • absolute level toleranceNATSPEC

    Maximum deviation from design levels.

  • absolute spatial positionStandards

    The location of a point on the utility shown by reference to a three dimensional coordinate system from which can be derived horizontal Map Grid of Australia (MGA) coordinates in Easting and Northing, and related to the relevant MGA zone and Geocentric datum, and a vertical position referenced to a datum based on mean sea level (such as the Australia Height Datum)

  • absorbance indexStandards

    Measured light attenuation characterizing the concentration of particulates in smoke or an aerosol

  • access for maintenanceNATSPEC

    Includes access for maintenance, inspection, measurement, operation, adjustment, repair, replacement and other maintenance related tasks.Access required for other purposes such as firefighting and people with a disability are not included in this term.

  • access hatchStandards

    A device normally closed but which can be opened to provide access through a platform, roof or other similar structure. NOTE: Also known as trapdoor.   

  • accessibleBCA (NCC)

    Means having features to enable use by people with a disability.

  • accessibleStandards

    Describes all or port of a site, building or facility that complies with this Standard, and that can be approached, entered and used by people with disabilities.

  • accessible (5601)Standards

    Access can be gained without hazard or undue difficulty for inspection, repair, testing, renewal, or operational purposes

  • accessible ceilingNATSPEC

    A ceiling in which the item requiring access can be reached by temporary or permanent means, conforming to WHS regulations. Examples include, accessible from below by step ladder through a removable access panel and accessible from above from a fixed walkway.

  • accessible, readilyNATSPEC

    Readily accessible, easily accessible, easy access and similar terms mean capable of being reached quickly and without climbing over or removing obstructions, using a movable ladder, and in any case not more than 2.0 m above the ground, floor or platform.

  • accessoryStandards

    Capable of being reached quickly and without climbing over or removing obstructions, mounting upon chair, or using a movable ladder, and in any case not more than 2.0 m above the ground, floor or platform

  • accessory for slate or shingle and shake roofingNATSPEC

    A concrete or terracotta product used to finish the slate and shingle roof and may include apex, ridge and barge capping.

  • accessory for slate roofingAUS-SPEC

    A concrete or terracotta product used to finish the slate and shingle roof and may include apex, ridge and barge capping.

  • accesswayBCA (NCC)

    Means a continuous accessible path of travel (as defined in AS 1428.1) to, into or within a building.

  • accidentStandards

    Any occurrence arising out of and in the course of employment which results in personal damage or property damage, or the possibility of such damage

  • accreditationNATSPEC

    Certification by a statutory or approved authority of the facilities, capabilities, objectivity, competence and integrity of an organization or individual to provide a specified service and/or required operation.

  • Accredited Testing LaboratoryNATSPEC

    An organisation accredited by the National Association of Testing Authorities (NATA) to test in the relevant field

  • accuracyNATSPEC

    The closeness of the agreement between the result of a measurement and the true value of the particular quantity being measured.

  • acoustic insulationNATSPEC

    Materials or methods of construction to reduce the transmission of airborne and structure-borne sound through floors, walls and ceilings or other enclosing elements in buildings.

  • acoustic materialNATSPEC

    Building material with specific acoustic properties to achieve sound transmission loss, sound absorption, damping of resonance or resilience against impact noise.

  • acoustic underlayNATSPEC

    A resilient material laid between the structural floor and the flooring material to provide sound isolation.

  • acrylic polymer resin panelsNATSPEC

    Thermoplastic or thermosetting acrylic resin panels derived from acrylic acid, methacrylic acid or other related compounds, with mineral fillers and pigments.

  • actionStandards

    Set of concentrated or distributed forces acting on a structure (direct action), or deformation imposed on a structure or constrained within it (indirect action).Note: The term load is also often used to describe direct actions.

  • action effects (internal effects of actions, load effects)NATSPEC

    Internal forces and bending moments due to actions (stress resultants).

  • active (or active conductor)Standards

    Any conductor that is maintained at a difference of potential from the neutral or earthed conductor. In a system that does not include a neutral or earthed conductor, all conductors shall be considered to be active conductors

  • active leafStandards

    In a door with two leaves, the leaf that carries the latching or locking mechanism and typically has an operable handle.

  • activity centreNATSPEC

    Urban planning term for those places that are vibrant hubs where people shop work, meet, relax and often live.

  • activity support levelBCA (NCC)

    Means the degree to which occupants can undertake activities with respect to the likely activity traits and occupant traits.

  • activity traitsBCA (NCC)

    For the purposes of Volume One, means the features of the activities that will be undertaken in a habitable room or space.

  • activity traits vol. 2BCA (NCC)

    For the purposes of Volume Two, means the features of the activities that will be undertaken in a room or space.

  • actual dry film thicknessStandards

    The measured dry film thickness as applied

  • added fillerNATSPEC

    Mineral matter, suitable for use in asphalt – at least 75% of which is finer than 75 µm and all of which is finer that 600 µm – which is added to the combined aggregate of an asphalt mix. Typical materials include hydrated lime, flyash, cement, cement works flue dust, ground limestone and rock dust other than that which occurs as a natural component of the combined aggregate.

  • adhesion (paint)NATSPEC

    Adhesion (paint): The sum total of forces of attachment between a dry film and its substrate.

  • adhesion agentNATSPEC

    A substance for promoting adhesion between binder and aggregates, normally in the presence of water.

  • adhesiveStandards

    Material used to bond surfaces by adhesion

  • adhesives - cementitious (C)NATSPEC

    Adhesive in which the binders are hydraulic, e.g. General purpose cement, with aggregates and organic additives.

  • adhesives - dispersion (D)NATSPEC

    Adhesives in which the binders are in the form of aqueous polymer dispersion with mineral fillers and organic additives.

  • adhesives - reaction resin (R)NATSPEC

    Adhesives in which in the binders are synthetic resins with mineral fillers and organic additives. The curing occurs by chemical reaction.

  • adjusted percent exceedance A-weighted sound pressure levelStandards

    The A-weighted sound pressure level that is exceeded for the percent exceedance under consideration for the time interval considered, plus specified adjustments for tonal character and impulsiveness of sound

  • administering bodyBCA (NCC)

    Means the body responsible for administering the WaterMark Certification Scheme.

  • administrative definitionsNATSPEC

    Authority - A body having regulatory powers, in the area in which the structure is to be erected, to control the design and erection of the structureDrawings - The drawings forming part of the project documents setting out the work to be executedMay - Indicates the existence of an optionPrincipal - The purchaser or owner of the structure being constructed or his nominated representativeShall - Indicates that a statement is mandatoryShould -  Indicates a recommendationSpecification - The specification forming part of the project documents setting out the work to be executed

  • administrative definitionsStandards

    Approved - Except as otherwise stated, approved by the building authorityBuilding authority - Body having statutory powers to control the design and erection of buildings or structures are to be erectedDocuments - Drawings and specification that set out the work to be executedSupervision - Site control  of work directed towards obtaining compliance with the design and the provisions of this Standard 

  • advanced plants (species)NATSPEC

    Plant species containerised and established in 300 mm containers but less than 45 L containers.

  • adverse operating environmentsStandards

    Any environment or condition that may adversely affect the reliability of fire protection systems and equipment

  • aerial conductorStandards

    Any stranded conductor (including aerial bundled conductor) that is supported by insulators or purpose-designed fittings above the ground and is directly exposed to weather

  • aerodynamic shape factorStandards

    Factor to account for the effects of the geometry of the structure on surface pressure due to wind.

  • aerosolStandards

    Airborne water particles less than 10 µm in diameter

  • aerosol densityStandards

    Amount of particulates per volume as described operationally by one of two parameters:(a) Absorbance index(b) y (3.18)

  • aged care buildingBCA (NCC)

    Means a Class 9c building for residential accommodation of aged persons who, due to varying degrees of incapacity associated with the ageing process, are provided with personal care services and 24 hour staff assistance to evacuate the building during an emergency. 

  • aggregate filled textured latex coatingNATSPEC

    An aggregate filled medium to high profile textured coating selected for aesthetic purposes to provide maximum relief from underlying surface irregularities according to the application technique used.

  • aggregates/sand/fillerNATSPEC

    Some spray applied preservation materials incorporate either the spreading of or inclusion of fillers/sands or aggregates. For the purposes of this worksection these materials are referred to as coarse graded materials and are defined as materials added to (either before spraying to form part of the material applied or after spraying as a dressing) of the application proposed.

  • air - exhaust airStandards

    Air, other than returned air, removed from an enclosure by mechanical means and discharged to atmosphere. 

  • air - outdoor airStandards

    Air outside the building. 

  • air - recycle airStandards

    That portion of air removed from enclosures as return air and returned as part of the supply air by mechanical means. 

  • air - relief airStandards

    That portion of return air that is not recycled, including air leakage through a facade or discharge through specific relief paths. 

  • air - return airStandards

    Air removed from an enclosure by mechanical means, all of which may be expelled by as relief air, or all or part of it may be recycled. 

  • air - smoke exhaust airStandards

    Air handled by the smoke exhaust system during operation in the smoke-control mode. NOTE: Also known as smoke-spill air. 

  • air - supply airStandards

    Air introduced into an enclosure by mechanical means. 

  • air damperStandards

    A motorized mechanical damper that opens or closes to control air as part of a smoke control system. 

  • air filterStandards

    A device for removing particulate material from air

  • air grilleNATSPEC

    An air grille of metal or other material fitted to the inlet or outlet end of an air duct or within walls, floors, ceilings or doors. It includes all types of diffusers, registers and grilles.

  • air handling plantNATSPEC

    Proprietary and non-proprietary pre-assembled plant and prefabricated and site erected plant and plenums. Includes room fan coil units and air handling units.

  • air handling unit (AHU)NATSPEC

    A unit having a supply air flow not less than 400 L/s and consisting of casing housing a fan and coils. The casing may also house filters, dampers and other items. Includes larger sizes of units sometimes referred to as fan coil units.

  • air infiltrationStandards

    The flow of air through a window or door that aids in determining the acoustic and thermal performance.NOTE: products with a low airflow will perform better for noise and energy; therefore, they should provide a higher comfort level than those with a high flow rate

  • air intakeStandards

    Any opening through which air is admitted to an air-handling system in a building

  • air leakageStandards

    Air, other than exhaust air, return air and relief air, that escapes from an air-handling system in an uncontrolled manner

  • air outletStandards

    Any opening through which air is delivered to an enclosure by an air-handling system of a building. 

  • air terminal deviceStandards

    A device through which air is discharged, exhausted or introduced, including, but not limited to, the adaptor of a grille, diffuser, outlet, chilled beam or VAV box and to which flexible duct is attached

  • air-conditioningBCA (NCC)

    For the purposes of Section J, means a service that actively cools or heats the air within a space, but does not include a service that directly - a) cools or heats cold or hot rooms; or b) maintains specialised conditions for equipment or processes, where this is the main purpose of the service. 

  • air-handling plantStandards

    A component part of an air-handling system that includes equipment providing air movement, as well as equipment for the purpose of controlling the direction, rate of airflow, division of airflow or condition of air (i.e. concentration level of contaminants, temperature and humidity). 

  • air-handling systemStandards

    A system for the purpose of directing air in a positive and controlled manner to or from specific enclosures by means of air-handling plant, ducts, plenums, air-distribution devices or automatic controls. 

  • air-pressurization systemStandards

    An air-handling system designed to establish a pressure differential in accordance with this standard. 

  • airborne contaminantStandards

    Any contaminant present in the air that may be harmful to persons

  • airborne soundNATSPEC

    Sound radiated directly from a source, such as a loudspeaker or machine, into the surrounding air.

  • airflow rateStandards

    The volumetric flow rate of air derived from the mass flow rate by dividing it by the density, normalized to 1.2 kg/m2 (1.2g/L).NOTE: For buildings located at an altitude substantially differing from sea level, specified airflow rates should be adjusted.

  • airlockStandards

    A room or compartment provided to disconnect a sanitary compartment or other enclosure from another room or space in the building. 

  • alarm conditionStandards

    Audible and visual signal

  • alarm initiating deviceStandards

    Either an approved sprinkler alarm valve or a flow switch installed downstream of a check valve

  • alarm signalStandards

    An audible signal intended to indicate a fire condition

  • alarm signalling equipmentStandards

    Equipment complying with AS 4428.6

  • alarm stateStandards

    The condition of a smoke alarm when it signals a fire condition

  • alarm valveStandards

    A non-return valve that allows the water to enter the installation and operate the alarms when the installation pressure falls below the water supply pressure

  • alarm zoneBCA (NCC)

    For the purposes of Specification E2.2d of Volume One, means an are of the building protected by one or more smoke alarms connected to one alarm circuit.

  • alarm-silence facilityStandards

    Means of temporarily disabling or desensitizing a smoke alarm

  • allowable working timeNATSPEC

    Measured from the commencement of incorporating/mixing the first application of the stabilisation binder into the unstabilised pavement materials to the completion of trimming.

  • alpineStandards

    Regions where the maximum snow load is usually due to accumulation from a number of successive snowfalls.

  • alpine areaBCA (NCC)

    Means land - a) likely to be subject to significant snowfalls; and b) in New South Wales, A.C.T. or Victoria more than 1200 m above the Australian Height Datum; and c) in Tasmania more than 900 m above the Australian Height Datum.

  • alterationBCA (NCC)

    In relation to a building, includes an addition or extension to a building. 

  • alternative solutionNATSPEC

    Means a Performance Solution. 

  • aluminium joineryNATSPEC

    The collective term used for aluminium framed and glazed windows and doors.

  • ambient soundStandards

    The totally encompassing sound in a given situation at a given time, composed of sound from all sources near and far, measured by the totally encompassing time average A-weighted sound pressure level in a given situation at a given time

  • ambient temperatureStandards

    The dry bulb temperature in still air, averaged over a period of 8 h

  • ambient temperatureNATSPEC

    The air temperature at the time of mixing and placing of concrete.

  • ambient waterNATSPEC

    Drinking water at a temperature provided by the cold waterpiping system, without further heating or cooling.

  • ambulant people with disabilitiesStandards

    People who are able to walk but have mobility or manipulative impairments.

  • ameliorant materialAUS-SPEC

    Additives used to make or improve soil.

  • amenityBCA (NCC)

    Means an attribute which contributes to the health, physical independence, comfort and well-being of people.

  • anaerobicStandards

    Lacking free oxygen

  • anchorAUS-SPEC

    Restraint used to transmit impact forces into the ground.

  • anchor trenchNATSPEC

    A trench excavated around the perimeter of a water feature in which the edges of the geotextile and sheet membrane liner are buried and that diverts surface water runoff.

  • ancillaryStandards

    A moulded non-metallic product used to finish the roof; includes apex, ridge, and barge tilesNOTE: see appendix C for illusion

  • ancillary elementBCA (NCC)

    Means an element that is secondary to and not an integral part of another element to which it is attached.

  • ancillary for tile roofingNATSPEC

    A moulded non-metallic product used to finish the roof, includes apex, ridge, and barge tiles.

  • angle of approachStandards

    The angle between the centre-line of one path of travel and the centre-line of an adjoining path of travel.

  • angle of approachStandards

    The angle between the centre-line of one continuous accessible path of travel and the centre-line of an intersecting continuous accessible path of travel.

  • anionic bitumenNATSPEC

    A type of bituminous emulsion where dispersed particles comprise a bituminous binder and are negatively charged.

  • anionic bitumen emulsionNATSPEC

    A binder material in which the suspended particles are negatively charged.

  • annual energy consumptionNATSPEC

    Means the theoretical amount of energy used annually by the building's services, excluding kitchen exhaust and the like. 

  • annual greenhouse gas emissionsBCA (NCC)

    Means the theoretical amount of greenhouse gas emissions attribute to the energy used annually by a building's services, excluding kitchen exhaust and the like.

  • annual probability of exceedence of the actionNATSPEC

    The probability that a value will be exceeded in any one year.NOTE: This is the inverse of the so-called 'return period' better described as the average recurrence interval.

  • anode (in general)Standards

    An electrode, placed in the electrolyte, to apply cathodic protection to the structure

  • anode screenStandards

    A safety barrier surrounding a submerged anode for the prevention of electrical shock or shorting

  • anode shieldStandards

    A protective covering of insulating material applied to a coated structure in the immediate vicinity of an anode to reduce local cathodic current density


    A specification describing the official features of the SQL database language. Every variant of SQL relational databases implements a subset of ANSI SQL.

  • anti-burst reinforcementNATSPEC

    Reinforcement cage surrounding anchorages to control the tensile bursting stresses.

  • anti-ponding device/boardStandards

    A lining fixed along the eaves line from the top of the facia back up the rafter with a clearance of approximately 50 mm below the first batten, which prevents the sarking from ponding or sagging due to the accumulation of moistureNOTE: the anti-ponding device/board should be waterproof or water-resistant

  • apexStandards

    The truss joint formed where two sloping top chords of a truss intersect, generally at the highest point of the truss. 

  • applianceStandards

    A solid fuel burning unit intended for use in residential or commercial properties for the purpose of space heating, water heating or cooking

  • appliance (5601)Standards

    In New Zealand, has the same meaning as 'gas appliance' in the Gas Act 1992In Australia, an assembly, other than a vehicle refueling appliance, part of which uses gas to produce flame, heat, light, power or special atmosphereType A appliance - an appliance for which a certification scheme exists (applicable in Australia only)Type B appliance - an appliance, with gas consumption in excess of 10 MJ/h, for which a certification scheme does not exist (applicable in Australia only)Flueless appliance - an appliance designed to operate without a flueFreestanding cooking appliance - a cooking appliance, comprising an oven or ovens, a number of open burners and usually a grill designed to be installed on a floorRoom-sealed appliance - An indoor appliance which is sealed from the room in which it is installed so that it directly discharges combustion products to, and takes air for combustion from, outside the caravan or boat

  • appliance, fixedStandards

    An appliance that is fastened to a support or otherwise secured in a specific location

  • appliance, hand-heldStandards

    A portable appliance intended to be held in the hand during normal use, the motor, if any, forming an integral part of the appliance

  • appliance, portableStandards

    Either an appliance that is moved while in operation or an appliance that can easily be moved from one place to another while connected to the supply

  • appliance, stationaryStandards

    Either a fixed appliance or an appliance having a mass exceeding 18kg and not provided with a carrying handle

  • applicantStandards

    An entity (or entities) who seeks (seek) a particular test or assessment service in accordance with this Standard. 

  • application rateNATSPEC

    Application Rate: the specified or designed coverage of a specified application specified as litres per m2. 

  • approach sight distanceNATSPEC

    Relates to the ability of drivers to observe the roadway layout at an anticipated approach speed.

  • appropriate authorityNATSPEC

    Means the relevant authority with the statutory responsibility to determine the particular matter. 

  • appropriately qualified personBCA (NCC)

    Means a person recognised by the appropriate authority as having qualifications and/or experience in the relevant discipline in question.

  • approvedNATSPEC

    Approved, reviewed, directed, rejected, endorsed and similar expressions mean approved (reviewed, directed, rejected, endorsed) in writing by the contract administrator.

  • approved and approvalStandards

    Approved by, or the approval of, the regulatory authority concerned

  • approved designStandards

    The design of fire protection systems and equipment approved by the authority having jurisdiction at the time of installation or subsequent modification

  • approved disposal systemBCA (NCC)

    Means masonry construction in which special provisions have been made for movement by articulation.

  • arched compression elementStandards

    A circular or parabolic arch-shaped compression element having an inside radius-to-thickness ratio greater than 8, stiffened at both ends by edge stiffeners.

  • architectural one-off windowStandards

    A window designed to suit one specific installation in a buildingNOTE: the sections and components used to make the window should be unique to that istallation

  • areaStandards

    The area of the panel between sightlines after glazing, calculated using the sight size.

  • area hazardousStandards

    Area in which an explosive atmosphere is present, or may be expected to be present, in quantities that require special precautions for the construction, installation and use of electrical equipment

  • arm's reachStandards

    A zone extending from any point on a surface where persons usually stand or move about, to the limits that a person can reach with the hand in any direction without assistance, (e.g. tools or ladder)

  • arrised edgeStandards

    The result of removing sharp edges.

  • articulated full masonryStandards

    Full masonry construction incorporating articulation of external and internal walls

  • articulated masonry veneerStandards

    Masonry veneer construction incorporating articulation of the masonry veneer

  • articulationStandards

    Provision for movement in walls through incorporation of permanent control joints

  • as-built drawingsAUS-SPEC

    Copies of the design drawings with as-built changes (including repaired defects) marked up to scale with references to the relevant design change notices:Interim as-built drawings are the as-built drawings at the stage of closure of the lot package.Final as-built drawings are the as-built drawings incorporating the changes for all lot packages and are generally submitted before final completion of the project.

  • as-built recordStandards

    A representation of the utility infrastructure as it exists in the field, showing a relationship to a defined absolute or relative reference system. As-built records can include both hardcopy plans and computer-generated geographic information systems

  • aspect ratioStandards

    The ratio of the longer side of a panel to its shorter side.

  • aspect ratioStandards

    Ratio of the average roof height of a building to the smallest horizontal dimension, or the ratio of the largest dimension of a structural member to its crosswind breadth.

  • asphaltNATSPEC

    Dense graded asphalt: A mixture of coarse aggregate, fine aggregate, filler and bitumen.Open graded asphalt: A bituminous mix using aggregate containing only small amounts of fine material, and providing a high percentage of air voids.

  • asphaltAUS-SPEC

    A mixture of bituminous binder and aggregate with or without mineral filler, produced hot in a mixing plant, which is delivered, spread and compacted while hot.

  • asphalt pavementNATSPEC

    A pavement, the predominant structural strength of which is provided by asphalt layers.

  • assemblage of elementsStandards

    A system of interconnected cold-formed steel elements that act together to resist earthquakes action in such a way that the strength and deformation capacity of the system is not adversely affected by the buckling or crippling of any one element of the assemblage

  • assembliesNATSPEC

    A named aggregation of BIM objects that form another object or functional unit.

  • assembly buildingBCA (NCC)

    Means a building where people may assemble for - a) civic, theatrical, social, political, or religious purposes including a library, theatre, public hall or place of worship; or b) educational purposes in a school, early childcare centre, preschool, or the like ; orc) entertainment, recreational or sporting purposes including - i) a discotheque, nightclub or a bar area of a hotel or motel providing live entertainment or containing a dance floor; or ii)a cinema; or iii)a sports stadium, sporting or other club; or d) transit purposes including a bus station, railway station, airport or ferry terminal. 

  • assessment methodBCA (NCC)

    Means a method that can be used for determining that a Performance Solution or Deemed-to-Satisfy Solution complies with the Performance Requirements.

  • assessment reportStandards

    A document that confirms the FRL and is prepared for the purpose of meeting the requirements of NCC, BCA Volume 1, Specification A2.3.NOTE: Also referred to as a 'formal opinion'.

  • assetAUS-SPEC

    A physical component of a road system or network. Typical assets include sections of pavements, bridges, culverts, traffic signals, signs, road furniture, road reserves, etc.

  • asset protection zone (APZ)/Defendable spaceNATSPEC

    A fuel-reduced area surrounding a built asset or structure which provides a buffer zone between a bushfire hazard and an asset. The APZ includes a defendable space within which firefighting operations can be carried out. The size of the required asset protection zone varies with slope, vegetation and Fire Danger Index (FDI).

  • associative dimensioningNATSPEC

    A function of a BIM authoring system that automatically updates the value of a dimension when changes occur to the geometry of the object.

  • astragalStandards

    A member, or combination of members, applied to one or both doors of a pair at their meeting stiles to close the clearance gap for the purpose of providing a weather seal, minimizing the passage of light or sound between doors or retarding the passage of smoke and flame during a fire. 

  • atmosphere corrosionStandards

    Corrosion with the earth's atmosphere at ambient temperature as the corrosive environment

  • atmospheric monitoringStandards

    The continuous measurements of oxygen concentration or airborne contaminants over an uninterrupted period of time

  • atmospheric testingNATSPEC

    The measurement of oxygen concentration of training, education and experience, acquired knowledge and skills enabling that person to perform a specified task correctly

  • atriumBCA (NCC)

    Means a space within a building that connects 2 or more storeys, and - a) is wholly or substantially enclosed at the top by a floor or roof (including a glazed roof structure); and b) includes any adjacent part of the building not separated by an appropriate barrier to fire; but c) does not include a stairwell, rampwell or the space within a shaft.

  • Atrium (Standards)Standards

    As defined in Part G3 of the NCC.

  • atrium wellBCA (NCC)

    Means a space in an atrium bounded by the perimeter of the openings in the floors or by the perimeter of the floors and the external walls. 

  • attendanceNATSPEC

    Attendance, provide attendance and similar expressions mean give assistance for examination and testing.

  • attenuationNATSPEC

    The reduction of noise or vibration, by whatever method necessary, usually expressed in decibels.

  • atticStandards

    One, or a combination of the following:(a) Attic (decorative) A low storey or decorative parapet above the main cornice of a classical building, originally designed to hide the roof slope(b) Attic (storage) The accessible space within a sloping roof of a house, often used for storage (c) Attic (habitable) A habitable upper storey or room(s), built entirely within the roof space of a building, with stair access from the floor below and usually lit by dormers or skylightsNOTE: in case of a multistorey dwelling, the ceiling means the ceiling of each storey of the building

  • attic trussStandards

    A roof truss supporting both roof and a habitable or non-habitable storage floor space contained within. 

  • attribute informationStandards

    A recorded description of the location and physical properties of subsurface utility infrastructure. For example, an attribute may be the owner and type of the utility, the configuration of the asset or the type of constructed material

  • authoritiesAUS-SPEC

    Includes service agencies and Road Authorities.

  • authorityNATSPEC

    Any organisation with statutory authority relating to the project, including clearances.

  • authorityStandards

    A body having statutory powers to control the design and erection of a structure 

  • authority having jurisdictionStandards

    A minister of the Crown, a government department, or other authority having power to issue regulations, orders or other instructions having the force of law or, in cases where none of these apply, the responsible entity 

  • authority, regulatoryStandards

    A government agency responsible for relevant legislation and its application

  • authorized personStandards

    The person in charge of the premises, or the licensed electrical contractor or electrician or other person appointed or selected by the person in charge of the premises to perform certain duties on the premises 

  • autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC)NATSPEC

    Material manufactured from binders such as cement and/or lime combined with fine siliceous based material, cell generating material and water.NOTE: the raw materials are mixed together and cast into molds where the mix is allowed to rise and set into cakes. After this part of the process, the cake is cut into components of the required sizes and cured with high-pressure steam in autoclaves.

  • automaticNATSPEC

    Means designed to operate when activated by a heat , smoke or fire sensing device. 

  • automatic (standards)Standards

    The process of a system having the capability of starting or operating without user intervention. 

  • automatic inflowStandards

    Automatic flow into a tank to partially make up, within a prescribed time, water drawn off under operational conditions

  • automatic smoke/heat release ventStandards

    A vent complying with AS 2427NOTE: the term 'vent' when used in this Standard is synonymous with 'automatic smoke/heat release vent'

  • automatic suppression systemStandards

    A system, when activated by the heat of a fire or its products of combustion, that will actively have an impact on the rate of growth of the fire and which may contain the size of the fire, reduce it or extinguish it. NOTE: Active systems include fire sprinklers, inert gas flooding and deluge and water spray systems. 

  • automatically controlled (water treatment)Standards

    Dosage regulated by feedback control loop or timer

  • available safe egress time (ASET)BCA (NCC)

    Means the time between ignition of a fire and the onset of untenable conditions in a specific part of a building. This is the calculated interval between the time of ignition of a fire and the time at which conditions become such that the occupant is unable to take effective action to escape to a place of safety.

  • avaliable, readilyStandards

    Capable of being reached for inspection, maintenance or repairs without necessitating the dismantling of structural parts, cupboards, benches or the likes

  • average ambient temperatureNATSPEC

    Average value of the daily maximum and minimum ambient temperatures over the defined period at a site.

  • average daylight factorBCA (NCC)

    Means the average specific extinction area for smoke as determined by AS 5637.1.

  • average exceedance probabilityNATSPEC

    The probability of an event being equalled or exceeded within a year.

  • average least dimensionAUS-SPEC

    The average height of the aggregate particles when they are spread as a single layer with their dimensions vertical.

  • average recurrence intervalNATSPEC

    The average or expected value of the period between exceedances of a given discharge, it is generally expressed in years.

  • average recurrence interval (ARI)Standards

    The average or expected interval between events of a given rainfall intensity being exceededNOTE: the ARI is an average value based on statistical analysis. The actual time between exceedances will vary

  • average recurrence intervalAUS-SPEC

    The average time period between occurrences equalling or exceeding a given value.

  • average recurrence interval (BCA)BCA (NCC)

    Applied to rainfall, means the expected average interval between exceedances for a 5 minute duration  rainfall intensity. 

  • average specific extinction areaBCA (NCC)

    Means the average specific extinction area for smoke as determined by AS/NZS 3837.

  • awningNATSPEC

    Roof-like structure, usually of limited extent, projecting from a wall of a building.


  • back EMFStandards

    An instantaneous open-circuit voltage between an anode and cathode of an operating impressed current cathodic protection system NOTE: back EMF may have other definitions in other technologies

  • backflow prevention deviceBCA (NCC)

    Means an air gap, break tank or mechanical device that is designed to prevent the unplanned reversal of flow of water or contaminants into the water service or a Network Utility Operator's water supply.

  • backgroundStandards

    That part of a sign that is behind the legend

  • background A-weighted sound pressure levelStandards

    The sound pressure level, obtained by using time-weighting 'F', which is equal to or exceeded for 90% of the time interval considered in the absence of the noise under investigationNOTE: for the definition of time-weighting 'F', refer to AS IEC 61672.1

  • background sound levelStandards

    The background sound level I sdefined as the LAeq,t level with the space unoccupied but ready for occupancyNOTE: Australian users of this Standard should note the term 'Background A-weighted sound pressure level' has a different defined meaning for environmental purposes under the AS 1055 series. New Zealand users should note 'background sound level' has a different defined meaning in NZS 6801 and other Standards related to environmental noise

  • backing rodStandards

    A section of closed cell foam made from flexible plastics

  • backpressureBCA (NCC)

    Means a reversal of water flow caused by the downstream pressure in the distributing pipes of a water service or supply.

  • BacksiphonageBCA (NCC)

    Means a reversal of water flow of water caused by negative pressure in the disturbing pipe of a water service or supply.

  • backstageBCA (NCC)

    Means a space associated with, and adjacent to, a stage in a class 9b building for scenery, props, equipment, dressing rooms, or the like. 

  • bad groundNATSPEC

    Ground unsuitable for the works, including fill liable to subsidence, ground containing cavities, faults or fissures, ground contaminated by harmful substances and ground that is, or becomes, soft, wet or unstable.

  • bakingStandards

    Process of heating parts for a definite time at a given temperature in order to minimize the risk of hydrogen embrittlement

  • balanced constructionNATSPEC

    Flush door construction where the facings on one side of the core are nominally equal in thickness, grain direction, properties and arrangement to those on the other side of the core, such that uniformly distributed changes in moisture content will not cause warpage.

  • balustradeStandards

    A low wall forming a parapet to a stair, ramp, balcony, raised level, or a change in levels.

  • barrierStandards

    The assembly of components, natural or otherwise, that restrict access to the pool. The barrier includes items such as fences, posts and panels, gate units, gates and doorsets, constructed or natural walls retaining or otherwise; sides of buildings, and balustrades on a balcony, where they form part of the intended barrier. 

  • barrierStandards

    A part providing basic protection from any usual direction of access

  • barrier heightStandards

    The height of the barrier perpendicular to the finished ground level. 

  • basal planeStandards

    A plane through the centre of the right and left ear openings and lower edge of the eye socket and represented on a test headform or reference headform

  • baseNATSPEC

    One or more layers of material, forming the uppermost structural element of a pavement and on which the surfacing may be placed.

  • base coatNATSPEC

    A plaster coat applied before the application of the finish coat.

  • base courseAUS-SPEC

    Directly onto the subgrade or subbase if applicable.

  • base, structuralStandards

    Level at which earthquake motions are considered to be imported to the structure, or the level at which the structure as a dynamic vibrator is supported (see Figure 1.5(C)).

  • base/based courseNATSPEC

    One or more layers of material forming the uppermost structural element of a pavement and on which the surfacing may be placed. It may be composed of fine crushed rock, natural gravel, broken stone, stabilised material, asphalt or Portland cement concrete.

  • baseline dataStandards

    Data derived from the approved design and commissioning, which serve as a basis for subsequent comparison with the data derived from inspection, test and survey. 

  • batchNATSPEC

    Quantity of identical parts cleaned, picked, fluxed and galvanized together at one time in a galvanizing basket 

  • batchNATSPEC

    A quantity of concrete containing a fixed amount of ingredients and produced in a discrete operation.

  • batch and loadNATSPEC

    Varies according to mixer types as follows:Central batch mixers: For mixers discharging into a tipper truck, a load may comprise more than one batch.Mobile batch mixers: A batch is deemed to be a load, a load must not comprise more than one batch.Continuous mixers: A batch is a load produced in a single discrete operation.

  • batch average thicknessStandards

    Calculated average thickness of a coating as if it was uniformly distributed over the surface of the parts of the batch

  • bathroomStandards

    A domestic-type room used for bathing, showering or personal cleansing, as distinct from the larger and better-ventilated ablution centres commonly provided in factories, camping areas and sporting facilities, and the like

  • batterAUS-SPEC

    The uniform side slope of walls, banks, cuttings, etc. Usually expressed as a ratio of horizontal to vertical.The amount of such slope or rake, usually expressed as a ratio of horizontal to vertical, distinct from grade.To form a uniform side slope to a wall, bank, or cutting.

  • batterAUS-SPEC

    The face of an embankment or cutting, produced as a result of earthmoving operations involving cutting and filling.

  • batteryStandards

    A unit consisting of ne or more cells connected in a series, parallel or series parallel arrangement to supply the voltage and current requirements of a connected load

  • battery systemBCA (NCC)

    Means one or more chemical cells connected in series, parallel or a combination of the two for the purpose of electrical energy storage. 

  • battery-low conditionStandards

    Combination of battery voltage and series resistance, which results in a fault warning

  • beadStandards

    A strip of wood, metal, sealant or other suitable material secured to the rebate to retain the glass. Also known as glazing bead or sealant bead.

  • bearing wall systemStandards

    Structural system in which loadbearing walls provide support for all or most of the vertical loads while shear walls or braced frames provide the horizontal earthquake resistance.

  • bearing-type connectionStandards

    Connection effected using either snug-tight bolts, or high-strength bolts tightened to induce a specified minimum bolt tension, in which the design action is transferred by shear in the bolts and bearing on the connected parts at the strength limit state

  • beddingNATSPEC

    Mixtures of materials which are applied to substrates in a plastic state and which dry, cure and adhere tiles to substrates:Adhesive bedding: Paving/tiling adhered by adhesives.Mortar bedding: Paving/tiling adhered in a cementitious mortar bed.

  • bedroomStandards

    A room used or intended to be used for sleeping including any combined living/sleeping area

  • bendStandards

    Portion adjacent to flat elements and having a maximum inside radius-to-thickness ratio of 8

  • bicycle path (cycleway)NATSPEC

    A path or path section intended for the exclusive use of cyclists, generally referred to as an exclusive bicycle path.

  • bifenthrinNATSPEC

    A synthetic, broad-spectrum pyrethroid insecticide that affects the nervous system of insects.Bifenthrin is registered by the Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority registrar, for use in conformance with the pesticides registrar’s approved label.

  • bill of quantitiesStandards

    A document named therein as a bill of quantities issued to tenderers by or on behalf of the Principal, stating estimated quantities of work to be carried out

  • BIM authoring systemNATSPEC

    An application used for generating data for multiple uses that includes 3D geometric information. EXAMPLES: Autodesk® Revit®, Bentley® AECOsim®, Graphisoft® ArchiCAD®, Nemetschek® Vectorworks® and Tekla® Structures.

  • binderNATSPEC

    A binder is any material mixed/ added to the pavement for improvement in pavement qualities.

  • binderNATSPEC

    A bituminous material used for waterproofing the surface and holding an aggregate layer to the base.

  • bio-solubleNATSPEC

    A product that dissolves in bodily fluids and is quickly cleared from the lungs.

  • biocideStandards

    A physical or chemical agent that kills bacteria and other microorganisms 

  • bioresistanceStandards

    Resistance to degradation by biological attack

  • biteStandards

    The width of silicone used to bond the fin or frame member to the edge of the glass panel.

  • bitumenNATSPEC

    A viscous material from the distillation of crude oil comprising complex hydrocarbons, which is soluble in carbon disulphide, softens when it is heated, is waterproof and has good powers of adhesion. It is produced as a refined by-product of oil.APP Bitumen: Bitumen modified with atactic (meaning non-crystalline or amorphous) polypropylene wax to form a plastomeric sheet. The membrane is reinforced with fibreglass or non-woven polyester (NWP).SBS bitumen: Bitumen modified with Styrene Butadiene Styrene, a thermoplastic rubber that undergoes a phase inversion at elevated temperature and converts to an elastomeric material. The membrane is reinforced with fibreglass or non-woven polyester (NWP).

  • bitumenStandards

    Includes residual petroleum bitumen which may or may not have been processed, naturally occurring asphalt, derivatives of coal or a mixture thereof

  • bitumen emulsionAUS-SPEC

    A system of fine droplets of bitumen with or without polymer, suspended in a mixture of water and emulsifier which begins to set upon contact with surfaces and when exposed to air.

  • bitumen emulsion stabilisingNATSPEC

    The mixing of bitumen emulsion into the upper pavement layer to increase pavement strength.

  • bleed off (or blowdown)Standards

    The removal of water from a system to limit the concentration of total dissolved solids and suspended soilds

  • blended granular materialAUS-SPEC

    Joining of two or more gravel materials in various designed % mix blends using ARRB spreadsheet model to achieve improved structural strength and improved plasticity whether smaller or larger as required.

  • blended granular materialsAUS-SPEC

    Joining of two or more gravel materials in various designed % mix blends to achieve improved structural strength and improved plasticity whether smaller or larger as required. The aim is to examine test results to determine the suitability of the new blend to comply with bitumen sealed base gravel specifications.

  • blended materialNATSPEC

    A material formed by the combination and mixing of materials obtained from different sources or rock types or recycled materials, in order to obtain a product with improved properties.

  • blockStandards

    A small piece of lead, rubber or other suitable material used to position the glass in the frame.

  • BMUStandards

    Building maintenance unit

  • boilerBCA (NCC)

    Means a vessel or an arrangement of vessels and interconnecting parts, wherein steam or other vapour is generated, or water or other liquid is heated at a pressure above that of the atmosphere, by the application of fire, the products of combustion, electrical power, or similar high temperature means, and - a) include superheaters, reheaters, economisers, boiler piping, supports, mountings, valves, gauges, fittings, controls, the boiler settings and directly associated equipment; butb) excludes a fully flooded or pressurised system where water or the other liquid is heated to a temperature lower than the normal atmospheric boiling temperature of the liquid. 

  • boiling waterNATSPEC

    Drinking water at a temperature at or close to 100°C.

  • bond (coating)Standards

    Adhesion between the coating materials and the substrate

  • bond (electrical)Standards

    A metal connection between points on the same structure or on different structures

  • bond breakerStandards

    A system that prevents the membrane bonding to the substrate, bedding or lining

  • bond breakerNATSPEC

    A system preventing a membrane bonding to the substrate, bedding or lining.

  • bonding conductorNATSPEC

    Provides electrical connection between the lightning protection system and other metalwork and between various metal parts of a structure or between earthing systems.

  • bonding treatmentNATSPEC

    A treatment of a substrate which improves adhesion of a plaster system.

  • booking (book)NATSPEC

    The procedure of folding pasted surfaces together for easier handling, when applying paste onto wallcoverings.

  • boost chargeStandards

    A system of charging adopted to recover the battery in accordance with the duty requirements of the system, the voltage of the system under these circumstances being outside the normal operational limits of the system

  • boosterNATSPEC

    In-line pressure booster pumping station used to increase the hydraulic gradient.

  • bored cast in place tileStandards

    A pile, with or without a liner, formed by excavating or boring a hole in the ground and subsequently filling it with plain or reinforced concrete

  • bored pierStandards

    Cast in place concrete cylindrical load support element

  • borrow areaNATSPEC

    An area or excavation from which soil, clay, sand, rock or gravel has been excavated for a specific purpose.

  • borrowed airStandards

    Air that is borrowed by a naturally ventilated enclosure and used to ventilate an adjoining enclosure.

  • bottom chordStandards

    A member forming the lower boundary of a truss and which generally supports a ceiling. 

  • bound granular materialsNATSPEC

    Granular or subgrade materials to which a binder has been added to improve structural stiffness.

  • bound materialNATSPEC

    A granular or subgrade material to which a binder has been added to improve structural stiffness.

  • boundary barrierStandards

    A dividing barrier between two adjoining properties. 

  • box gutterStandards

    Graded channel, generally of rectangular shape, for the conveyance of rainwater, located within the building, which includes a gutter adjacent to a wall or parapet

  • braceStandards

    A rigid member (typically diagonal) used to enhance stiffness and strength, for example, at a tread to stile connection

  • braced frameStandards

    Two-dimensional structural system composed of an essentially vertical truss (or its equivalent) where the members are subject primarily to axial forces when resisting earthquake actions.

  • braced frame, concentricStandards

    Braced frame in which bracing members are connected at the column-beam joints (see Table 6.5(A)).

  • braced frame, eccentricStandards

    Braced frame where at least one end of each brace intersects a beam at a location away from the column-beam joint (see Table 6.2).

  • braced memberStandards

    Member for which the transverse displacement of one end of the member relative to the other is effectively prevented 

  • braced stumpStandards

    Stump that forms part of a bracing element that resists lateral loads through diagonal members attached between two or more stumps

  • bracing stumpStandards

    Stump that, in addition to vertical loads, resists horizontal loads applied more than 150 mm above ground level

  • brailleStandards

    A system of touch reading for the blind, which employs raised dots that are evenly arranged in quadrangular letter spaces or cells.

  • branchNATSPEC

    A duct with no terminals connected to it.

  • breachingStandards

    The passing of termites through a hole or gap in a termite management system NOTE: examples of breaches include the removal of a section of treated soil from a chemical soil termite management system, or a perforation or disjunction in a physical management system

  • breathabilityNATSPEC

    The ability of certain plasters to allow the passage of moisture vapour (rather than water) and air through to the straw bales.

  • breather ventStandards

    An orifice or opening designed to permit atmospheric pressure  to act on one side of the diaphragm of a regulator or similar device

  • bridgingStandards

    Termites gaining access to a structure by passing over a termite management system or inspection zoneNOTE: termites bridging a termite management system will often construct a shelter tube, which reveals their passage 

  • brimStandards

    A rim surrounding the shell which may form a gutter

  • british pendulum number (BPN)Standards

    Dimensionless unit of slip resistance when measured using the pendulum friction tester

  • bruisingStandards

    A mark in or on a sheet caused by movement of the sheet before final cure

  • buildingStandards

    Any structure classified in the Building Code of Australia

  • building authority or other regulatory authorityStandards

    Body having statutory powers to control the design and erection of buildings or structures, including scaffolding, in the area in which the building or structure concerned is to be erected. 

  • Building ClassStandards

    The Class, as defined in the NCC.

  • building classificationStandards

    As defined in the NCC. 

  • building ownerStandards

    The owner of a building or the authorized representative of the owner

  • building solutionBCA (NCC)

    Means a solution which complies with the Performance Requirements and is a - a) Performance Solution; orb) Deemed-to-Satisfy Solution; orc) combination of (a) and (b).

  • buildings - non-residentialStandards

    Buildings other than those defined in Clause, such as hotels, hostels, motels, shops, offices, schools, public assembly buildings, and factories, and those parts of residential buildings common to a group of dwellings such as common circulation areas in blocks of two or more flats.

  • buildings - residentialStandards

    Buildings and such portions of buildings used as separate dwelling houses and flats, but not incorporating common circulation areas in blocks of two or more flats.

  • built-in applianceStandards

    An appliance designed to be un contact with or built into a heat-sensitive structure within a buildingNOTE: an appliance with a through-wall, ceiling or other similar hot air outlet should be considered as a built-in appliance (see Clause 3.4) 

  • built-in components for reinforced AAC constructionNATSPEC

    Metal items used for connecting Reinforced AAC to its supporting structure including, but not limited to, the following:(a) Anchors(b) Connectors(c) Shelf angles(d) Lintel bars(e) Bolts and fixings 

  • built-up air handling plantNATSPEC

    A custom made air handling unit, erected on-site on a building floor using standard panels and proprietary components.

  • bulk excavationNATSPEC

    Any open excavation accessible to the means documented.

  • bulk pierStandards

    Cast in place concrete load support element excavated by backhoe or similar machinery

  • bulkingNATSPEC

    The increase in volume of a layer designated for stabilisation resulting from preliminary pulverisation and/or incorporation of secondary or primary stabilisation binder.

  • bullet head nailStandards

    A nail having plain cylindrical shank with an integrally formed deep, circular, barrel-shaped head with a flat top surface NOTE: these nails are mainly used in timber framing applications, and in the smaller sizes as general finishing nails

  • burnerStandards

    A device that positions a flame in the desired location by delivering gas and air to that location such a manner that controlled, continuous combustion is accomplishedAtmospheric burner - a system where all the air for combustion is introduced by the inspirating effect of the gas or the natural draught in the combustion chamber or a combination of the two without mechanical assistanceForced draught burner - a system where all or part of the air for combustion is introduced by providing positive pressure in the combustion chamber by mechanical meansInduced draught burner - a system where all or part of the air for combustion is introduced by providing suction in the combustion chamber by mechanical means

  • bushfireStandards

    An unplanned fire burning in vegetation; also referred to as wildfire

  • bushfire attackStandards

    Attack by burning embers, radiant heat or flame generated by a bushfire, which might result in ignition and subsequent damage to or destruction of a building

  • bushfire attack level (BAL)Standards

    A means of measuring the severity of a building's potential exposure to ember attack, radiant heat and direct flame contact, using increments of radiant heat expressed in kilowatts per metre squared, and the basis for establishing the requirements for construction to improve the protection of building elements from attack by bushfire

  • bushfire attack levels (BAL)NATSPEC

    A method of measuring a site’s potential exposure to ember attack, radiant heat and direct flame contact as defined in AS 3959. It takes into consideration Fire danger index (FDI), the slope of the land, types of surrounding vegetation and the site’s proximity to any building.

  • bushfire prone areaStandards

    An area that is subject to, or likely to be subject to, bushfire attacks

  • bushfire prone areaAUS-SPEC

    An area declared as likely to be subject to bushfire attack by the local council or a state government.

  • bushfire shutterStandards

    A shutter that is constructed and fitted to the exterior of a building in accordance with Clause 3.7, to protect a window or a door from exposure to bushfire attack

  • bushfire-resisting timberStandards

    Timber that is in solid, laminated or reconstituted form that meets the criteria specified in Appendix F

  • buswayStandards

    A wiring system comprising rigid conductors spaced apart, rigidly supported on insulating material within a duct, trunk or similar enclosure

  • butt joints (flooring)NATSPEC

    Floor units cross cut square with plain ends for joining over supports.


  • C-weighted sound levelStandards

    The sound pressure, in decibelsNOTES:1. for the definition of C-weighting, refer to AS IEC 61672.12. sound level parameters noted above may also be measured with the C-weighting where required or recommended by statutory authorities. This may occur especially for sources potentially containing significant energy in the low frequency range of 25 Hz to 125 Hz. For these measurements, the same parameters noted above may be used but with the C-weighting network applied in place of the A-weighted network

  • cableStandards

    A single core, or two or more cables cores laid up together, either with or without fillings, reinforcements, or protective coverings

  • cable coreStandards

    The conductor with its insulation but not including any mechanical protective covering

  • cable supportNATSPEC

    Cable tray, cable ladders and cable mesh cable support systems.

  • cable, flexibleStandards

    A cable, the conductors, insulation and covering of which afford flexibility

  • cable, mineral insulated metal sheathed (MIMS)Standards

    A cable having compressed powdered mineral insulation enclosed in metal sheathing. Such cable may be either single-core or multicore. Such cable may bare sheath or PVC served

  • cable, neutral-screenedStandards

    A cable consisting of one or more cores laid up together with or without fillers, surrounded by a concentric wire outer conductor, further protected with an insulating sheath

  • cable, sheathedStandards

    A cable having a core or cores surrounded by a sheath

  • camberStandards

    Upward vertical displacement built into the truss at truss panel points to compensate for long-term deflection due to anticipated permanent actions. 

  • canStandards

    Implies a capability or possibility and refers to the ability of the user of the Standard, or tp a possibility that is available or that might occur

  • canopyBCA (NCC)

    Roof adjacent to or attached to a building, generally not enclosed by walls.

  • cantileverStandards

    Part of a truss that extends beyond its outermost support, exclusive of the overhang. 

  • capabilityNATSPEC

    The percentage of design water flow rate that the cooling tower is capable of cooling through the design temperature range at the design approach temperature with air entering at the design wet bulb temperature.

  • capacity design principlesStandards

    Appropriate material Standard design and detailing provisions, which enable zones where post-elastic response is acceptable to be identified and detailed in a manner that ensures these zones are capable of accepting the inelastic demands placed upon themNOTE: all other zones are to be designed to ensure that all other undesirable inelastic response mechanisms are suppressed and detailed in a manner that the ultimate limits state horizontal deformations that they are expected to be subjected to, can be sustained without significant (e.g. greater than 20%) loss of load-carrying capacity after four complete cycles of loading. 

  • capacity factorStandards

    A factor applied to the characteristic capacity to obtain the design capacity. 

  • capacity reduction factorStandards

    A factor used to multiply the nominal capacity to obtain the design capacity

  • caravanStandards

    A structure that is or was designed or adapted to be moved from one place to another, whether towed or transported, which is intended for human habitation or use as a workplace, and includes a self-propelled recreational vehicle or mobile home. Included is any associated annex and the like, whether permanently or temporarily attached to, or adjoining, the main portion of the structureNOTE: a large structure assembled in a factory and transported to a permanent location is not considered a caravan, e.g. portable school classrooms or transportable homes

  • carbon monoxide detectorStandards

    A device capable of detecting carbon monoxide (CO), and which provides an alarm signal

  • carparkBCA (NCC)

    Means a building that is used for the parking of motor vehicles but is neither a private garage nor used for the servicing of vehicles, other than washing, cleaning or polishing. 

  • carpetStandards

    Heavy fabric floor covering of wool, nylon or similar material, with or without underlay

  • carriagewayAUS-SPEC

    That portion of a road or bridge devoted particularly to the use of vehicles, that is between guide posts, kerbs, or barriers where these are provided, inclusive of shoulders and auxiliary lanes.

  • carriagewayStandards

    That portion of a road or bridge devoted particularly to the use of vehicles, inclusive of shoulders and auxiliary lanes. It is usually designated as that part of a public road (way) between kerbs.

  • carriageway concrete pavementsNATSPEC

    Reinforced concrete pavements. Does not include roller compacted concrete bases and subbases.

  • cased pileStandards

    A pile formed in the ground by installing a liner and partially or wholly filling it with plain or reinforced concrete after excavation

  • catchmentNATSPEC

    A topographically defined area drained by a stream where all outflow is directed to a single point.

  • catchment (area)NATSPEC

    A topographically defined area drained by a stream, river or reservoir of water (into a groundwater system).

  • catchment area of any pointNATSPEC

    The limits from where surface runoff will make its way, either by natural or man-made paths, to this point.

  • cathodeStandards

    The structure that is to be protected by cathodic protection

  • cathodic disbondingStandards

    Detachment of a coating due to the effects of cathodic polarization

  • cathodic protectionStandards

    The prevention or reduction of corrosion of metal by making the metal the cathode in a galvanic or electrolytic cell

  • cathodic protection unitStandards

    DC power supply controller for an impressed current cathodic protection system

  • cationic bitumen emulsionNATSPEC

    A binder material in which the suspended particles are positively charged.

  • cationic emulsionNATSPEC

    A type of bituminous emulsion where the dispersed particles comprise of a bituminous binder and are positively charged.

  • cavity wallBCA (NCC)

    For the purposes of FV1, means a wall that incorporates a drained cavity. 

  • ceiling unitNATSPEC

    Tile, panel, plank, strip or open grid supported within a ceiling suspended system.

  • ceiling, suspendedStandards

    In accordance with AS/NZS 2785, a suspended ceiling is a ceiling system hung at a distance from the floor or roof above. It does not include a nailed timber ceiling complying with AS/NZS 2589.1 and timber building Standards

  • cellStandards

    The basic single unit consisting of case, electrolyte, positive and negative plates, and connecting terminals, used for storing electric energy by electrolytic processes

  • cellular core doorNATSPEC

    Timber hollow core doors with cellulose mesh grid or honeycomb core encased by timber rails and stiles.

  • cement matrix terrazzoNATSPEC

    Facing aggregate in a cement based matrix.

  • cement sheet nailStandards

    A nail having a plain cylindrical shank with an integrally formed thin, circular head and a shear (flat) point designed to penetrate and fix cement sheetingNOTE: the nails are supplied with a hot-dip galvanized coating or with an electro-deposited or mechanically deposited zinc coating giving equivalent corrosion protection

  • central air-handling systemStandards

    An air-handling system that is capable of recycling air from one or more fire compartments to another one or more fire compartments. 

  • central heating applianceStandards

    A heating appliance that is designed to be installed for space heating by means of transferring heat to the living area by ducted hot air, hot water, or other fluidNOTE: for the purposes of complying with New Zealand regulations, this also refers to a heating appliance that has a maximum heat output rate greater than 25 kW measured for a period of not less than 6 min under high burn rate conditions set out in Section 6 of AS/NZS 4012

  • centrally supplied (emergency lighting) systemStandards

    A system of emergency lighting in which a number of emergency luminaires, or exit signs, or both are supplied from a common power sourceWithin a building there may be more than one power source, each of which supplies the emergency luminaires and exit signs in particular

  • certificate of accreditationBCA (NCC)

    Means a certificate issued by a state territory accreditation authority stating that the properties and performance of a building material or method of construction or design fulfill specific requirements of the BCA.

  • certificate of conformityBCA (NCC)

    Means a certificate issued under the ABCB scheme for products and systems certification stating that the properties and performance of a building material or method of construction or design fulfill specific requirements of the BCA.

  • certificationNATSPEC

    A written assertion of facts.

  • certification bodyBCA (NCC)

    Means a person or organisation operating in the field of material, product, form of construction or design certification that has been accredited by the Joint Accreditation System of Australia and New Zealand (JAZ-ANZ), and is accredited for a purpose other than as part of the CodeMark Australia Certification Scheme or Watermark Certification Scheme

  • certified/certificationStandards

    In Australia, assessed by a certifying body and having a certificate number to demonstrate compliance with a Standard or Australian Technical Specification (ATS)In New Zealand, the product satisfying the performance requirements of the cited Standard or an equivalent Standard

  • certifierStandards

    A person or organisation acting on behalf of an authorized by the manufacturer who assumes the responsibility for approving the installation of a fire-resistant roller shutter in accordance with this Standard. 

  • Certifying bodyStandards

    A body acceptable to the Technical Register that provides assurance of compliance of appliances and components with nominated Standards, Australian Technical Specifications (ATS) and other accepted safety criteria

  • chain link fencing fabricNATSPEC

    Diamond-pattern-woven fencing fabric manufactured from wire.

  • chair railStandards

    A fixed glazing bar, or rigid push-bar, that provides protection from human impact.

  • changeable letter systemsNATSPEC

    Sign systems consisting of display boards or holders into which removable individual letters, numbers, etc can be inserted .

  • changeable plate systemsNATSPEC

    Sign systems consisting of fixed plate holders to which removable interchangeable sign plates may be attached or inserted.

  • characteristic snow load on the ground (Sg)Standards

    Load at a site with accepted probability of not being exceeded during some reference period (years).NOTE: In meteorology the term 'weight of the ground snow cover' is also used.

  • characteristic surface movementStandards

    Movement of the surface of a reactive site caused by moisture changes from characteristic dry to characteristic wet condition in the absence of a building and without consideration of load effects

  • characteristic valueNATSPEC

    1. for strength properties, the value of the material property that is exceeded by 95% of the material.2. for coefficients of expansion and contraction, the value that is exceeded by 5% of the material.

  • characteristics capacityStandards

    The product of characteristic value and geometric section property appropriate to the action effect. 

  • check-outNATSPEC

    Examination of accuracy and condition of materials and components.

  • checklistNATSPEC

    Form completed during the manufacture/construction process verifying key steps.

  • chemicalStandards

    A substance or substances, required to be registered by the pesticides register, for use in a termite management system in accordance with the pesticide register's approved label

  • chemical treated sheet materialNATSPEC

    A planar product impregnated with a termiticide tested in conformance with AS 3660.3 and registered with the pesticides registrar.

  • chemically treated sheetStandards

    A pesticide registrar registered sheet material sheet material treated with a chemical

  • child-resistant doorsetStandards

    A barrier installed in a residential building that comprises a door, door frame, self-closing device and latch. 

  • child-resistant doorset (standards)Standards

    A doorset that compromises a door, door frame, self-closing device and self-latching device, that is designed to provide an access way from the building to the swimming pool. 

  • child-resistant windowsStandards

    The opening part of a window that is protected din accordance with Clause 2.6.

  • chilled waterNATSPEC

    Drinking water at a temperature between 6°C and 15°C.

  • chimney chase/facadeStandards

    Heat-sensitive structure within a building for the purpose of built-in appliances installation, including flue system used

  • circuitStandards

    A circuit comprises live conductors, protective conductors (if any) , a protective device and associated switchgear, controlgear and accessories

  • circuit intergrityStandards

    The ability of an electrical circuit to perform the function for which it has been designed

  • circuit-breakerStandards

    A switch suitable for opening a circuit automatically, as a result of predetermined conditions, such as those of overcurrent or undervoltage, or by some form of external control

  • circulation spaceStandards

    Area within a building that is used for pedestrian travel, which is a passageway, corridor, hallway, stairway, lobby, atrium, enclosed walkway and mall, shop, area in a room that leads to another room, path of travel in car park and loading dock that leads to an exit or other path of travel to an exit. 

  • circulation spaceStandards

    Contains the net unobstructed area for a minimum height of 2000 mm above the finished floor or ground surface (unless otherwise specified in this Standard), which is that space surrounding built elements, landscape elements, and fixtures and fittings required for movement into and within buildings.

  • circulation spaceStandards

    A clear unobstructed area, to enable persons using mobility aids to manoeuvre.

  • clad frameStandards

    Timber or metal frame construction with the exterior wall clad with timber or sheet material not sensitive to minor movements. Includes substructure masonry walls up to 1.5 m high

  • claddingNATSPEC

    Material that forms the external surface over the framing of a building or structure.

  • clamp plateNATSPEC

    A continuous metal plate bolted to a linear framing element that clamps a membrane in place.

  • class A firesStandards

    Fires that involve carbonaceous solids

  • class I equipmentStandards

    Equipment in which protection against electric shock does not rely on basic insulation only, but which includes an additional safety precaution in that accessible conductive parts are connected to the protective earthing conductor in the electrical installation in such a way that accessible parts cannot become live in the event of a failure of the basic insulationNOTES: 1. Class I equipment may have parts with double insulation or parts operating at SELV2. For equipment intended for use with a flexible cord or cable, this provision includes a protective earthing conductor as part of the flexible cord or cable

  • class II equipmentStandards

  • class III equipmentStandards

    Equipment in which protection against electric shock relies on supply at SLEV and in which voltages higher than those of SELV are not generatedNOTE: equipment intended to be operated at SELV and which has internal circuits that operate at a voltage other than SELV are not included in the classification and are subject to additional requirements

  • classified vegetationStandards

    Vegetation hat has been classified with Clause 2.2.3

  • clayStandards

    Fine-grained soil with plastic properties when wet. Includes gravelly, sandy or silty clays

  • clay segmental paversNATSPEC

    Manufactured from clay, shale or argillaceous materials which may be mixed with additives. Clay pavers may have square, bevelled (chamfered), rounded or rumbled edges. They are generally rectangular in shape, with the length twice the width, plus 2 mm.

  • cleanStandards

    That part of maintenance which has as its objective plant free from visable sludge, foam, slime (including alae and fungi), rust, scale, dirt, dust and any deposit or accumulation of impurities, or any other foreign material

  • clean waterNATSPEC

    Water conforming to one of the following:Water that enters the development site from an external source and has not been further contaminated by sediment within the site.Water originating from the site and does not require treatment to reach the required water quality level.Water that would not be further improved if it was to pass through the sediment trap for the site.

  • cleaningNATSPEC

    Removal of any deposit or accumulation of impurities, or any other foreign material and may include dispersion and removal of solids, physical scrubbing, draining and/or disinfection.

  • cleanoutNATSPEC

    A subsurface drainage inlet at the surface of the pavement, shoulder or surrounding ground surface. Also known as flushout riser and inspection point.

  • clear zoneNATSPEC

    The area adjacent to the traffic lane to be kept clear of obstructions that could be hazardous to errant vehicles. It consists of the verge area and is measured from the nearside edge of the left-hand traffic lane. For divided roads, it is also measured from the offside edge of the right-hand traffic lane to the edge of the pavement for opposing traffic.

  • clearanceStandards

    The shortest distance between specific parts, surfaces, or objects

  • clearancesNATSPEC

    A formal certificate, approval or condition issued by a statutory authority allowing work in a particular area.

  • clearingNATSPEC

    The removal of vegetation or other obstacles at or above ground before the commencement of earthwork, drainage, etc.

  • climate zoneBCA (NCC)

    Means an area defined in Figure A1.1 and in Table A1.1 for specific locations, having energy efficiency provisions based on a range of similar climatic characteristics. 

  • clinchingStandards

    Structural fastening of two or more flat elements by single-point embossing or piercing without using additional material

  • closed systemNATSPEC

    A water distribution or circulation system in which the water does not come into contact with air during circulation and to which, in normal operation, no water is added.

  • closing edgeStandards

    The edge(s) of the door that closes up against the surrounding structure or is approximately perpendicular to the main direction of motion. For a rolling curtain or shutter door, this is the lower edge of the door. For a rigid overhead door, this is the lower edge and the side edges. For a sectional overhead door, this is the lower edge of each panel

  • cloutStandards

    A nail having a plain cylindrical shank with an integrally formed flat circular headNOTE: the nails are normally supplied with a hot-dip galvanized coating or with an electro-deposited or mechanically deposited zinc coating giving equivalent corrosion protection, and are mainly intended for the general fixing of thin sheet materials

  • coach screwStandards

    A threaded fastener capable of forming a mating internal thread in timber

  • coarse aggregateNATSPEC

    A general term for aggregates substantially retained on a sieve of specified size, commonly 4.75 mm.

  • coating contractorNATSPEC

    The protective coatings application contractor conducting the on- or off-site coating application works.

  • coating manufacturerNATSPEC

    The supplier and/or manufacturer of the protective coating materials used.

  • coating massStandards

  • coating system (floor sanding and finishing)NATSPEC

    Materials applied to enhance wear resistance and protect the flooring material.

  • coating thicknessStandards

    The total thickness of hot-dip galvanized coating, on a single surface, expressed in micrometers

  • coating thickness, localStandards

    The coating thickness at a reference area

  • coating typeStandards


    Construction Operation Buildings information exchange. A representation of a handover view of the IFC schema, typically seen as a spreadsheet. (ISO 15686-4)

  • coefficient of friction (COF)Standards

    The ratio of the tangential force required to move a body across a horizontal surface to the vertical load imposed on the surface by the body

  • coefficient of performanceStandards

    Ratio of heating capacity to the effective power input to the device at any given set of rating conditionsNOTE: Where to COP is stated without an indication of units, it is understood that is it derived from watts/watts

  • cofferdamNATSPEC

    A structure, usually temporary, built to support the surrounding ground or to exclude water and soil sufficiently to permit work to proceed safely without excessive pumping.

  • coilStandards

    A heat exchanger made up of tubing formed into a compact shape by spiral or serpentine configuration, and usually incorporating surface fins

  • cold mix asphaltNATSPEC

    A mixture of bituminous binder and aggregates, with or without mineral filler, produced warm or cold in a mixing plant and delivered in a workable condition suitable for stockpiling and spreading and compaction. It is used in areas where it is impractical to do repair work using hot mix.

  • cold-formed steel structural membersStandards

    Shapes that are manufactured by press-braking blanks sheared from sheets, cut length of coils or plates, or by roll forming cold- or hot-rolled coils or sheets; both forming operations being performed at ambient room temperature, that is, without manifest addition of heat as required for hot-forming

  • collapse-susceptible timberStandards

    Timber, for which the shrinkage values before and after reconditioning differ by more than 2%. NOTE: Information on shrinkage values can be obtained from the following references: a) KINGSTON, R.S.T. and RISDON C.J.E. Shrinkage and Density of Australian and other South-west Pacific Woods. Division of Forest Products Technological Paper No. 13. CSIRO, 1961. b) BUDGEN, B. Shrinkage and Density of some Australian and South-east Asian Timbers. Division of Building Research Technological Paper (Second Series) No. 38, CSIRO, 1981. 

  • collapsing soilStandards

    Weakly cemented soil subject to large settlements under load as a result of degration by water on the cementing action

  • collarStandards

    A device to seal a sleeve to the substrate

  • combination of actionsBCA (NCC)

    Set of design values used to confirm that the limit states are not exceeded under simultaneous influence of different actions.

  • combination signsStandards

    (a) combination sign - a sign which comprises both words and a symbol(b) composite sign - a combination sign on which the words qualify or augment the symbol(c) hybrid sign - a combination sign on which the words simply repeat the message given by the symbol

  • combined emergency luminaireStandards

    Luminaire containing two or more lamps or light sources, at least one of which is energized from the emergency lighting supply and the other(s) from the normal lighting supply. The emergency lamp(s) in a combined emergency luminaire is (are) either maintained or non-maintained 

  • combined illuminated emergency exit signStandards

    Definition as for 'combined emergency luminaire'

  • combined poolStandards

    A part indoor pool and a part outdoor pool. 

  • combined systemStandards

    An integrated system of fire sprinklers and fire hydrants using combined piping reticulation and water supplies designed to simultaneously supply sufficient water to meet the flow and pressure requirements of both sprinkler and hydrant systems

  • combustibleBCA (NCC)

    Means - a) applied to a material - combustible as determined by AS 1530.1; and b) applied to construction or part of a building - constructed wholly or in part of combustible materials. 

  • combustible (standards)Standards

    As defined in the NCC.

  • combustible materialStandards

    A material that will ignite and burn and includes material that has been flame-proofed

  • combustible surfaceStandards

    Any material or object made of, or surfaced with, materials that are capable of being ignited and burned

  • combustion productsStandards

    The constituents resulting from the combustion of a fuel with air, oxygen or a mixture of the two, including the inert gases associated with the fuel and the air but excluding any other diluent or contaminant

  • commissioningNATSPEC

    Running of the plant and equipment to make sure there is flow through the pumping system, carrying out any necessary testing and making adjustments until it is ready and suitable for normal starting and running under service conditions.

  • common wallBCA (NCC)

    Means a wall that is common to adjoining buildings.

  • commonly used materialStandards

    Material with a service temperature greater than 100°CNOTE: refer to Appendix C

  • compactibility indexNATSPEC

    A comparative measurement used to determine the consistency and the workability of roller compacted concrete.

  • compartmentStandards

    A space that is enclosed by walls and a ceiling. The walls of the compartment enclosure may have openings to an adjoining space, provided there is a minimum depth of 200 mm from the ceiling to the top of the opening

  • compensable causeStandards

    Any act, default or omission of the Superintendent, the Principal or its consultants, agents or other contractors (not being employed by the contractor)

  • competent personNATSPEC

    A person who has, through a combination of training, qualification and experience, acquired knowledge and skills enabling that person to correctly perform a specified task.

  • competent person (standards)Standards

    A person who has had appropriate training or practical experience (or both) to provide safe and satisfactory performance. 

  • complete penetration butt weldStandards

    A butt weld in which fusion exists between the weld and parent metal throughout the complete depth of the joint

  • completion/completion of repairs/completion of worksNATSPEC

    The maintenance contract provides requirements for when the works are deemed complete, including that the works have been completed in conformance with drawings, schedules and specifications.

  • componentStandards

    Hardware used in the manufacture and installation of roof trusses, including nailplates, bracing and other brackets and connections. 

  • component layers (of wallcoverings)NATSPEC

    Decorative (top) layer (wallpaper): Consisting of ink and a protective polymer coating applied to the top of the intermediate layer. The design and/or texture is printed using various methods such as gravure, flexography, surface printing and screen-printing.Intermediate layer (or the ground): Providing the surface upon which the decorative layer is printed and the background colour.Backing: Is the part of the wallcovering that adheres to the wall substrate. The backing material includes woven and non-woven fabrics and lightweight paper products.

  • compositeStandards

    A homogenous or layered material created by the synthetic assembly of two or more materials (a selected filler or reinforcing elements and a compatible matrix binder), tp obtain specific characteristic and properties

  • compressed fibre cement sheetsNATSPEC

    Factory prefinished double faced autoclaved high density fibre cement sheets with square stone cut edges ground smooth and arrised.

  • compressed natural gas (CNG)Standards

    Natural gas stored under pressure in a cyliner

  • concealedStandards

    Any damp-proof course or flashing that, when installed, is concealed within the structure and is not exposed directly to the weather

  • concentricity toleranceStandards

    The allowable deviation of the shank with respect to the screw thread

  • concentricity tolerance (of a bolt)Standards

    The allowable deviation of the shank with respect to the pitch diameter of the screw thread 

  • concrete class – normalNATSPEC

    Concrete that is specified primarily by a standard compressive strength grade up to 50 MPa and otherwise in conformance with AS 1379 clause 1.5.3.

  • concrete class – specialNATSPEC

    Concrete that is specified to have certain properties or characteristics different from, or additional to, those of normal-class concrete and otherwise in conformance with AS 1379 clause 1.5.4. If special-class concrete is documented for the project, document the relevant parameters in the Concrete properties schedule – performance.

  • concrete segmental paversNATSPEC

    Units of not more than 0.10 m2 in gross plan area, manufactured from concrete, with top and bottom faces parallel, with or without chamfered edges and identified by the following shape types:Shape Type A: Dentated chamfered units which key into each other on four sides, are capable of being laid in herringbone bond, and by plan geometry, when interlocked, resist the spread of joints parallel to both the longitudinal and transverse axes of the units.Shape Type B: Dentated units which key into each other on two sides, are not (usually) laid in herringbone bond, and by plan geometry, when keyed together, resist the spread of joints parallel to the longitudinal axes of the units and rely on dimensional accuracy and accuracy of laying to interlock on the other faces.Shape Type C: Units which do not key together rely on dimensional accuracy and accuracy of laying to develop interlock.Refer to CMAA PA02 for laying patterns examples.

  • concrete wall panelStandards

    Precast (including tilt-up) or cast in place concrete wall designed to act as a unit and separated from adjust panels or walls by a control joint

  • condensateStandards

    The liquid that separates from a gas (including flue gas) due to a reduction in temperature

  • condensationBCA (NCC)

    Means the formation of moisture on the surface of a building element or material as a result of moist air coming into contact with a surface which is at a lower temperature

  • conditioned spaceBCA (NCC)

    Means a space within a building, including a ceiling or under-floor supply air plenum or return air plenum, where the environment is likely, by the intended use of the space, to have its temperature controlled bu air conditioning, but does not include - a) a non-habitable room of a Class 2 building or Class 4 part of a building in which a heater with a capacity of not more than 1.2 kW or 4.3 MJ/hour provides the air conditioning; or b) a space in a Class 6, 7, 8, or 9b building where the input energy to an air conditioning system is not more than 15W/m2 or 15J/s.m2 (54Kj/hour.m2); or c) a lift shaft.  

  • conductorStandards

    A wire or other form of conducting material suitable for carrying current, but not including wire or other metallic parts directly employed in converting electrical energy into another form

  • conductor, bareStandards

    A conductor without covering or insulation

  • cone penetration test (CPT)Standards

    A test in accordance with AS 1289.6.5.1, to determine the penetration resistance of a soil

  • confined spaceStandards

  • connecting strapNATSPEC

    A short conductor for the connection of structures to the lightning protection system.

  • connectionStandards

    Mechanical means that provide a load path for actions between structural elements, non-structural elements and structural and non-structural elements.

  • connectorsNATSPEC

    Bolts, nuts, screws, screwed rod, brackets, straps, and the like, used to fix reinforced AAC members to supporting elements in the structure. 

  • constant stress range fatigue limitStandards

    Highest constant stress range for each detail category at which fatigue cracks are not expected to propagate

  • construction activity actionsBCA (NCC)

    Means actions due to stacking of building materials or the use of equipment, including cranes and trucks, during construction or actions which may be induced by floor to floor propping.  

  • construction jointsNATSPEC

    All joints other than fresh joints or where adjoining concrete shows signs of setting.

  • construction plantStandards

    Appliances and things used in the carrying out of WUC but not forming part of the Works

  • construction recordsAUS-SPEC

    All lot records, non-conformance reports, design change notices, site instructions, photographs and interim as-built drawings applicable to a lot package.

  • consumableNATSPEC

    Materials or components intended to be replaced within the service life of the associated plant or equipment.

  • consumer pipingStandards

    A system of pipes, fittings and components within the scope of this Standard, and equipment that conveys gas to the appliance inlet

  • consumers mainsStandards

    Those conductors between the point of supply and the main switchboard

  • contact, directStandards

    Contact with a conductor or conductive part that is live in normal service

  • contact, indirectStandards

    Contact with a conductive part that is not normally live but has become live under fault conditions (because of insulation failure or some other cause)

  • containment protectionBCA (NCC)

    Means the installation of a backflow prevention device in which a heater with a capacity of not more than 1.2 kW or 4.3 MJ/hour is installed

  • contaminantStandards

    Any dust, fume, mist, vapour, biological matter, gas or other substance in liquid or solid form, the presence of which may be harmful to persons

  • contaminantBCA (NCC)

    Means any substance (including gases, liquids, solids or micro-organisms), energy (excluding noise) or heat, that either by itself or in combination with the same, similar or other substances, energy or heat, changes or is likely to change the physical, chemical or biological condition of water

  • contamination of landNATSPEC

    The presence of a substance in, on or under the land which is designated hazardous material and/or is at a concentration above that which is normally found in that locality, and presents a risk of harm to human health or to the environment.

  • continuous (in-line) hot-dip galvanizingStandards

    An in-line process using specialized equipment, comprising pretreatment and molten zinc baths through which steel products are continuously passed as to form an adherent zinc and zin-iron alloy coatingNOTE: the in-line process applies a galvanized coating to only the external surface of a hollow section. The process achieves a uniform smooth finish by removing the excess coating by mechanical or other means

  • continuous accessible path of travelStandards

    An uninterrupted path of travel to or within a building, providing access to all required facilities.NOTE: For non-ambulatory people, this accessible path does not incorporate any step, stairway, turnstile, revolving door, escalator or other impediment which would prevent it from being safely negotiated by people with disabilities.

  • continuous accessible path of travelStandards

    An uninterrupted path of travel to, into or within a building providing access to all accessible facilities.

  • continuous flight auger pile (CFA)Standards

    A pile formed in the ground by drilling with a hollow flight auger that is subsequently and progressively withdrawn, with the cavity below the auger tip being gradually filled with concrete or cement grout injected under pressure

  • contour cultivationNATSPEC

    Cultivation to prepare the rehabilitation area on the contour. On steep slopes the land is terraced or benched.

  • contract administratorNATSPEC

    Has the same meaning as architect or superintendent and is the person appointed by the owner or principal under the contract.

  • contract sumStandards

    (a) where the principal accepted a lump sum(b) where the principal accepted rates, the sum of the products ascertained by multiplying the rates by the corresponding quantities in the priced bill of quantities or schedule of rates(c) where the principal accepted a lump sum and rates, the aggregate of the sums referred to in paragraphs (a) and (b)Including provisional sums but excluding any additions or deductions which may be required to be made under the contract

  • contractorStandards

    The person bound to carry out and complete WUC

  • contractorNATSPEC

    Has the same meaning as builder and is the person or organisation bound to carry out and complete the work under the contract.

  • control jointStandards

    A joint, between or within discrete elements of construction, that allows for relative movement of the elements

  • control lineNATSPEC

    A line generally at or near the centreline of a road on which the design is based and from which measurements for setting out may

  • control systemAUS-SPEC

    A lighting control system comprising a combination of some or all of the following:Automatic sensing and control components.Computer interface for programming.Dimming systems.Manual overrides.Motion detection sensors (occupancy sensors).Timers.

  • control system (lighting)NATSPEC

    A lighting control system comprising a combination of some or all of the following:Automatic sensing and control components.Timers.Manual overrides.Programming using a computer interface.

  • controlled fillStandards

    Fill that will be required to support structures or associated pavements, or for which engineering properties are to be controlled

  • controlled fillBCA (NCC)

    Means material that has been placed and compacted in layers with compaction equipment (such as a vibrating plate) within a defined moisture range to a defined density requirement

  • cool roomNATSPEC

    A refrigerated space which is designed to maintain a temperature below 5°C and is used primarily for the storage of product.

  • cooling loadBCA (NCC)

    Means the calculated amount of energy removed from the cooled spaces of the building annually by artificial means to maintain the desired temperatures in those spaces

  • cooling towerStandards

    A device for lowering the temperature of water by evaporative cooling in which atmospheric air is in contact with falling water, thereby exchanging heat. The term also includes those devices that incorporate a water-refrigerant or water-water heat exchanger

  • cooling water systemStandards

    A heat exchange system comprising a heat-generating plant, cooling tower and interconnecting water recirculating pipework and associated pumps, valves and controls

  • copper/copper sulfate reference electrodeStandards

    A reference electrode consisting of copper in a saturated solution of copper sulfate

  • cord, flexibleStandards

    A flexible cable, no wire of which exceeds 0.31 mm diameter and no conductor of which exceeds 4mm2 cross-sectional area, and having not more than five cores

  • corewoodStandards

    Timber adjacent to or including the pith, that is, of density less than 80% that of the density of mature trees. NOTE: For plantation grown softwoods, corewood may be avoided by excluding all timber within a radius of 50mm from the centre of the pith that has a growth ring width greater than 6mm. 

  • corrective action requestNATSPEC

    A formal advice/instruction to the contractor requesting action to eliminate the cause of a detected nonconformity.

  • corrosionStandards

    The deterioration of metal caused by its electromechanical reaction with its environment

  • corrosion cell anodeStandards

    The electrode at which metal dissolution (corrosion) takes place

  • corrosion currentStandards

    The current flowing in a corrosion cell which is electrochemically equivalent to the anode and cathode reactions

  • corrosion rateStandards

    The amount (penetration or weight loss) of corrosion that occurs in a given time. Usually measured in micrometres per year

  • corrosivityStandards

    A measure of the ability of the environment to cause corrosion

  • councilNATSPEC

    The Local Government Authority for the area where the work is carried out.

  • counterbalance systemStandards

    Component or set of components that act against the force of gravity to reduce the effort required to operate the door

  • couponStandards

    A section of metal of similar size to a coating defect, used to monitor the corrosion of a coated structure that is subjected to a cathodic protection

  • cove trussStandards

    A truss supported at a point on the overhang, rather than the usual support at the heel, beyond the point where the bottom chord (or end-web) meets the top chord. 

  • cowlStandards

    A device on top of a flue or chimney that is designed to prevent the ingress of wind and rain from entering

  • crash railStandards

    A rail, together with its fixings, capable of withstanding a load of 750 N/m length, acting in any direction without contact with the glazing material.

  • critical fall heightNATSPEC

    The maximum free height of fall for which a surface provides an acceptable level of impact attenuation.

  • critical heat fluxStandards

    Heat flux at which the flame extinguishes (CHF) or the heat flux after the test period of 30 min (HF-30), whichever is the lower value (i.e. the flux corresponding with the furthest extent of spread of flame within 30 min)

  • critical heat flux at extinguishment (CHF)Standards

    Incident heat flux (kW/m2) at the surface of a specimen at the point where the flame ceases to advance and may subsequently go out. The heat flux value reported is based on interpolations of measurements with a non-combustible calibration board

  • critical radiant fluxBCA (NCC)

    Means the critical heat flux at extinguishment as determined by AS ISO 9239.1.

  • cross bank (whoa-boy)NATSPEC

    An earth hump constructed across a track so that runoff is effectively diverted from it. Cross banks are designed to handle larger flows than cross drains, using one of the following methods:Infall cross bank: Used to direct water off the track surface where it is inappropriate to direct water to the side of the road.Outfall cross bank: Used to remove water from table drains at outfall locations.

  • cross drainsNATSPEC

    Drains of various forms that hinder the flow of water down a track and divert it across the track’s surface. The capacity of the drain is defined by its cross-section. Cross drains are designed to handle smaller flows than cross banks but larger flows than can be controlled by crossfall drainage.

  • cross-connectionBCA (NCC)

    Means any actual or potential connection between a water supply and any contaminant

  • cross-laminated timberNATSPEC

    A prefabricated engineered wood product made of at least three orthogonal layers of graded sawn timber or wood based panels that are laminated by gluing with structural adhesives.

  • crossfallNATSPEC

    The slope of the surface of a carriageway measured normal to the design or road centreline.

  • crossfall drainageNATSPEC

    Drainage which occurs when the surface of a track has sufficient cross slope to cause water to flow across and off the surface, rather than along it. Stormwater drainage for unsealed tracks can be classified as follows:Crown: Where water sheds from both sides.Infall: Where water flows into the hillside.Outfall: Where flow is away from the hillside.

  • croxed jointStandards

    A joint made by fittings in which the end of the pipe has a raised circular section to seal against the olive

  • cubicleNATSPEC

    A small space or compartment partitioned off, often within a wet area.

  • culvertNATSPEC

    A pipe or similar structure used to direct water under the track.

  • cup head boltStandards

    A bolt with a curved head without any driving feature and with a holding feature under the head

  • cupboardStandards

    An enclosed recess constructed primarily for storage purposes

  • cureStandards

    The process of hardening a thermosetting resin under the influence of heating and curing agents

  • current density (at anode)Standards

    Current output of anode divided by the anode surface area

  • current density (at cathode)Standards

    Current flowing into the cathode divided by the cathodic surface area

  • current density (at coated cathode)Standards

    Total current flow into cathodic divided by the total surface area of the structure

  • current, faultStandards

    A current resulting from n insulation failure or from the bridging of insulation

  • current, overloadStandards

    An overcurrent occurring in a circuit that is electrically sound

  • current, short-circuitStandards

    A fault current resulting from a fault of negligible impedance between live conductors having a difference in potential under normal operating conditions. The fault path may include the path from active via earth to the neutralNOTE: this current is also referred to as 'prospective short-circuit' or a 'bolted fault'. It is the maximum value, at the relevant points for the existing installation. Unless otherwise stated, it is the three-phase r.m.s value

  • curtain wallBCA (NCC)

    Means a non-loadbearing external wall that is not a panel wall. 

  • cushion head boxNATSPEC

    A plenum box fitted above a diffuser.

  • custom-built assembliesNATSPEC

    Low voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies manufactured to order and incorporating either purpose built or proprietary components or either purpose built or proprietary bus-bar assemblies.

  • cut-off limitStandards

    For each detail category, the highest variable stress range which does not require consideration when carrying out cumulative damage calculations

  • cutback bitumenNATSPEC

    Bitumen to which cutter oil (kerosene or similar) has been added to achieve a temporary reduction in viscosity.

  • cutterNATSPEC

    A light petroleum distillate (e.g. kerosene or similar) added to bitumen to temporarily reduce its viscosity (cutback bitumen).

  • cutter oilNATSPEC

    A light petroleum distillate (e.g. kerosene) added to bitumen to temporarily reduce its viscosity.

  • cycleStandards

    A door cycle consists of moving the door from a fully closed position to a fully open position, and back to the fully closed postion

  • cyclewayNATSPEC

    Portion of a road or footpath for the exclusive use of cyclists.

  • cylinderStandards

    A container for the storage of LP Gas, with a capacity of more than 120 mL but no more than 500 L, and does not include an aerosol containerNOTE: capacity is often referred to as 'water capacity' and is the total internal volumeExchange cylinder - a cylinder that is filled by weight at a cylinder filling installation and changed over at the consumer's premisesIn-situ fill cylinder - a cylinder that is filled at the consumer's premises from a tanker 

  • cylinder compartmentStandards

    A compartment, an enclosed area r a partitioned-off space primarily used for the installing of a gas cylinder, pressure regulator and other associated equipment


  • damp situationStandards

    A situation in which moisture is either permanently present, or intermittently present to such an extent as would be likely to impair the effectiveness or safety of an electrical installation that complies with this Standard for ordinary situations

  • damp-proof courseBCA (NCC)

    Means a continuous layer of impervious material placed in masonry wall or pier, or between a wall or pier and a floor, to prevent the upward or downward migration of water.

  • damperStandards

    An automatic operable device mounted in a duct, plenum or opening for the purposes of controlling air or smoke flow. 

  • dangerStandards

    Applied in the context of safety signs to a situation which is likely to be life threatening if the message is ignored

  • date of completionNATSPEC

    The date when:All excavation, backfill and temporary restoration of the road opening is completed and safe for use by traffic.Permanent restoration is completed.

  • datumStandards

    Parameter or set of parameters that define the position of the origin, the scale, and the orientation of a coordinate system

  • daylight sizeStandards

    The clear unsupported opening size that admits light.

  • deckStandards

    A floor or platform extending from side to side of a boat and includes the following:(a) Upper deck - that part of the decking designed to prevent water entering the hull of a boat, generally at the gunwale line(b) Main deck - the level immediately below the upper deck(c) Lower deck - the level immediately below the main deck

  • deckingNATSPEC

    Intermittently-supported external flooring with drainage gaps between boards.

  • deckingStandards

    That part of the structure of verandas, decks, steps, ramps and landings that forms the trafficable surface of the structure

  • decking spikeStandards

    A nail with a cylindrical shank with either an integrally countersunk head or rose headNOTE: these nails are mainly intended for the fixing of wooden decking 

  • declared thermal conductivityNATSPEC

    Expected value of thermal conductivity for a building material or product assessed from measured material thermal conductivity data at reference conditions of temperature and humidity, for a stated fraction and confidence level, and corresponding to an expected service lifetime under normal conditions. (UNIT: W/(m.K))

  • declared thermal resistanceStandards

    Expected value of thermal resistance for a building material or product assessed from measured material thermal resistance data at reference conditions of temperature and humidity, for a stated fraction and confidence level, and corresponding to an expected service lifetime under normal conditions. (Unit: (m2 .K)/W)

  • decorated glassStandards

    Clear or patterned glass processed by craftsmen for decorative effect. Stained glass, leadlights and sandblasted, acid-etched, embossed and printed glass fall into this category. Decorative interlayers may also be incorporated in laminated glass.

  • decorative flame effect fireStandards

    A gas appliance which simulates a solid fuel fire and whose primary function lies in the aesthetic effect of the flames Type 1 - decorative flame effect fires without an enclosure and designed to be installed in an existing fireplace with a chimney, which vents the flue gases outside the buildingType 2 - Decorative flame effect fires supplied with an enclosure and designed to be freestanding, with a flue that vents the flue gases outside the building 

  • decorative overlaid wood panelsNATSPEC

    Particleboard or fibreboard with a bonded decorative finishing surface such as thermosetting resin (low pressure melamine), PVC film, paper foils or wood veneer.

  • dedicated (parking) spaceStandards

    A parking space set aside exclusively for the parking of a single vehicle

  • deemed-to-satisfy provisionsBCA (NCC)

    Means provisions which are deemed to satisfy the Performance Requirements. 

  • deemed-to-satisfy solutionBCA (NCC)

    Means a method of satisfying the Deemed-to-Satisfy Provisions. 

  • defaultNATSPEC

    Specified value, product or installation method which is to be provided unless otherwise documented.

  • defectAUS-SPEC

    A work lot non-conformance which continues to exist.

  • defect classification and non-conformanceStandards

  • defect registerAUS-SPEC

    A register of all defects maintained by the contractor. Recorded as either OPEN or CLOSED.

  • defendable spaceAUS-SPEC

    An area adjoining an asset that is managed to reduce combustible elements and is free from constructed impediments. It is a safe working environment in which active firefighting can be undertaken to defend the structure, before and after the passage of a bushfire.

  • defined flood eventBCA (NCC)

    Means the flood event selected for the management of flood hazard for the location of specific development as determined by the appropriate authority. 

  • defined flood levelBCA (NCC)

    Means the flood level associated with a defined flood event relative to a specified datum. 

  • definitions specific to exit sign appearanceStandards

    Additional background and optional additional background - Additional background areas are those areas on the face of an exit sign that are not part f any pictorial element but are of the same colour as the background portion(s) of the pictorial element(s). Additional background forms part of a single element sign to ensure that the minimum size of a single element sign is consistent in proportion with dual element signs. Any areas of the face of a sign apart from the pictorial elements, additional background as defined above and allowable borders is designated as optional additional backgroundBorder - Any illuminated white area of the face of the sign outside both the elements and any additional green backgroundPictorial element - A combined symbol (i.e. arrow or figure in doorway) and contrasting background, forming a visual 'building block', one or more such building blocks being used with or without other elements to create an exit sign display

  • deflectionStandards

    The amount of relative displacement of the structural components in a window.NOTE: the amount of deflection is controlled for several reasons, such as the appearance of movement to the end user, the rigidity of joint and sealing of those joints, and the adequate support of glass to prevent premature failure

  • deign geotechnical strengthStandards

    The product of the design ultimate geotechnical strength and the geotechnical strength reduction factor

  • delineatorNATSPEC

    Small retroreflectors or panels of retroreflective sheeting attached to guide posts to provide a coherent pattern of delineation of carriageway edges as an aid to night driving.

  • demolitionNATSPEC

    The complete or partial dismantling of a building or structure, by pre-planned and controlled methods or procedures.

  • density ratio (soil)NATSPEC

    Percentage of the maximum density at optimum moisture content as determined by AS 1289.5.2.1.

  • depthStandards

    The distance measured along the direction of travel.

  • design actionStandards

    Combination of the nominal loads and other actions multiplied by the appropriate load factors

  • design action effectNATSPEC

    The effect computed from the design values of the actions or design loads.

  • design action effect or design load effectStandards

    The action or load effect computed from the design actions or design loads. 

  • design action or design loadStandards

    The combination of the nominal actions or loads and the load factors, as specified in AS/NZS 1170.0.

  • design areaStandards

    An area containing the maximum number of sprinklers likely to operate when involved in a fire. The size of the area varies in relation to the hazard class storage configuration

  • design bearing capacityStandards

    The maximum bearing pressure that can be sustained by the foundation from the proposed fitting system under service loads over the design range of soil moisture conditions

  • design capacityNATSPEC

    The product of the capacity reduction factor and the nominal capacity.

  • design capacity (standards)Standards

    The product of the capacity factor, modification factors and characteristics capacity of a structural element. 

  • design characteristic value/characteristic value for designStandards

    A specific design property suitable for use in the calculation of design capacity of a structural element. NOTE: This definition may differ from the meaning given or applied in other contexts. 

  • design densityStandards

    The minimum density of discharge of water in millimetres per minute (mm/min) for which a sprinkler installation is designed. It is determined by the discharge of the group of sprinklers in the design area, in litres per minutes (L/min), divided by the area covered by that group in square metres (m2 ). Also known as 'Design density of discharge'.

  • design documentsNATSPEC

    Drawings and specifications that set out the work to be executed.

  • design lifeStandards

    Period over which a structure or structural element is required to perform its function without repair. 

  • design lifeNATSPEC

    The earliest estimated age of the membrane at which it can no longer carry its design ultimate loads.

  • design lifeNATSPEC

    The period of time for which it is assumed, in the design, that an asset will be able to perform its intended purpose with only anticipated maintenance but no major repair or replacement being necessary.

  • design parametersNATSPEC

    Information used as the basis for design. It includes design requirements, performance criteria, performance parameters and similar terms.

  • design pressureStandards

    The pressure, at a defined reference point used in the system design, necessary to maintain the required flow and pressure at the most hydraulically disadvantaged number of the fire hydrants that are required to operate simultaneously

  • design resistance effectStandards

    The resistance effect computed from the loads and design capacities contributing towards the stability limit state resistance. 

  • design review - commissioningNATSPEC

    A review of the design documents to determine conformance with the OPR, including coordination between systems and assemblies being commissioned, features and access for testing, commissioning and maintenance, and other reviews required by the commissioning plan.

  • design scenarioBCA (NCC)

    Means the specific scenario of which the sequence of events is quantified and a fire safety engineering analysis is conducted against

  • design serviceability loadStandards

    The load on a pile corresponding to the serviceability limit state

  • design situationNATSPEC

    Set of conditions for which the design is required to demonstrate that relevant limit states are not exceeded.

  • design sound levelStandards

    The sound levels given in this Standard are for the design of spaces in buildingsNOTE: sound levels within the given ranges have been found to acceptable by most people for the space under consideration. When the sound level is greater than the upper level of the range most people occupying the space will become dissatisfied with the level of sound. When the masking sound can become problematic, for example, by allowing other intermittent noise sources to cause distraction, annoyance, or lack of privacy

  • design spectrumStandards

    Sum of the stress spectra from all of the nominal loading events expected during the design life

  • design structural strengthStandards

    The product of the design ultimate structural strength and the structural strength reduction factor

  • design ultimate geotechnical strengthStandards

    An estimate of the ultimate geotechnical strength assessed using calculations in accordance with Section 4 of this standard

  • design ultimate structural srengthStandards

    The limit state at which static equilibrium is lost, or at which structural elements fail.NOTE: the design ultimate structural strength may be assessed using calculations in accordance with Section 5 of this Standard

  • design wind speedBCA (NCC)

    Means the design gust wind speed for the area where the building is located, calculated in accordance with AS/NZS 1170.2 or AS 4055

  • design working lifeNATSPEC

    Assumed period for which a structure or a structural element is to be used for its intended purpose without major repair being necessary.

  • designated bushfire prone areaBCA (NCC)

    Means land which has been designated under a power of legislation as being subject, or likely to be subject, to bushfires. 

  • designated site entry point (DSEP)Standards

    An entry point to a building that provides firefighters with information as to the location of the fire alarm

  • designerNATSPEC

    The professional responsible for the design of a portion of the project.

  • destructive inspection (of trees)NATSPEC

    The washing away of all soil from a rootball to allow inspection of rootball development.

  • detail categoryStandards

    Designation given to a particular detail to indicate which of the S-N curves is to be used in the fatigue assessment

  • detention centreBCA (NCC)

    Means a building in which persons are securely detained by means of the built structure including a prison, remand centre, juvenile detention centre, holding cells or psychiatric detention centre. 

  • dial before you dig (DBYD)Standards

    Referral service for information on locating underground utilities anywhere in Australia

  • diaphragmStandards

    Structural system (usually horizontal) that acts to transmit earthquake actions to the seismic-force-resisting system.

  • differential coatingStandards

    A coating whereby the manufacturer has deliberatively applied a different coating mass to each side of the steelIn the case of a differential coating the designation states the coating mass in g/m2of sheet for each side separatelyFor a non-differential coating, the single sided coating mass in a single spot cannot be less than 40% of the stated total coating mass 

  • diffuserNATSPEC

    A supply air grille mounted in a ceiling or on the underside of a duct through which air is supplied and distributed within a room or interior space of a building.

  • dilapidation recordNATSPEC

    The photographic or video and written record of the condition of the portion of the existing building retained, adjacent buildings, and other relevant structures or facilities, before the start of demolition work.

  • dincel wallNATSPEC

    Polymer based permanent formwork system for concrete walling for external and internal walls, retaining walls, storage tanks and other specialist uses.

  • direct fix cladding wallBCA (NCC)

    For the purposes of FV1, means a wall with cladding attached directly to the wall framing without the use of a drained cavity. 

  • direct strength methodStandards

    An alternative design method that provides predictions of member resistance without the use of effective widths

  • direction of travelStandards

    The path a person travels along, which may be a footpath, passageway, walkway, ramp, stairs, landing or similar.

  • directional indicatorStandards

    An indicator used to indicate direction of travel through a space or to an object or service.

  • directional pattern (elongated pattern)Standards

    A pattern that indicates the direction of travel to be taken.

  • discontinuityStandards

    An absence of material, causing a stress concentration

  • discontinuous constructionBCA (NCC)

    Means the following:(a) A wall having a minimum 20 mm cavity between 2 separate leaves,for masonry, where wall ties are used to connect leaves, the ties are of the resilient type, andfor other than masonry, there is no mechanical linkage between the leaves, except at the periphery(b) A staggered stud wall is not deemed to be discontinuous construction

  • discrepancyNATSPEC

    A difference between contract information about the site and conditions encountered on the site, including but not limited to discrepancies concerning the following:The nature or quantity of the material to be excavated or placed.Existing site level.Services or other obstruction beneath the site surface.

  • discrete tactile ground surfarce indicatorsStandards

    Tactile ground surface indicators that are individually installed, which provide the same luminance for the sloping sides and upper surface of the truncated cone.

  • dismantleNATSPEC

    The reduction of an item to its components in a manner to allow re-assembly.

  • displacement spaceStandards

    The open cavity that is accessible below the walking surface of a pedestrian surface, which is designed to allow sub-surface drainage and entrapment of spillages, thereby helping to retain the anti-slip properties of the walking surface

  • display glazingBCA (NCC)

    Means glazing used to display retail goods in a shop or showroom directly adjacent to walkway or footpath, but not including that used in a cafe or restaurant

  • dispositionNATSPEC

    Action taken to resolve non-conformance (Lot specific).

  • distance of flame spreadNATSPEC

    Furthest extent of travel of a sustained flame along the length of the test specimen within a given time

  • distance pieceStandards

    Small blocks of resilient, non-absorbent material (such as extruded rubber) used to prevent the displacement of glazing compound or sealant by external loading. They are positioned opposite each other between the glass and rebate, and glass and bead.

  • distortional bucklingStandards

    A mode of buckling involving change in cross-sectional shape, excluding local buckling

  • documentNATSPEC

    Record of information in written or graphical form.

  • documentedNATSPEC

    Documented, as documented and similar terms mean contained in the contract documents.

  • domestic ladderStandards

    A ladder designed to be used by a householder for construction, maintenance and repairs carried out at a private dwelling for non-commercial purposes

  • domestic servicesBCA (NCC)

    Means the basic engineering systems that use energy or control the use of energy: and - (a) includes -      (i) heating, air-conditioning, mechanical ventilation and artificial lighting; and     (ii) pumps and heaters for swimming pools and spa pools; and     (iii) heated water systems; but(b) excludes cooking facilities and portable appliances

  • domestic structureStandards

    Single dwelling or one or more attached dwellings (single occupancy units) complying with Class 1a or 1b as defined in the Building Code of Australia.

  • dominant openingNATSPEC

    Opening in the external surface of an enclosed building, which directly influences the average internal pressure in response to external pressures at that particular opening.NOTE: Dominant openings need not be large.

  • doorStandards

    A hinged, sliding, or otherwise supported openable barrier providing entrance to and exit from a building, corridor, or room. Doors may be framed or unframed.

  • doorStandards

    A sash of a size suitable for use as access through walls

  • door frameStandards

    The frame surrounding and supporting a door where the frame consists of two stiles, a head and sometimes a transom and a sill, and is machined or made from solid stock or with a planted doorstep

  • door frameNATSPEC

    Includes jamb linings.

  • door leaf of similar constructionStandards

    A door leaf having the same core materials and form of construction and capable of achieving a fire resistance level (FRL) the equivalent of the tested assembly. 

  • doorsetNATSPEC

    An assembly comprising a door or doors and supporting frame, guides and tracks including the hardware and accessories necessary for operation.Fire-resisting doorset: A doorset which retains its integrity, provides insulation and limits, if required, the transmittance of radiation in a fire.Smoke-doorset: A doorset which restricts the passage of smoke.

  • doorsetStandards

    A complete assembly compromising - a) the door leaf or leaves including any glazing and other inbuilt features. b) the doorframe; if any, with its fixings to the wall and, for a sliding doorset, with all guides and their respective fixings to the lintel, wall or sill; c) any fixed panel and its associated transom or mullion (including the methods of fixing) that is contained within the doorframe; d) all hardware; and e) fixtures and fittings attached to the door leaf or doorframe. 

  • doorset certifierStandards

  • doorstopStandards

    The part of a doorframe against which the door leaf stops. 

  • double block and vent safety shut-off systemStandards

    A safety shut-off system that incorporates two safety shut-off valves in series, with the volume between the two valves automatically vented. These valves are mutually energized to cause the vent valve to close when the safety shut-off valves are open

  • double detail jointNATSPEC

    A joint formed by turning up and bonding the horizontal membrane to a vertical substrate and adding an overflashing of membrane material bonded to the vertical substrate and folded over and bonded to the horizontal membrane. In certain situations the double detail can be achieved by bonding an angle profile of membrane material to the junction prior to laying the membrane.

  • double glazingStandards

    Glazing that incorporates two panels, separated with an airspace, for the purpose of sound insulation or thermal insulation, or both.

  • double-acting doorsetStandards

    A doorset whose leaf is equally capable of opening in either direction, usually having no stop in its frame, and may be single-leaf or multi-leaf. 

  • double-sided step ladderStandards

    A self-supporting portable ladder or fixed length with two pairs of stiles which are - (a) hinged or fixed(b) each fitted with treads for ascent and descent

  • double-twisted wire meshNATSPEC

    Non-ravelling mesh made by twisting continuous pairs of wires through three one-half (180°) turns to form hexagonal shaped openings.

  • double/double seal (D/D)NATSPEC

    A seal consisting of two successive applications of binder each followed by an application of aggregate.

  • doubly-symmetric sectionStandards

    A section symmetric about two orthogonal axes through its centroid

  • downdraftNATSPEC

    Vertical air motion originating in a thunderstorm, resulting in severe horizontal winds at ground level.

  • downstreamStandards

    In the direction of airflow, away from a nominated reference point. 

  • dragNATSPEC

    Force acting in the direction of the wind stream; see also lift.

  • drainageBCA (NCC)

    Means any sanitary drainage, liquid trade waste drainage or stormwater drainage system

  • drainage blanketsNATSPEC

    A drain comprising a blanket of free-draining material. Typically used where a pavement intercepts a subterranean water source with substantial flows or the nature of the water-bearing strata is such that interception by formation or pavement drain is not possible. It is generally considered to be a structural component of the pavement system.

  • drainage bondStandards

    An electric means whereby stray current is removed from the structure via a conductor

  • drainage cellStandards

    A durable material used to overlay the membrane to protect it from physical damage and allow the transfer of moisture to relieve hydrostatic pressure.NOTE: timber and timber-based products are not acceptable for use as drainage cells.

  • drainage flangeStandards

    A flange connected to a waste pipe, at the point at which it passes through the floor substrate, to prevent leakage and enable tile bed drainage into the waste pipe

  • drainage riserStandards

    A waste pipe between the floor waste and the drainage system

  • drainage structuresNATSPEC

    Devices to control stormwater flowing into and through a stormwater drainage system including culverts, inlet and outlet structures, junction boxes, gully pits, drop structures, headwalls, wingwalls, energy dissipaters and ancillary hardware such as grates, frames and step irons as well as subsurface drainage pipes at pits, headwalls and wingwalls.

  • drainage typesNATSPEC

    Subsoil drains: Drainage below the ground surface which collects subsurface water throughout its length of ground water or seepage from the subgrade and/or the subbase in cuttings and fill areas.Formation drains: Drainage systems designed to intercept water before it reaches the road/pavement structure. They are generally deeper than pavement drains and are usually remote from the pavement structure. Also known as cut-off drains.Pavement drains: Drainage systems designed to remove water from the subgrade and pavement materials.

  • draught diverterStandards

    A device, without moving parts, which can be part of the appliance or fitted in the flue of an appliance, at the junction of the primary and secondary flues, for isolating the combustion system from the effects of pressure changes in the flue

  • drawbandStandards

    A banding system for providing mechanical fixing of a flexible duct to an air terminal device, such as -(a) cable ties;(b) worm drive hose clamps;(c) metal or plastic packaging binders tensioned with a proprietary device; and(d) other banding systems having the same durability and tensioning capacity

  • drinking waterBCA (NCC)

    Means water intended primarily for human consumption but which has other domestic uses

  • driplineNATSPEC

    The most outer reach of a tree’s branches.

  • driven performed pileStandards

    A prefabricated pile installed in the ground by driving

  • dry process fibreboard (MDF)NATSPEC

    Panel material with a nominal thickness of 1.5 mm or greater, manufactured from lignocellulosic fibres (derived from wood or other materials) with application of heat and/or pressure, the bond of which is derived from a synthetic adhesive added to the fibres and the panels are manufactured with a forming moisture content of less than 20%.

  • dual drainageNATSPEC

    The major/minor approach to street drainage.

  • ductStandards

    A component part of an air-handling system, intended for the passage of air from one part of an air-handling system to another. 

  • ductStandards

    A pipe of 75mm diameter or greater, or a closed passage formed underground or in any structure and intended to receive one or more cables that may be drawn in 

  • duct (standards)Standards

    A component part of an air-handling system that is intended for the passage of air from one part of an air-handling system to another (see also definition of "plenum"). 

  • duct linerStandards

    Internal lining of duct usually provided for thermal or acoustic insulation, or both, including the facing material thereon

  • ducted air-conditionerStandards

    Encased assembly or assemblies designed primarily to provide ducted delivery of conditioned air to an enclosed space, room or zone (conditioned space)NOTE: it can be either single package or split-system and comprises a source of refrigeration for cooling and dehumidification. It can also include means for heating other than a heat pump, as well as means for circulating, cleaning, humidifying, ventilating or exhausting air. Such equipment can be provided in more than one assembly; the separated assemblies (split systems) of which are intended to be used together

  • ducted heat pumpStandards

    Encased assembly or assemblies designed primarily to provide ducted delivery of conditioned air to an enclosed space, room or zone (conditioned space), including prime source or refrigeration for heatingNOTE: it can be constructed to remove heat from the conditioned space and discharge it to a heat sink if cooling and dehumidification are desired from the same equipment. It can also include means for circulating, cleaning, humidifying, ventilating or exhausting air. Such equipment can be provided in more than one assembly; the separated assemblies (split-systems) of which are intended to be used together

  • ductility (of a structure)Standards

    Ability of a structure to sustain its load-carrying capacity and dissipate energy when responding to cyclic displacements in the inelastic range during an earthquake.

  • ductworkStandards

    The network of ducts (including plenums), which forms part of the air-handling system of a building

  • duplex nailStandards

    A nail with a plain cylindrical shank with an integrally formed head for striking and a second head slightly belowNOTE: these nails are mainly intended for the fixing of concrete formwork where it is necessary to have easy extraction

  • durabilityStandards

    Ability of a structure or structural element to maintain adequate performance for a given time under expected actions and environmental influences

  • duration of loadingStandards

    Period during which a member, a structural element or a complete structure is subject to a specified load level. NOTES: 1. For the purposes of interpretation in the use of load-duration factors in this Standard Clause strength and stiffness properties of timber under load are time dependent. 

  • duty ratingStandards

    The rating assigned to the ladder, i.e. industrial or domestic, that indicates the service capability of the ladder

  • dynamic coefficient of frictionStandards

    The coefficient of friction required to maintain movement at a constant speed

  • dynamic response factorNATSPEC

    Factor to account for the effects of fluctuating forces and resonant response on wind-sensitive structures.


  • e-glassStandards

    A borosilicate glass, the type most frequently used for glass fibre for reinforced plastics, suitable for electrical laminates because of its high resistivity

  • early age strengthNATSPEC

    A mean compressive strength at 7 days exceeding the values shown in AS 1379 Table 1.2.

  • early age strengthNATSPEC

    A mean compressive strength at 7 days exceeding the values shown in AS 1379 Table 1.2.

  • early childhood centreBCA (NCC)

    Means any premises or part thereof providing or intending to provide a centre-based education and care service within the meaning of the Education and Care Services national Law Act 2010 (Vic), the Education and Care Services National Regulations and centre-based services that are licensed or approved under State Territory children's services law, but excludes education and care primarily provided to school aged children in outside school hours settings. 

  • earth (noun)Standards

    The conducting mass of the general body of earth

  • earth (verb)Standards

    The act of connecting any conductor to earth

  • earth fault-loop impedanceStandards

    The impedance of the earth fault-current loop (active-to-earth loop) starting and ending at the point-of-earth faultNOTE: clause 5.7 provides a description of the constituent parts of an earth fault-current loop

  • earth wall constructionStandards

    Unfired earth bricks or blocks and unfired rammed earth wall construction

  • earth windrowNATSPEC

    A soil ridge built along the track edge during construction or maintenance. Where used to direct runoff to a stable outlet, it is known as a windrow drain.

  • earthedStandards

    Connected to both the supply neutral and the general mass of earth in accordance with the appropriate requirements of this Standard 

  • earthed situationStandards

  • earthing boss (terminal lug)NATSPEC

    A metal boss specially designed and welded to process plant, storage tanks, or steelwork to which earthing conductors are attached by means of removable studs or nuts and bolts.

  • earthquake actionsStandards

    Intertia-induced actions arising from the response to earthquake of the structure.

  • eccentricityNATSPEC

    The distance from the centroid of a surface, to the point of application of the resultant force derived from the net wind pressure.

  • economic lifeNATSPEC

    The period of time from the acquisition of an asset to the time when the asset, while still physically capable of fulfilling its function and with only anticipated maintenance, ceases to be the lowest cost alternative for satisfying that function.

  • economy cycleStandards

    The automatic operation of an air-handling system whereby outdoor air is used to provide cooling when ambient conditions are suitable. 

  • edge beamStandards

    Beam at the edge of a slab on the ground or stiffened raft

  • edge blocksStandards

    Rubber blocks that prevent glass from moving sideways in the glazing rebate from thermal effects or vibration.

  • edge bondingNATSPEC

    The tendency of some coating systems to glue the edges of strip flooring and parquetry panels which prevents an even distribution of movement gaps.

  • edge clearanceStandards

    The space between the edge of the glass and frame rebate.

  • edge coverStandards

    The distance between the edge of the glass and the sightline.

  • edge drainsNATSPEC

    Drainage of rigid pavements from the interface between the base and subbase.

  • edge footingStandards

    Footing at the edge of a footing slab

  • edge of roofStandards

    The area of a roof bounded by the eaves, ridge, hips and barge , extending towards the centre of the roof for a distance equal to 0.1 multiplied by the minimum plan dimension of the building, measured from eaves to eaves, or barge to barge. For roofs in a domestic application, a 1200 mm wide band bounded by the eaves, ridge, hips and barge extending towards the centre of the roof, is deemed to satisfy this requirement

  • edge workingStandards

    The process of removing sharp edges from the surface and/or cut edge of glass by grinding, smoothing, bevelling and/or polishing.NOTE: For different edge finish requirements for specific applications, see AS/NZS 4668.

  • effective aerodynamic areaStandards

    The area of an equivalent aerodynamically perfect orifice, and equals the penetration area required by the natural ventilation device, multiplied by the discharge coefficient determined under test. NOTE: For determining effective aerodynamic area, see AS/NZS 4740.

  • effective depth of charringStandards

    The calculated depth to which the timber is considered as being charred. 

  • effective design width (or effective width)Standards

    Where the flat width of an element is reduced for design purposes

  • effective heat of combustionStandards

    The measured heat release divided by the mass loss for a specified time period

  • effective heightBCA (NCC)

    Means the vertical distance between the floor of the lowest storey included in the calculation of rise in storeys and the floor of the topmost storey (excluding the topmost storey if it contains only heating, ventilating, lift or other equipmenet, water tanks or similar service units).

  • effective lengthStandards

    The length of a ladder less end caps and feet, where fitted

  • effective outdoor airflowStandards

    The sum of introduced outdoor air, residual effective outdoor air recycled from the enclosure(s), air-cleaning device effective outdoor air and transferred effective outdoor air. 

  • effective pipe lengthNATSPEC

    The centre-line length dimension specified by the manufacturer and subject to permissible tolerances.

  • effective power inputStandards

    Average electrical power input to the equipment, obtained from:- the power input for operation of the compressor(s)- the power input to electric heating devices used only for defrosting- the power input to all control and safety devices of the equipment, and- the power input for operation of all fans, whether provided with the equipment or notNOTE: effective power input is expressed in units of watts

  • effective residual sectionStandards

    The timber section remaining after removal of the calculated effective depth of charring from all fire-exposed surfaces. The effective residual section is considered to retain the same mechanical properties it possessed before exposure to the standard fire. 

  • effective slopeStandards

    The slope under that classified vegetation which most influences the bushfire attack

  • effective surfaceNATSPEC

    A wall, roof or internal surface of a building that contributes significantly to load effects on major structural elements.

  • efficiency indexNATSPEC

    The effectiveness of a curing compound in retaining moisture, assessed as a percentage of water retained in the test specimens relative to the uncoated specimens.

  • effluentStandards

    Any unwanted airborne constituents that may reduce the acceptability of air quality

  • elapsed delivery timeNATSPEC

    Time between the wetting of the concrete mix and the discharge of the concrete mix at the site.

  • electric passenger liftBCA (NCC)

    Means a power-operated lift for raising or lowering people in a car in which the motion of the car is obtained from an electric motor mechanically coupled to the hoisting mechanism. 

  • electrical equipmentStandards

    Wiring systems, switchgear, controlgear, accessories, appliances, luminaires and fittings used for such purposes as generation, conversion, storage, transmission, distribution or utilization of electrical energy

  • electrical installationStandards

    Electrical equipment installed for the purposes of conveyance, control, measurement or use of electricity, where electricity is or is to be supplied for consumption. It includes electrical equipment supplied from a distributor's system or a private generating systemNOTES: 1. an electrical installation usually commences at the point of supply and finishes at a point (in wiring) but does not include portable or stationary electrical equipment connected by plug and socket-outlet (other than where a socket-outlet is used to connect sections of the fixed installation2. unless the context otherwise requires, the term 'installation' is used to mean electrical installation

  • electrical installation, domesticStandards

    An electrical installation in a private dwelling or that portion of an electrical installation associated solely with a flat or living unit

  • electrical installation, multipleStandards

    An electrical installation incorporating - (a) a number of domestic electrical installations; or (b) a number of non-domestic electrical installations; or (c) any combination of domestic and non-domestic electrical installations

  • electricity distributorStandards

    Any person or organization that provides electricity from an electricity distribution system to one or more electrical installations. Includes distributor, supply authority, network operator, local network service provider, electricity retailer or electricity entity, as may be appropriate in the relevant jurisdiction

  • electricity distributorNATSPEC

    Any person or organisation that provides electricity from an electricity distribution system to one or more electrical installations. Includes distributor, supply authority, network operator, local network service provider, electricity retailer or electricity entity, as may be appropriate in the relevant jurisdiction.

  • electricity network substationBCA (NCC)

    Means a building in which high voltage supply is converted or transformed and which is controlled by a licensed network service provider designated under a power of legislation. 

  • electrodeStandards

    An electronic conductor that allows current to flow either to or from an electrolyte with which it is in contact

  • electrode potentialStandards

    The measured potential of an electrode in an electrolyte relative to the potential of a reference electrode

  • electrohydraulic passenger liftBCA (NCC)

    Means a power-operated lift for raising or lowering people in a car in which the motion of the car is obtained from the action of the liquid under pressure acting on a piston or ram, the pressure being generated by a pump driven by an individual electric motor. 

  • electrolyteStandards

    A liquid, or the liquid component in a composite material such as soil, in which electric current may flow by ionic charge transfer

  • electronic detectionStandards

    Non-intrusive, remote sensing methods used to determine the approximate location of subsurface utilities from the surface including but not limited to acoustic devices, electromagnetic technologies and ground penetrating radar

  • element of a wiring systemStandards

    A part or component of the wiring system

  • elementsStandards

    Simple shapes into which a cold-formed structural member is considered divided and may consist of the following shapes:(a) flat elements - appearing in cross-section as rectangles(b) bends - appearing in cross-section as sectors or circular rings, having the inside radius-to-thickness ratio less than or equal to eight(c) arched elements - circular or parabolic elements having the inside radius-to-thickness ratio greater than eight

  • elevated buildingNATSPEC

    Building with a clear, unwalled space underneath the first floor level with a height from ground to underside of the first floor of one-third or more of the total height of the building.

  • elevated temperatureStandards

    Temperatures between +60℃ and +200℃

  • embedded generatorNATSPEC

    Electricity generator connected to the local electrical distribution network.

  • embedment materialNATSPEC

    Includes bedding, haunch support and overlay material.

  • ember attackStandards

    Attack by smouldering or flaming windborne debris that is capable of entering or accumulating around a building, and that may ignite the building or other combustible materials and debris

  • ember guardStandards

    A cover inserted in or over an opening or cavity to prevent the entry of burning embers

  • emergency access wayNATSPEC

    Access used to connect roads and provide alternative access and egress during emergencies where the traffic flow design does not allow two-way access.

  • emergency repairsNATSPEC

    Repairs to restore the normal operating state or safety of the plant or systems.

  • emitterNATSPEC

    A device used to control the rate at which water is applied to a specific area.

  • employeesStandards

    Persons engaged in activities for an employer for which they receive direct payment or remuneration

  • employerStandards

    A person, agent, firm, corporation, Government Department, Commission, Board, or other authority employing any person

  • enclosed buildingNATSPEC

    Building that has a roof and full perimeter walls (nominally sealed) from floor to roof level.

  • enclosed wiring systemStandards

    A wiring system protected by means of an enclosure against fire conditions and mechanical damage

  • enclosureStandards

    An individual room, space or part thereof. 

  • enclosureStandards

    A part providing protection against fire conditions and mechanical damage and against contact with live parts

  • enclosure (standards)Standards

    An individual room, space or part thereof. 

  • encroachmentStandards

    The intrusion of a building component, fixture or fitment into a continuous accessible path of travel or circulation space.

  • end capStandards

    A terminating piece fixed to the end of a stile to cover and/or protect the end of the stile

  • End of testStandards

    As defined in AS ISO 9705-2003, ISO 5660-1 and AS/NZS 3837, as appropriate to the test conducted.

  • end terminalsNATSPEC

    Device that protect vehicle occupants from injury in an impact with the end of the safety barrier. Can be either leading or departure end treatment.

  • end-bearing pileStandards

    a pile where the major component of the resistance of the pile is contributed by the force developed at the base of the pile 

  • end-matched joints (flooring and decking)NATSPEC

    Floor boards tongue and grooved at the ends to allow jointing between supports.

  • energy efficiency ratioStandards

    Ratio of the total cooling capacity to the effective power input to the device at any given set of rating conditionsNOTE: where the EER is stated without an indication  of units, it is understood that it is derived from watts/watts

  • engineering principlesStandards

    Principles of geotechnical and structural engineering as applicable for the purposes of this Standard NOTE: this means engineering principles that are commonly accepted by qualified engineers

  • engulfmentStandards

    The immersion or envelopment of a person by a solid or liquid (e.g. grain, sugar, flour, sand, coal, fertilizer and other substances in a powder or granular form) that is sorted within the confined space

  • entry (to a confined space)Standards

    Then a person's head or upper body is within the boundary of the confined spaceNOTE: inserting an arm for the purpose of atmospheric testing is not considered as entry to a confined space

  • envelopeBCA (NCC)

    The purposes of section J, means the parts of the building's fabric that separate a conditioned space or habitable room from - a) the exterior of the building; or b) a non-conditioned space including - i) the floor of a rooftop plant room, lift-machine or the like; and ii) the floor above a carpark or warehouse; and iii) the common wall with a carpark, warehouse or the like. 

  • environmentStandards

    Surrounding region which contains one or more corrosive agents

  • environmentNATSPEC

    The physical factors of the surroundings of human beings including the land, waters, atmosphere, climate, sound, odours, tastes; and the biological factors of animals; and plants and the social factor of aesthetics. Environment, as defined in the Environment Protection Act 2017 Victoria. The New South Wales Protection of the Environment Administration Act 1991 defines the environment as the components of the earth including land, air and water, any layer of the atmosphere, organic or inorganic matter and any living organism and human-made or modified structures and areas. See www.environment.gov.au for a more detailed definition under section 528 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (Commonwealth).

  • environmental auditNATSPEC

    A review of environmental management practices, in particular the evaluation of a site for environmental liability.

  • environmental impact assessment (EIA)NATSPEC

    A method for predicting environmental impacts of a proposed development including strategies for minimising identified impacts.

  • environmental management plan (EMP)NATSPEC

    A project or site specific plan describing the management of the environmental issues and considerations for the activity being undertaken. This applies to the design, construction and operation of the buildings, external works and infrastructure.

  • equipment plenumStandards

    An air chamber, integrated with air-handling plant, intended for the collection and passage of air, to which one or more ducting systems may be connected to form part of an air-handling installation within a building. 

  • equipotential bondingStandards

    Electrical connections intended to bring exposed conductive parts or extraneous conductive parts to the same or approximately the same potential, but not intended to carry current in normal service

  • equivalentBCA (NCC)

    Means equivalent to the level of health, safety and amenity provided by the Deemed-to-Satisfy Provisions.

  • equivalent continuous A-weighted sound pressureStandards

    The value of the A-weighted sound pressure level of a continuous steady sound that, within the measurement time interval, t, has the same mean square sound pressure as a sound under consideration whose level varies with time

  • erosionNATSPEC

    The wearing away of land by the action of rainfall, running water, wind, moving ice or gravitational creep. Soil detachment (erosion) occurs when the erosive forces exceed the soil’s resistance, causing the soil particles to move.

  • erosion classes in relation to soil typesNATSPEC

     Class A: Low soil erodibility. Brown and red soils derived from finer sediments and metasediments.Class B: High soil erodibility. Red soils on fine granites, fine sandstones and basalt.Class C: Very high soil erodibility. Grey and yellow soils derived from granites, sediment and metasediment, especially coarse grained types.Class D: Extreme soil erodibility. Unconsolidated sediment. This is unsuitable for fire access tracks.From the NSW Gov Tracks.

  • erosion control measuresNATSPEC

    Measures to prevent or reduce soil movement from wind, rain or flowing water from a construction site resulting from both natural processes and human activity.

  • errorNATSPEC

    The measured value minus the true value of the particular quantity being measured.

  • Errors and omissionsNATSPEC

    For the design prepared by the contractor, errors and omissions have the same meaning as defects.

  • escarpmentNATSPEC

    Two-dimensional, steeply sloping, face between nominally level lower and upper plains where the plains have average slopes of not greater than 5%.

  • essential electric powerNATSPEC

    For the purposes of this worksection and within the meaning of the term in AS 2896, essential electric power has the same meaning as vital in AS/NZS 3009.

  • essential latching componentsStandards

    The latching components that are critical for latching the doorset, which include- a) the latch bolt; b) the strike; and c) the bolt-retaining plate. 

  • essential servicesStandards

    Safety services, as defined in AS/NZS 3000.

  • evacuation routeBCA (NCC)

    Means the continuous path of travel (including exits, public corridors and the like) from any part of a building, including within a sole-occupancy unit in a Class 2 or 3 building or Class 4 part, to a safe place. 

  • evacuation timeBCA (NCC)

    means the time calculated from when the emergency starts for the occupants of the building to evacuate to a safe place. 

  • evaporative air coolerNATSPEC

    A device that cools air by the evaporation of water.

  • evaporative air-cooling equipmentStandards

    A device that effects a reduction of the dry bulb temperature of air by evaporating water into air

  • evaporative condenserStandards

    A heat exchanger in which refrigerant is cooled by a combination of air movement and water spraying

  • evaporative efficiencyNATSPEC

    When tested to AS 2913, the cooling performance of the equipment, representing the extent to which the available wet bulb depression will be achieved as the dry bulb temperature drops.

  • exceptional exposureStandards

    Special cases, such as exposure that subsequently intensifies the corrosive exposure and/or places increased demands on the corrosion protection system

  • excess airStandards

    Air in excess of that required for complete combustion, which is mixed unchanged with the combustion products, in the combustion chamber

  • excess flow valveStandards

    A normally open valve which closes automatically when a predetermined flow rate in a particular direction is exceeded

  • exhaust airStandards

    Air, other than return air, removed from an enclosure by mechanical means and discharged to atmosphere. 

  • exhaust air intakeStandards

    Any opening through which air is extracted from an enclosure by an air-handling system. 

  • exhaust air outletStandards

    An outlet from an air-handling system, discharging air to atmosphere

  • exhaust dischargeStandards

    An outlet from an air-handling system discharging to atmosphere. 

  • exhaust fanStandards

    A mechanical device other than a range hood for moving air from one interior space to another, or to outside of the space

  • exhaust outletStandards

    An opening or device discharging to atmosphere from an air-handling system

  • exitBCA (NCC)

    Means- a) any, or any combination of the following if the provide egress to a road or open space- i) an internal or external stairway ii) a ramp. iii) a fire-isolated passageway. iv) a doorway opening to a road or an open space. b) a horizontal exit or a fire isolated passageway leading to a horizontal exit. 

  • exit signsStandards

    Internally illuminated exit sign - a sign consisting of white symbols on a green background, both being lightemitting or light transmittingDual function internally illuminated exit sign - this type of exit sign is also referred to as a 'dual function exit sign' for the purposes of this series. A sign consisting of white symbols on a green background, both being light emitting or light transmitting, or a sign consisting of light emitting or light transmitting green symbols on an opaque background either having an emergency classification assigned in accordance Appendix CLow illuminance area internally illuminated exit sign - referred to as a 'low illuminance area exit sign'. A sign consisting of light emitting or light transmitting green symbols on an opaque backgroundExternally illuminated exit sign - A sign consisting of white symbols on a green background, illuminated by an incident source comprising an emergency luminate located in front of the plane of the sign face

  • exitwayStandards

    All parts of an escape route protected by fire or smoke separations, or by distance when exposed to open air, and terminating at a final exit

  • expansion jointNATSPEC

    A closing control joint with the joint surfaces separated by a compressible filler to allow axial movement due to thermal expansion or contraction with changes in temperature or creep. It may include unbound dowels to assist vertical deflection control.

  • expansion ratioNATSPEC

    The ratio of the maximum volume of the bitumen in its foamed state to the volume of the bitumen once the foaming is completely subsided.

  • expert judgementBCA (NCC)

    Means the judgment of an expert who has the qualifications and experience to determine whether a Performance Solution or Deemed-to-Satisfy Solution complies with the Performance Requirements. 

  • explosive limitStandards

    Upper explosive limit - The upper percentage of gas in air at which combustion can be self-sustaining at standard temperature and pressure Low explosive limit - The lower percentage of gas in air at which combustion can be self-sustaining at standard temperature and pressure

  • explosive limitsStandards

    Lower explosive limits (LEL)The concentration of a flammable containment in air below which the propagation of a flame does not occur on contact with an ignition sourceUpper explosive limit (UEL) The concentration of a flammable containment in air above which the propagation of a flame does not occur on contact with an ignition sourceNOTE: the terms 'explosive limit' and 'flammable limit' are equivalent. AS/NZS 60079.20 and AS/NZS 61779.1 use the term 'flammable limit' whilst other standards use the more widely accepted term 'explosive limit'

  • exposedStandards

    Any damp-proof course or flashing that, when installed, is continuously open to the weather

  • exposed conductive partStandards

  • exposed edgeStandards

    A glass edge that is not covered.NOTE: Glass with exposed edges has no protection from damage, and may cause injury to those who come in contact with it.

  • exposed siteStandards

    A site where one or more of the following AS 4055 site conditions are met:(a) terrain category TC2 or less(b) topographic class T3 or greater(c) no shieldingNOTE: any site other than defined above is considered non-exposed

  • exposure limitStandards

    1.  For occupational exposure, values designated by NOHSC. 2. For community exposure, values based on standards and goals set by NHMRC and NEPC. NOTE: NOHSC (National Occupational Health and Safety Commission; NHMRC (National Health and Medical Reasearch Council); NEPC (National Environment Protection Council).

  • Exposure reduction coefficient (Ce)Standards

    Coefficient defining the balanced load on a flat horizontal roof of a cold building, as a fraction of the characteristic snow load on the ground.NOTE: The exposure coefficient includes the effect of snow removal from flat roofs by wind. This effect depends on the temperature and the corresponding wind at the site.

  • exposure standardStandards

  • extended design domain (EDD)NATSPEC

    The design domain for the assessment of existing roads. EDD is a range of values below the lower bound of the NDD.

  • extensionStandards

    Additional construction abutting an existing building

  • extension ladderStandards

    A non-self-supporting portable ladder, consisting of two or more sections travelling in guides, including interlocking stiles or brackets arranged in order to permit adjustment of length

  • extension springStandards

    A spring designed to operate in a counterbalance system to provide a lifting force by the stretching or pulling of the spring developing tension to counterbalance a load applied to it 

  • external stormwater drainage networkStandards

    A system that collects and conveys storm water from individual propertiesNOTE: the network includes easement or inter-allotment drains, and street and trunk drainage systems

  • external vertical distanceStandards

    The vertical distance between the top of the headform on which the helmet is mounted and the highest point on the outside surface of the helmet shell

  • external wallBCA (NCC)

    Means an outer wall of a building which is not a common wall. 

  • external waterproofing membrane systemsStandards

    A combination of membrane-associated products used in membrane installation, such as primers, mechanical fasteners, waste outlets and flashings that form a waterproof barrier

  • extra low voltage (ELV)Standards

    Voltage not exceeding 120 V d.c (max 10% ripple, see AS/NZS 3000)

  • extra-low voltageNATSPEC

    Not exceeding 50 V a.c. or 120 V ripple-free d.c.

  • extraneous conductive partStandards

    A conductive part that does not form part of an electrical installation but that may be at the electrical potential of a local earthNOTE: examples of extraneous conductive parts include the following -(a) metal waste, water or gas pipe from outside(b) cooling or heating system parts(c) metal or reinforced concrete building components(d) steel-framed structure (e) floors and walls of reinforced concrete without further surface treatment(f) tiled surfaces, conductive wall coverings(g) conductive fittings in washrooms, bathrooms lavatories, toilets, etc(h) metalized papers


  • F-grade timberStandards

    A stress grade of timber for which the specific suite of characteristic values given in Table H2.1, Appendix H are applicable. NOTE: F-grades may be assigned to graded timber in accordance with the appropriate grading Standard, i.e., AS 2082, AS 2858, AS/NZS 1748 or AS 3519.

  • fabricBCA (NCC)

    Means the basic building structural elements and components of a building including the roof, ceilings, walls and floors. 

  • fabric pestsNATSPEC

    Insects which have the ability to feed on keratin, a proteinaceous constituent of wool and other animal hair. This includes clothes moths, tapestry moths, carpet beetles and other insect species that can damage fabrics by chewing through.

  • faceted glazingStandards

    Flat panes of glass installed vertically at an angle to each other, to form a faceted curve.

  • faceworkNATSPEC

    Masonry intended to be exposed in a wall.

  • facing materialStandards

    Thin flexible material (e.g. reflective foil laminate) used for the facing of duct liner or insulation, or for the manufacture of duct

  • facings and edgingsStandards

    The surface covering an all perimeter strips of the door leaf, including their methods of fixing. 

  • fail safe (also see lock-out)Standards

    The mode of failure whereby a safe condition is maintained upon loss of power or actuating force to any control element, or failure of any control element to operate

  • failure positionStandards

    The position the device reverts to upon loss of operating power or control. 

  • false chimneyStandards

    Building structure made to surround a flue systemNOTE: false chimneychimney, also known as chimney chimney chasechase, may be made of non-combustible or combustible structres. False chimneys may be constructed for freestanding, masonry insert or built-in appliance installtion

  • fan motor powerBCA (NCC)

    Means the power delivered to a motor of a fan, including the power needed for any drive and impeller losses. 

  • farm buildingBCA (NCC)

    Means a Class 7 or 8 building located on land primarily used for farming- a) that is- i) used in connection with farming; or ii) used primarily to store one or more farm vehicles; or iii) a combination of (i) and (ii); and b) in which the total number of persons accommodated at any time does not exceed one person per 200m2 of floor are or part of thereof, up to a maximum of 8 persons; and c) with a total floor area of not more than 3500m2. 

  • farm shedBCA (NCC)

    Means a single storey Class 7 or 8 building located on land primarily used for farming- a) that is i) used in connection with farming; or ii) used primarily to store one or more farm vehicles; oriii) a combination of (i) and (ii); and b) occupied neither frequently nor for extended periods by people; and c) in which the total number of persons accommodated at any time does not exceed 2; and d) with a total floor area of more that 500m2 but not more than 2000m2. 

  • farm vehicleBCA (NCC)

    Means a vehicle used in connection with farming. 

  • farmingBCA (NCC)

    Means - a) cultivating, propagating and harvesting plants or fungi or their products or parts, including seeds, spores, bulbs or the like, but does not include forestry; or b) maintaining animals in a physical environment for the purposes of- i) breeding them; or ii) selling them; or iii) acquiring and selling their bodily produce such as milk, wool eggs or the like; or c) a combination of (a) and (b), but does not include forestry or maintaining animals for sport or recreational purposes. 

  • fastenersNATSPEC

    An alternative method to lacing wire used for binding operations.

  • fasteningsNATSPEC

    Clips and ties used to attach reinforcement mesh to fixings.

  • fatigueNATSPEC

    Damage caused by repeated fluctuations of stress leading to gradual cracking of a structural elements

  • fatigue loadingStandards

    Set of nominal loading events described by the distribution of the loads, their magnitudes and the numbers of applications of each nominal loading event

  • fatigue strengthStandards

    The stress range defined in Clause 11.6 for each detail category varying with the number of stress cycles

  • fault conditionStandards

    The existence of an actual or incipient condition that may prevent an alarm condition

  • fault current limitersNATSPEC

    Circuit opening devices designed or selected to limit the instantaneous fault current.

  • fault signalStandards

    An audible, or audible and visual, signal intended to indicate a fault condition

  • fault warningStandards

    Audible signal indicating fault condition

  • fault-current limiterStandards

    A circuit-opening device designed or selected to limit the instantaneous fault current

  • FBS-1 (fibre-bio-soluble) mineral woolNATSPEC

    Insulation composed of bio-soluble glass or rock fibres.

  • featureNATSPEC

    The grade will determine the level of feature present. Natural characteristics of the wood including gum veins, past borer activity and knots present in the flooring.

  • feature codeStandards

    An identifier used by a utility owner that indicates the feature, type and nature of the utility service. The Feature Code comprises a Primary Code and Descriptor Code

  • feed widthStandards

    Width of coiled or flat steel used in the production of a cold-formed product

  • fencingStandards

    A barrier compromising a fence and associated gate or gates. 

  • fencing stapleStandards

    A fastener with a cylindrical body bent in the shape of the letter 'U'

  • fenestrationStandards

    The arrangement of windows and other openings on the external walls of buildings, especially the facade

  • ferrous metal structureStandards

    A structure comprising an iron-based alloy containing more than 50% iron

  • fibre battsNATSPEC

    Flexible insulation supplied as factory cut pieces and composed of mineral wool (glass and rock fibre) or polyester fibre.

  • fibre blanketsNATSPEC

    Flexible insulation supplied as factory cut rolls and composed of mineral wool (glass and rock fibre) or polyester fibre, and may be combined with reflective facings.

  • fibre cement sheet liningsNATSPEC

    Treated cellulose fibre in a matrix of cement and sand autoclaved sheet, sealed on one side.

  • fibreglassStandards

    A glass-reinforced plastic, where the most common plastic encountered would be polyester. The composite possesses directional properties, as well as specific mechanical, electrical, anti-corrosion and weathering characteristics

  • fibreglassNATSPEC

    Glass-fibre reinforced plastic (GRP).

  • fieldNATSPEC

    A data field is a place where data is stored. Commonly used to refer to a column in a database or a field in a data entry form or web form. It is generally the smallest component under which data is captured. This standard applies the concept of fields to the components of a name (property/file/view) which stores a specific piece of information.

  • fill depthStandards

    For a slab, depth measured from the underside of the footing to the natural surface level. For a strip or pad footing system, depth measured from the finished ground level to the natural surface level

  • filletStandards

    A triangular or curved profile used at internal intersections to assist the membrane to accommodate the transition from horizontal to vertical surfaces

  • fillingNATSPEC

    Treatment to enhance the surface appearance by:Flood filling: To fill the pores of open-grained timber or minor cracks in parquetry.Stopping: To fill punched nail head cavities.

  • filter layersNATSPEC

    Used to prevent the loss of permeability in drainage layers from clogging by fine soil particles infiltrating from the subgrade (underlying soil).

  • finStandards

    A piece of glass positioned and fastened to provide lateral support.

  • fine aggregateNATSPEC

    A general term for aggregate that substantially passes the 4.75 mm.

  • finish coat (rendering and plastering)NATSPEC

    The final coat of a coating system.

  • finished ground levelStandards

    For the purposes of Part 3.2 in Volume Two, means the ground level adjacent to footing systems at the completion of construction and landscaping

  • finishing treatment (plastering)NATSPEC

    The treatment applied to a finish coat which may include processes and results.

  • fire access routeNATSPEC

    A designated route established to separate bushfire hazard areas from developed areas and to provide access within and around the edge of the subdivision. It may be used during firefighting but may also be used for fire prevention.

  • fire access trackAUS-SPEC

    A track constructed and/or maintained expressly for fire management purposes.

  • fire alarm signalStandards

    A signal received to initiate fire mode and which may be of a general or a zone-specific nature. 

  • fire and draught stopStandards

  • fire breakNATSPEC

    A gap in vegetation or other combustible material (or fuel) that acts as a barrier to slow or stop the progress of a bushfire. A fire break may also serve as a public road.

  • fire brigadeBCA (NCC)

    Means a statutory authority constituted under an Act of Parliament having as one of its functions, the protection of life and property from fire and other emergencies. 

  • fire brigade booster assemblyStandards

    A connecting device enabling the fire brigade to pressurize or pump water into a fire hydrant system

  • fire brigade pumping applianceStandards

    A fire brigade emergency vehicle that has an inbuilt pump to which firefighting hose may be connected

  • fire brigade stationBCA (NCC)

    For the purposes of E1.3(a)(ii) an H3.9 in Volume One, means a state or territory government operated premises which is a station for a fire brigade

  • fire compartmentBCA (NCC)

    Means- a) the total space of a building; or b) when referred to in - i) the Performance Requirements - any part of a building separated from the remainder by barriers to fire such as walls and/or floors having an appropriate resistance to the spread of fire with any openings adequately protected; or ii) the Deemed-to-Satisfy Provisions - any part of the building separated from the remainder by walls and/or floors each having an FRL not less than that required for a fire wall for that type of construction are protected in accordance with the Deemed-to-Satisfy Provisions of the relevant Part. 

  • fire compartment (standards)Standards

    As defined in the NCC. 

  • fire damperStandards

    A device that operates to restrict the passage of fire or products of combustion through a duct or opening for the passage of air. Commentary: During recent years, fire collars have been used to protect openings in riser shafts where ventilation ducts penetrate the fire-resistant shaft wall, in lieu of mechanical or intumescent fire dampers. typically, the ducts are PVC pipes not greater than 200 mm in diameter and are used as bathroom exhaust, laundry exhaust, fume cabinet exhaust or outdoor air supply. such arrangements are not acceptable under this Standard. 

  • fire danger index (FDI)Standards

    The chance of a fire starting, its rate of spread, its intensity and the difficulty of its suppression, according to various combinations of air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and both the long- and short-term drought effectsNOTES:1. FDI in this Standard refers to the Forest Fire Danger Index calculated by the MacArthur, Mk 5 Forest Fire Danger Meter using the equations published by Noble, I.R, Bary, G.A.V, and Gill, A.M, 1980 (Ref. 6, Appendix B)2. Grassland Fire Danger Index values are calculated by the McArthur Mk 4 Grassland Fire Danger Meter using equations published by Purton, C.M, 1982 (ref. 17 and Commentary CB2, Appendix B)

  • fire detection control and indicating equipmentStandards

    As defined in AS 1670.1.NOTE: The FDCIE panel was formerly known as FIP.

  • fire exposure conditionStandards

    (a) three-sided fire exposure condition - steel member incorporated in or in a contact with a concrete or masonry floor or wall(b) four-sided fire exposure condition - a steel member exposed to fire on all sides

  • fire growthBCA (NCC)

    Means the stage of fire development during which the heat release rate and the temperature of the fire are generally increasing

  • fire hazardBCA (NCC)

    Means the danger in terms of potential harm and degree of exposure arising from the start and the spread of fire and the smoke and gases that are thereby generated. 

  • fire hazard propertiesNATSPEC

    Terminology to BCA A5.5.

  • fire hazard properties (BCA)BCA (NCC)

    Means the following properties of a material or assembly that indicate how they behave under specific fire test conditions: a) Average specific extinction area, critical radiant flux and Flammability Index, determined as defined in A1.1.b) Smoke-Developed Index, smoke development rate and Spread-of-Flame Index, determined in accordance with Specification A2.4.c) Group number and smoke growth rate index (SMOGRArc), determined in accordance with Specification C1.10. 

  • fire hydrantStandards

    An assembly installed on a branch from a water pipeline, which provides a valved outlet to permit a supply of water to be taken from the pipeline for firefightingNOTES:    1 Fire hydrants utilized by firefighters are feed fire hydrants and attack fire hydrants    2 Fire hydrants may be above-ground, with outlets suitable for connection for fire hose; or in-ground, with a connection suitable for attachment of a fire brigade standpipe to which fire hose may be connected

  • fire hydrant systemStandards

    An assembly of pipes and other components that is dedicated for firefighting to permit the fire brigade to access a controlled supply of water

  • fire hydrant, attackStandards

    A fire hydrant that is connected to a system incorporating a fire hydrant booster and used for direct attachment of a firefighting hose line to achieve an effective firefighting hose streamNOTE: Attack fire hydrants are intended for use by fire brigade to attack a fire or prevent fire spread to adjoining property. They are not intended to supply a fire brigade pumping appliance

  • fire hydrant, externalStandards

    A fire hydrant installed outside a building or structure

  • fire hydrant, feedStandards

    A fire hydrant used to supply water to a fire brigade pumping appliance

  • fire intensityBCA (NCC)

    Means the rate release of calorific energy in watts, determined either theoretically or empirically, as applicable. 

  • fire isolated exitStandards

    A fire-isolated stairway, a fire-isolated ramp or a fire-isolated horizontal passageway, whether used individually or in combination, which provides egress from a storey or enclosed space to a road or open space. 

  • fire loadNATSPEC

    Means the sum of the net calorific values of the combustible contents which can reasonably be expected to burn within a fire compartment, including furnishings, built-in and removable materials, and building elements. the calorific values must be determined at the ambient moisture content or humidity. (The unit of measurement is MJ.) 

  • fire mainStandards

    Piping, valves, and fittings providing water supply from water sources to any sprinkler stop valve and any fire hydrant valve complying with AS 2419.2

  • fire modeStandards

    The required mode of operation intended to control smoke movement within the building. 

  • fire protection systemStandards

    The protection material and its method of attachment to the steel member

  • fire protective coveringsBCA (NCC)

    Means- a) 13mm fire-protective grade plasterboard; or b) 12mm cellulose cement flat sheeting complying with AS/NZS 2908.2 or ISO 8336; or c) 12mm fibrous plaster reinforced wit 13mm x 13mm x 0.7mm galvanised steel wire mesh located not more than 6mm from the exposed face; ord) other material not less fire-protective than 13mm fire-protective grade plasterboard, fixed in accordance with the normal trade practice for a fire-protective covering. 

  • fire resistance for structural adequacyStandards

    An assessment of the ability of a structural timber member to fulfil, for a stated period of time, the required structural adequacy only, if exposed to the fire test methods specified in AS 1530.4.

  • fire resistance levelStandards

    The performance criteria for fire resistance, i.e., the grading periods (in minutes) for the criteria specified in BCA, as - a) structural adequacy;b) integrity; andc) insulation, and expressed in that order. 

  • fire resistance level (FRL)Standards

    The grading periods, in minutes, determined in accordance with Specification A2.3 of the Building Code of Australia, for -(a) structural adequacy;(b) integrity; and(c) insulation;and expressed in that orderNOTE: a dash means that there is no requirement for that criterion. For example, 90/-/- means there is no requirement for an FRL for integrity and insulation

  • fire resistance level (standards)Standards

    The nominal grading period, in minutes, that is determined by subjecting a specimen to the standard time temperature curve regime as set out in AS 1530.4, to specify- a) structural adequacy; b) integrity; and c) insulation, and expressed in that order. NOTES: 1. For example, a building element with an FRL of 120/60/30 will maintain, when tested in accordance with AS 1530.4- a) structural adequacy for a period of 12min; b) integrity for a period of 60 min; and c) insulation for a period of 30min. 2. The structural adequacy criterion is not applied to doorsets and the  FRL is expressed in terms of (-/YY/ZZ).3. The fire resistance test applies a fourth criterion, radiation to fire-resistant doorsets, dampers and glazing, but the radiation grading period is not included in the statement of FRL given on the door-tag. For details on the use of radiation criterion, see the NCC. 

  • fire resistance periodStandards

    The time, in minutes, for a member to reach the appropriate failure criterion, specified in AS 1530.4, if tested in accordance with that standard. 

  • fire resistance testStandards

    A method to determine the ability of an element of construction, component or structure to fulfil, for a stated period of time, the required structural adequacy, integrity, thermal insulation or other expected attribute, during exposure to the standard fire resistance test regime specified in AS 1530.4.

  • Fire Resistance Test (standards)Standards

    A method to determine the ability of an element of construction, component or structure to fulfil, for a stated period of time, the required structural adequacy, integrity, thermal insulation or other expected attribute, during exposure to the standard fire resistance test regime as specified in AS 1530.4.

  • fire resistant materialStandards

    A material having thermal and physical properties suitable for use in protecting a combustible surface as described in Appendix C

  • fire resistant protective insulationStandards

    The permanent fixing of materials, to the fire-exposed surfaces of timber member, which can increase the fire resistance for structural adequacy by providing additional thermal insulation, as measured by AS 1530.4.

  • fire safety engineeringBCA (NCC)

  • fire safety systemBCA (NCC)

    Means one or any combination of the methods used in a building to - a) warn people of emergency; or b) provide for safe evacuation; or c) restrict the spread of fire; or d) extinguish a fire, and includes both active and passive systems. 

  • fire source featureBCA (NCC)

    Means - a) the far boundary of a road, river, lake or the like adjoining the allotment; or b) a side or rear boundary of the allotment; or c) an external wall of another building on the allotment which is not a Class 10 building. 

  • fire trailAUS-SPEC

    A trail constructed to ensure firefighters can access fires and safely contain them. They are also used to assist with management of bushfire risk across the landscape and for the protection of the community and its assets.

  • fire wallBCA (NCC)

    Means a wall with an appropriate resistance to the spread of fire that divides a storey or building into fire compartments. 

  • fire-affected zoneStandards

    A smoke control where fire or smoke has been detected. 

  • fire-affected zonesStandards

    A smoke control zone where fire or smoke has been detected. 

  • fire-isolatedStandards

    Separated by fire-resistant construction.

  • fire-isolated passagewayBCA (NCC)

    Means a corridor, hallway or the like, of fire resisting construction, which provides egress to or from a fire-isolated stairway or fire-isolated ramp or to a road or open space. 

  • fire-isolated rampStandards

    A ramp within a fire-resisting enclosure with provides egress from a storey

  • fire-isolated stairwayBCA (NCC)

    Means a stairway within a fire-resisting shaft and includes the floor and roof or top enclosing structure. 

  • fire-protected timberNATSPEC

    Means fire-resisting timber building elements that comply with Specification A1.1.

  • fire-resistance levelBCA (NCC)

    Means the grading periods in minutes determined in accordance with Specification A2.3, for the following criteria-a) structural adequacy; and b) integrity; and c) insulation, and expressed in that order. Note: a dash means that there is no requirement for that criterion. For example, 90/-/- means there is no requirements for an FRL for integrity and insulation, and -/-/- means there is no requirements for and FRL. 

  • fire-resistant doorsetStandards

    A doorset, except when varied as specified in this Standard, that is identical in assembly, construction and installation with a specimen doorset that has been submitted to the standard fire resistance test, ad has fulfilled all the relevant test requirements. NOTE: Fire-resistant doorsets are referred to as 'fire doors' in NCC. 

  • fire-resistant roller shutterStandards

    Complete assembly, identical in construction and installation with a specimen that has been submitted to  the fire resistance test and has fulfilled all the relevant test requirements to achieve the nominated fire resistance level, typically compromising - a) a curtain; b) vertical guides between which the curtain can slide when being raised or lowered, together with associated fittings; c) a horizontal barrel, mounted above the opening, on which the curtain is rolled being raised or lowered, together with associated fittings; d) a fusible link to provide for automatic operation; and e) a governing device to control the speed of descent of the curtain immediately following actuation.  

  • fire-resistant sealantStandards

    A sealant that has achieved an FRL of at least -/60/- when tested as a concrete joint system protecting continuous opening a minimum of 20 mm wide and 1 m long in accordance with AS 1530.4

  • fire-resistingBCA (NCC)

    Applied to a building element, means having an FRL appropriate  for that element. 

  • Fire-resisting building elementNATSPEC

    Floors, roofs, floor/ceilings, roof/ceilings, walls and other separating elements of construction having a fire resistance level (FRL) determined in accordance with the fire resistance test (and as required in NCC).

  • fire-resisting constructionBCA (NCC)

    Means one of the Types of construction referred to in Part C1. 

  • fire-resisting doorsetNATSPEC

    A doorset which retains its integrity, provides insulation and limits, if required, the transmittance of radiation in a fire.

  • fire-separating elementStandards

    Floors, roofs, floor/ceilings, roof/ceilings, walls and other separating elements of construction having a fire resistance level determined in accordance with the fire resistance test

  • fire-stoppiingStandards

    The system or materials used to maintain the fire resistance of the fire-separating element at joints or where services pass through the element

  • Fire-stoppingNATSPEC

    The system (comprising the whole assembly including backing materials and sealants) or materials used to maintain fire resistance of the fire-stopping element at joints, or where services pass through the element.

  • fireboxStandards

    That part of the appliance in which combustion is designed to take place

  • firebricksStandards

    Bricks made from heat-resistant material (such as refractory ceramic material) to withstand exposure to high temperatures

  • fireplace insert applianceStandards

    An appliance designed to be installed in -(a) a fireplace; or(b) a flued masonry enclosure

  • first mode natural frequencyNATSPEC

    Frequency of free oscillation corresponding to the lowest harmonic of vibration of a structure.

  • first mode shapeNATSPEC

    Shape of a structure at its maximum amplitude under first mode natural vibration.

  • fitmentStandards

    Tie, ligature or stirrup reinforcement

  • fitted floor construction - platform floor constructionStandards

    A technique whereby flooring is laid over the whole joist/floor area prior to the construction of the external and internal wall framing. the laid floor is then used a working platform. 

  • fixedStandards

    Permanently installed or configured structures used to gain access, including platforms from which work is performed. 

  • fixingStandards

    Any item that is used to secure members of a window assembly to each other, secure an item of hardware to a window member or secure a completed window assembly into the building structure

  • fixingsStandards

    Devices such as screws, bolts and anchors used to fix supports to a building or other structure

  • fixingsNATSPEC

    Devices such as screws, bolts and anchors used as fixing points for reinforcement mesh.

  • fixtures and fittingsStandards

    Any item or parts fitted to any part of the doorset, which may or may not be essential for the correct operation of the doorset. 

  • flakiness indexAUS-SPEC

    Is defined as the percentage by mass of stones in an aggregate having an ALD of less than 0.6 times their average dimension.

  • flakingNATSPEC

    The process of loosely folding a membrane back and forth upon itself in concertina-fashion to reduce stresses on the fibres of the membrane fabric by eliminating tight folds and creases.

  • flaky aggregateAUS-SPEC

    Is defined as an aggregate particle with a least dimension (thickness) less than 0.6 of the mean of the smallest sieve size through which the particle passes and the largest sieve size on which the particle is retained.

  • flame safegaurd systemStandards

    A system consisting of a flame detector(s) plus associated circuitry, integral components, valves and interlocks , the function of which is to shut off the gas supply to the burner(s) in the event of ignition failure or flame failure

  • flame temperatureStandards

    The assumed effective flame temperature sustained for a 2 min period over a fire front width of 100 m. Instantaneous flame temperature may peak above 1200 K

  • flame zone (FZ)Standards

    The highest level of bushfire attack as a consequence of direct exposure to flames from the fire front in addition to heat flux and ember attack

  • flammability indexBCA (NCC)

    Means the index number as determined by AS 1530.2.

  • flammable airborne contaminantStandards

    Any dust, fume, mist, vapour or gas present in the air at concentration that can propagate a flame on contact with an ignition source

  • flammable rangeStandards

    The range of flammable airborne containment (percentage by volume) in air at which an explosion can occur upon ignition. Expressed at 'lower explosive limit' (LEL) and 'upper explosive limit' (UEL) 

  • flashingBCA (NCC)

    Means a strip or sleeve of impervious material dressed, fitted or built-in to provide a barrier to moisture movement, or to divert the travel of moisture, or to cover a joint where water would otherwise penetrate to the interior of a building

  • flashingStandards

    A strip or sleeve of impervious material dressed, fitted or built in, or a liquid-applied product, to provide a barrier to moisture movement, divert the travel of moisture, or cover a joint where water would otherwise penetrate

  • flashing, perimeterStandards

    A flashing used at the floor-wall junction

  • flashing, verticalStandards

    A flashing used at wall junctions within shower areas

  • flashoverBCA (NCC)

    In relation to fire hazard properties, means a heat release rate of 1MW. 

  • flat head nailsStandards

    A nail having a plain cylindrical shank with an integrally formed thin, circular surface of the head may either be parallel to the top surface or be slightly countersunkNOTE: these nails are mainly used in the fabrication of wooden containers and soft timber framing

  • flex sheet nailStandards

    A nail having a plain cylindrical shank with an integrally formed countersunk head with an included angle of approximately 150 degreesNOTE: the nails are supplied with a hot-dip galvanized coating or with an electro-deposited or mechanically deposited zinc intended for the fixing of flex sheet or galvanized steel sheeting or similar applications

  • flexible componentsStandards

    Flexible components are those parts of a barrier or materials used in a barrier made with chain link wire mesh, perforated materials, fabric, brushwood and the like. 

  • flexible connectionStandards

    A section of flexible duct used at junctions between ductwork and items of plant that are subject to vibration or for seismic isolation. 

  • flexible duct systemStandards

    The final installed assembly, either an insulated duct or uninsulated flexible duct

  • flexible guide postNATSPEC

    A guide post that when impacted by a vehicle, deflects and returns to the vertical position without maintenance intervention.

  • flexible pavementNATSPEC

    A pavement which obtains its load-spreading properties from intergranular pressure, mechanical interlock and cohesion between the particles of the pavement material.

  • flexible pointing materialStandards

    Type of an adhesive mechanical fastener

  • flexural-torsional buckingStandards

    A mode of buckling in which compression members can bend and twist simultaneously without change of cross-sectional shape

  • flightBCA (NCC)

    Means that part of a stairway that has a continuous series of risers, including risers of winders, not interrupted by a landing or floor. 

  • flood hazard areaBCA (NCC)

    Means the site (whether or not mapped) encompassing land lower than the flood hazard level which has been determined by the appropriate authority. 

  • flood hazard levelBCA (NCC)

    Means the flood level used to determine the height of floors in a building and represents the defined flood level plus the freeboard. 

  • floorStandards

    The surface of a platform, walkway or landing. 

  • floor areaBCA (NCC)

  • floor construction system - fitted floor constructionStandards

    A technique whereby flooring is laid over a system of parallel joints and fitted between the bottom wall plates of each room and hallway. The procedure is usually carried out after the roof covering and external wall cladding have been completed. 

  • floor protectorStandards

    A construction designed to protect heat-sensitive floors or floor surfaces under and in front of the appliance from heat generated by the appliance, spilt ash, or embers

  • floor wasteStandards

    A grated inlet within a graded floor intended to drain the floor surface

  • flooringStandards

    Upper layer(s) of a floor, comprising any surface finish with or without an attached backing and with any accompanying underlay, interlay and/or adhesive

  • flooring - continuously-supportedNATSPEC

    Flooring which is supported by, and directly fixed to, continuous structural supporting surfaces, including concrete slabs and sheet flooring subfloors.

  • flooring - engineeredNATSPEC

    Manufactured flooring with wearing and decorative surfaces of timber or plastic laminated to supporting layers of plywood or MDF usually with tongues and grooves along the lengths of the boards.

  • flooring - fittedNATSPEC

    Flooring fitted between the walls of each room i.e. not platform floors.

  • flooring - floatingNATSPEC

    Any manufactured flooring panel system not fixed to the subfloor.

  • flooring - hardNATSPEC

    Timber with a wearing surface not easily cut with an abrasive.

  • flooring - intermittently-supportedNATSPEC

    Flooring which is supported by, and spans across joists or battens.

  • flooring - mildNATSPEC

    Timber with a wearing surface easily cut with an abrasive.

  • flooring - sprung floorNATSPEC

    A floating floor engineered to absorb shocks, usually fixed on resilient pads.

  • flooring - strip flooringNATSPEC

    Flooring made from machined timber with tongues and grooves along the length of the strips.

  • flueStandards

    A passage for conveying products of combustion from within an appliance to the outside atmosphere

  • flue cowlStandards

    A device placed at the flue terminal and designed to prevent the entry of rain or birds and minimize the disturbing effect of wind while not hindering the discharge of flue gases 

  • flue damperStandards

    A device fitted into a flue pipe that can be adjusted to reduce the flow of gas through the pipe

  • flue gasesStandards

    combustion products plus all diluents and contaminants, including where applicable, excess air, dilution air, process air and waste products from the process

  • flue guardStandards

    A device for preventing accidental contact with a flue pipe in a room or to maintain required clearances from the flue-pipe casting inside a cupboard, attic, or another living space other than the room within which the appliance is installed

  • flue pipeStandards

    A pipe that creates a flue

  • flue systemStandards

    A series of interconnecting flue pipes and flue-pipe castings that form a safe passage(flue) for conveying products of combustion from within an appliance to the outside of a building or structure 

  • flue terminalStandards

    The point at which flue gases discharge from a flue

  • flue-mounted shieldStandards

    A device, attached to the flue, that forms a barrier limiting the radiant or convective heat transfer

  • flue-pipe castingStandards

    One or more layers of pipe which that surround a flue pipe

  • flush door panelsNATSPEC

    Door panels with two plane faces which entirely cover and conceal its structure.

  • flush door panels with blockboard coreNATSPEC

    Door panels consisting of a core plate of timber strips laid edge to edge, and to which are bonded no less than two sheets of veneer on each face.

  • flux oilNATSPEC

    A petroleum distillate (e.g. diesel or similar) added to bitumen to produce a long-term reduction in viscosity.

  • flux profileNATSPEC

    Curve relating heat flux on the specimen plane to distance from the zero point The zero point of the heat flux profile is specified as the inner edge of the hottest side of the specimen holder.

  • foamed bitumenNATSPEC

    The mixing of atomised water with hot bitumen at 180 to 190⁰C with a foaming agent for use in stabilising granular materials.

  • foliage coverStandards

    The proportion of the ground that would be shaded by foliage when the sun is shining directly overheard, expressed as a percentage for each stratum or identifiable layer of vegetation

  • footholdStandards

    A component of, or feature in, an NCZ that can be used by a young child as an aid to climbing a barrier. 

  • footingStandards

    A part of a structure in direct contact with transmitting load to the supporting foundation

  • footing slabStandards

    Concrete floor supported on the ground with a separately poured edge strip footing

  • footing systemStandards

    General term used to slabs, footings, piers and pile systems that transfer load from the substructure to the foundation

  • footpath (pathway)NATSPEC

    A public way reserved for the movement of pedestrians, motorised wheelchairs and personal mobility devices.

  • force coefficientNATSPEC

    Coefficient that, when multiplied by the incident wind pressure and a reference area, gives the force in a specific direction.

  • foreign (secondary) structureStandards

    A buried or submerged structure that may be subject to interference arising from the cathodic protection of a primary structure

  • formal opinionStandards

    The written opinion, by a registered testing authority, prepared in accordance with Clause 4.2. Also referred to as 'assessment'. 

  • formal optionStandards

    The written opinion, by a registered testing authority, prepared in accounts with Clause 4.2 of this Standard. Also referred to as 'assessment'

  • formationNATSPEC

    The surface of the finished earthworks, excluding cut or fill batters.

  • formation drainsNATSPEC

    Drainage of seepage, springs and wet areas within and adjacent to the road formations.

  • formed and gravelAUS-SPEC

    This road is designed to the appropriate geometric design standards with the required drainage. A layer of imported granular material is compacted to the required thickness to support estimated traffic. Resheeting and patrol grading maintenance is required on a regular basis.

  • formed roadAUS-SPEC

    This road is designed to the geometric design standards with the required drainage. These are earth roads made up of local materials with no imported gravel requiring periodic resheeting maintenance. Will require patrol grading maintenance including heavy patching from time to time

  • formworkNATSPEC

    Formwork: The surface, supports and framing used to define the shape of concrete until it is all self-supporting. Formwork types include:Jump formwork: Incrementally moved formwork.Lost formwork: Sacrificial formwork left in place.Slip formwork: Continuously slipped or moving formwork.Table forms: Prefabricated and re-usable formwork systems for slabs and beams.

  • foundationBCA (NCC)

    Means the ground which supports the building

  • foundation (2870)Standards

    Ground that supports the footing system

  • foundation levelNATSPEC

    The level at the underside of the 50 mm thick mass concrete blinding layer, below the reinforced concrete footing.

  • frameStandards

    A structure manufactured from timber, metal, glass, or other durable material or combinations of materials, such as glass fins and structural sealant, supporting the full length of a glazed panel edge.

  • frame girthStandards

    The flat width of steel required to manufacture the finished folded profile. 

  • framed double-leaf masonryStandards

    Construction with masonry double-leaf external wall and framed internal walls

  • frameless (panels)Standards

    Without framed edges

  • frameless glazingStandards

    See unframed glazing.

  • framing membersStandards

    The elements, such as mullions and transoms that support façade panels

  • free area/free ventilation areaStandards

    Unobstructed cross-sectional area of a grille, louvre or duct, calculated as the sum of the cross-sectional areas of all unobstructed apertures measured through h the plane of minimum area and at right angles to the air flow within the apertures

  • free roofStandards

    Roof (of any type) with no enclosing walls underneath (e.g. freestanding carport).

  • freeboardBCA (NCC)

    Means the height above the defined flood level as determined by the appropriate authority, used to compensate for effects such as wave action and localized hydraulic behaviour. 

  • freestanding applianceStandards

    An appliance designed to be installed as a solid fuel burning appliance in all areas except in a concrete or masonry fireplace, or recessed into a building structure or fitting

  • freestanding wallsNATSPEC

    Walls that are exposed to the wind on both sides, with no roof attached (e.g. fences).

  • fresh jointsNATSPEC

    A joint where the pavement material on both sides of the joint has been placed within 3 hours from the time of mixing the material placed before to one side of the joint.

  • frictionStandards

    An intrinsic property of the two interfacing, interacting surfaces resulting from their micro- and macro-roughness, inter- and intra-molecular forces of attraction and repulsion, and their visco-elastic properties

  • friction pileStandards

    A pile where the major component of the resistance of the pile is contributed by the force developed along the shaft of the pile

  • friction-type connectionStandards

    Connection effected using high-strength bots tightened to induce a specified minimum bolt tension such that the resultant clamping action transfers the design shear forces at the serviceability limit state acting in the plane of the common contact surfaces by the friction developed between the contact surfaces

  • frictional dragNATSPEC

    Wind force per unit area acting in a direction parallel to the surface in question.

  • FRL (fire resistance level)Standards

    As defined in the NCC.

  • fuel chamberStandards

    That part of the appliance designed to contain the fuel

  • full masonryStandards

    Construction with masonry double-leaf external walls and masonry single-leaf interal walls without full articulation

  • full tensioningStandards

    A method of installing and tensioning a bolt in accordance with Clauses 15.2.4 and 15.2.5

  • full-load operationStandards

    Operation with the equipment and controls configured for the maximum continuous duty refrigeration capacity specified by the manufacturer and allowed by the unit controlsNOTE: unless otherwise regulated by the automatic controls of the equipment, all indoor units and compressors are functioning during full-load operations

  • full-scale setStandards

    The standard fire resistance test carried out on a doorset in accordance with AS 1530.4.

  • fully framed glazingStandards

    Panels that have all edges framed.

  • functionStandards

    The purpose of a sign, e.g. to indicate prohibition or mandatory requirements, to warn, or to inform 

  • functional earthing (FE)Standards

    An earthing arrangement provided to ensure correct operation of electrical equipment or to permit reliable and proper functioning of electrical installationsNOTE: 'clean' (low-noise) earths provided for electrical equipment may be considered as FE

  • functional performance testNATSPEC

    Test of the dynamic function and operation of equipment and systems under various modes, using simulations, manual (direct observation) and monitoring methods. The systems are run through all the control system’s sequences of operation, and components are verified as responding as intended for the documented sequence of operations. Functional performance tests are performed after construction checklists are complete.

  • fuseStandards

    A device for protecting a circuit against damage from an excessive current flowing in it by opening the circuit on the melting of the fuse-element by such excessive current. The fuse comprises all the parts that form the protective device

  • fusible linkStandards

    A device that operates automatically at a predetermined temperature, to initiate the closure of an automatic fire-resistant roller shutter. 


  • gabionNATSPEC

    Double-twisted wire mesh container, uniformly partitioned into internal cells, interconnected with other units and filled with rocks to form flexible, permeable, monolithic structures. Gabions may be used for landscaping, erosion control, noise attenuation walls, retaining structures, and facing panels for reinforced soil structures.

  • gable roofNATSPEC

    Ridged roof with two sloping surfaces and vertical triangular end walls.

  • galvanic actionStandards

    A spontaneous electrochemical cell reaction in which a metallic anode in a dissimilar metal couple corrodes

  • galvanic anodeStandards

    An electrode used to protect a structure by galvanic action

  • galvanizerStandards

    A person, persons or organization responsible for the coating of the product with molten zinc

  • garage doors and other large access doorsStandards

  • gasStandards

    A combustible fuel gasNatural gas (NG) - a hydrocarbon gas, consisting mainly of methaneLiquified petroleum gas (LP Gas) - a gas composed predominantly of any of the following hydrocarbons, or any combination of them: propane, propene (propylene), butane (butylene)Simulated natural gas (SNG) - a gas comprising a mixture of LP Gas and air, in the approximate proportions of 55% LP Gas and 45% airBiogas - Biogas is a mixture of gases that is produced by anaerobic microbial decomposition of organic matter and principally comprises methane and carbon dioxide together with lesser amounts of hydrogen sulphide, water vapour or other gases 

  • gas consumptionStandards

    The rate of energy consumed by a gas appliance under specific conditions and usually expressed in megajoules per hour (MJ/h)

  • gas installationStandards

    A combination of the following used or intended to be used in the supply and utilization of gas, taken as sperate items or as a whole: Consumer piping, fittings, components, appliances, flue, sub-meters, apparatus or other devices and associated requirements

  • gas loadStandards

    The total gas consumption of all downstream gas appliances 

  • gas measurement system (GMS)Standards

    A combination of the gas meter and any associated valves, filters, regulators, over-pressure protection and connections

  • gas meterStandards

    A device used to measure the volume of gas passing through itConsumer billing meter (also known as a master meter) - a gas meter that is used to bull the consumer for gas usedSub-meter (also known as a check meter) - a gas meter used for measuring gas downstream of  a consumer billing meter or cylinder regulator

  • gas pressure regulatorStandards

  • gasfitting (work)Standards

    In New Zealand, has the same meaning as in the Plumber, Gasfitters and Drainlayers Act 2006In Australia, as defined by state or territory legislation

  • gastightStandards

    The condition of a gas installation or gas pipework in which any leakage of gas is at a sufficiently low rate that no hazard is likely to ensue, and-(a) for systems of less than or equal to 30 L, meets the criteria in Appendix E; or(b) for systems of greater than 30 L, tested to the appropriate requirement and any pressure drop or leakage rate does not exceed a limit specified by the Technical Regulator

  • gateStandards

    A portion of a barrier, other than a child-resistant doorset that is designed to provide access through the barrier. 

  • gate unitStandards

    An assembly compromising a gate, a hinge post, a latch post, a latching device, hinges, and a self-closing device. 

  • generalNATSPEC

    In these conditions of tendering, the word principal has the same meaning as owner and proprietor.

  • general contaminantsStandards

    Contaminants that are generated by occupants, the building or devices (e.g. body odours, volatile organic compounds, and the like) and found within most buildings. 

  • general exhaust ventilationStandards

    Ventilation of an enclosure by the extraction of air from that enclosure, thereby allowing contaminants to be diluted by supply air or make-up air, the mixture being collected at exhaust air intakes and discharged outside of the building. 

  • generic objectNATSPEC

    A generic representation of the common features and properties of a physical element, intended for use in the early stages of design or when the object is not resolved into a product.

  • geometrical slenderness ratioStandards

    The geometrical slenderness ratio, taken as the effective length, specified in Clause 6.3.2, divided by the radius of gyration computed for the gross section about the relevant axis

  • geopolymer binderAUS-SPEC

    Polymeric binder formed by reacting alumina-silicate pre-cursers with alkaline activator(s).

  • geopolymer concreteAUS-SPEC

    Geopolymer binder aggregates, water and additives.

  • geotechnical site investigationNATSPEC

    The process of evaluating the geotechnical characteristics of the site in the context of existing or proposed construction.

  • geotextileNATSPEC

    A permeable synthetic fabric laid on soil, sand blinding, concrete or masonry substrates, serving to protect, separate, filter or drain.

  • geotextile filterNATSPEC

    A fabric manufactured from synthetic fibres of long chained polymer such as polypropylene, polyester or similar material and stabilised against deterioration by ultraviolet light. A geotextile filter can be either non-woven or knitted fabric.

  • geotextile reinforced sealAUS-SPEC

    An application of a bituminous binder into which both aggregate and geotextile are incorporated to provide a durable wearing surface. A layer of binder is applied first, followed by a layer of geotextile fabric, then a second coat of binder, followed by the aggregate.

  • gilgaiStandards

    Soil surface feature associated with relative clay sites, characterized by regularly spaced and sized depressions on virgin landsNOTE: gilgais are formed by extreme, reactive soil movements. Soil profiles may vary markedly across sites with gilgais

  • girder trussStandards

    A roof truss that supports other trusses or structural members (e.g. beams).

  • give noticeNATSPEC

    Give notice, submit, advise, inform and similar expressions mean give notice (submit, advise, inform) in writing to the contract administrator. 

  • glareStandards

    The discomfort or impairment of vision experienced when parts of the field of view ( e.g. lamps, luminaries) are excessively bright in relation to the general surroundings. NOTE: The degrees of discomfort or impairment of vision that can be anticipated in any given situation may be described or measured respectively as "discomfort glare" and "disability glare". 

  • glassStandards

    a hard, brittle, amorphous substance produced by fusion and usually consisting of mutually dissolved silica or silicates that also contain soda and lime, and may be transparent, translucent or opaque

  • glass biteNATSPEC

    The depth of glass that is secured inside the frame assembly (rebate).

  • glazed assemblyStandards

    Any combination of glass and any other material that fills a window or door opening; also known as a glazing system

  • glazingBCA (NCC)

    for the purpose of Section J, means a transparent or translucent element and it supporting frame located in the envelope, and includes a window other than a roof light. 

  • glazing (1288)Standards

    The securing of glass in prepared openings in windows, door panels, partitions, and the like.Glass or plastics glazing sheet material for installation into a building

  • glazingStandards

    one of the following:(a) the securing of glass in prepared openings in windows, door panels, partitions and the like(b) glass or plastics glazing sheet material for installation into a building

  • glazing barStandards

    a member that is added to a standard window construction to change the appearance of the windowNOTE: the glass is individually glazed. The bar may also be clipped or stuck onto both faces of the glass. Also known as colonial bars or federation bars

  • glazing gasketStandards

    plastic or synthetic rubber members, used between the glass and the frame or the glass and the bead

  • glossNATSPEC

    The optical property of a surface, characterised by its ability to reflect light specularly.

  • gloss unitNATSPEC

    Numerical value for the amount of specular reflection relative to that of a standard surface under the same geometric conditions.

  • goingStandards

    The horizontal distance from the nosing of one stair tread to the nosing of the next stair tread above or below.