• absolute level toleranceNATSPEC

    Maximum deviation from design levels.

  • access for maintenanceNATSPEC

    Includes access for maintenance, inspection, measurement, operation, adjustment, repair, replacement and other maintenance related tasks.Access required for other purposes such as firefighting and people with a disability are not included in this term.

  • accessible ceilingNATSPEC

    A ceiling in which the item requiring access can be reached by temporary or permanent means, conforming to WHS regulations. Examples include, accessible from below by step ladder through a removable access panel and accessible from above from a fixed walkway.

  • accessible, readilyNATSPEC

    Readily accessible, easily accessible, easy access and similar terms mean capable of being reached quickly and without climbing over or removing obstructions, using a movable ladder, and in any case not more than 2.0 m above the ground, floor or platform.

  • accessory for slate or shingle and shake roofingNATSPEC

    A concrete or terracotta product used to finish the slate and shingle roof and may include apex, ridge and barge capping.

  • accessory for slate roofingAUS-SPEC

    A concrete or terracotta product used to finish the slate and shingle roof and may include apex, ridge and barge capping.

  • accreditationAUS-SPEC

    Certification by a statutory or approved authority of the facilities, capabilities, objectivity, competence and integrity of an organization or individual to provide a specified service and/or required operation.

  • Accredited Testing LaboratoryNATSPEC

    An organisation accredited by the National Association of Testing Authorities (NATA) to test in the relevant field

  • accuracyNATSPEC

    The closeness of the agreement between the result of a measurement and the true value of the quantity being measured.

  • acoustic insulationNATSPEC

    Materials or methods of construction to reduce the transmission of airborne and structure-borne sound through floors, walls and ceilings or other enclosing elements in buildings.

  • acoustic materialNATSPEC

    Building material with specific acoustic properties to achieve sound transmission loss, sound absorption, damping of resonance or resilience against impact noise.

  • acoustic underlayNATSPEC

    A resilient material laid between the structural floor and the flooring material to provide sound isolation.

  • acrylic polymer resin panelsNATSPEC

    Thermoplastic or thermosetting acrylic resin panels derived from acrylic acid, methacrylic acid or other related compounds, with mineral fillers and pigments.

  • action effects (internal effects of actions, load effects)AUS-SPEC

    Internal forces and bending moments due to actions (stress resultants).

  • activity centreAUS-SPEC

    Urban planning term for those places that are vibrant hubs where people shop work, meet, relax and often live.

  • added fillerAUS-SPEC

    Mineral matter, suitable for use in asphalt – at least 75% of which is finer than 75 µm and all of which is finer that 600 µm – which is added to the combined aggregate of an asphalt mix. Typical materials include hydrated lime, flyash, cement, cement works flue dust, ground limestone and rock dust other than that which occurs as a natural component of the combined aggregate.

  • adhesion (paint)NATSPEC

    Adhesion (paint): The sum total of forces of attachment between a dry film and its substrate.

  • adhesion agentAUS-SPEC

    A substance for promoting adhesion between binder and aggregates, normally in the presence of water.

  • adhesives - cementitious (C)NATSPEC

    Adhesive in which the binders are hydraulic, e.g. General purpose cement, with aggregates and organic additives.

  • adhesives - dispersion (D)NATSPEC

    Adhesives in which the binders are in the form of aqueous polymer dispersion with mineral fillers and organic additives.

  • adhesives - reaction resin (R)NATSPEC

    Adhesives in which in the binders are synthetic resins with mineral fillers and organic additives. The curing occurs by chemical reaction.

  • advanced plants (species)AUS-SPEC

    Plant species containerised and established in 300 mm containers but less than 45 L containers.

  • aggregate filled textured latex coatingNATSPEC

    An aggregate filled medium to high profile textured coating selected for aesthetic purposes to provide maximum relief from underlying surface irregularities according to the application technique used.

  • aggregates/sand/fillerAUS-SPEC

    Some spray applied preservation materials incorporate either the spreading of or inclusion of fillers/sands or aggregates. For the purposes of this worksection these materials are referred to as coarse graded materials and are defined as materials added to (either before spraying to form part of the material applied or after spraying as a dressing) of the application proposed.

  • air grilleNATSPEC

    An air grille of metal or other material fitted to the inlet or outlet end of an air duct or within walls, floors, ceilings or doors. It includes all types of diffusers, registers and grilles.

  • air handling plantNATSPEC

    Proprietary and non-proprietary pre-assembled plant and prefabricated and site erected plant and plenums. Includes room fan coil units and air handling units.

  • air handling unit (AHU)NATSPEC

    A unit having a supply air flow not less than 400 L/s and consisting of casing housing a fan and coils. The casing may also house filters, dampers and other items. Includes larger sizes of units sometimes referred to as fan coil units.

  • airborne soundNATSPEC

    Sound radiated directly from a source, such as a loudspeaker or machine, into the surrounding air.

  • allowable working timeAUS-SPEC

    Measured from the commencement of incorporating/mixing the first application of the stabilisation binder into the unstabilised pavement materials to the completion of trimming.

  • aluminium joineryNATSPEC

    The collective term used for aluminium framed and glazed windows and doors.

  • ambient temperatureNATSPEC

    The air temperature at the time of mixing and placing of concrete.

  • ambient waterNATSPEC

    Drinking water at a temperature provided by the cold waterpiping system, without further heating or cooling.

  • ameliorant materialAUS-SPEC

    Additives used to make or improve soil.

  • anchorAUS-SPEC

    Restraint used to transmit impact forces into the ground.

  • anchor trenchNATSPEC

    A trench excavated around the perimeter of a water feature in which the edges of the geotextile and sheet membrane liner are buried and that diverts surface water runoff.

  • ancillary for tile roofingNATSPEC

    A moulded non-metallic product used to finish the roof, includes apex, ridge, and barge tiles.

  • anionic bitumenNATSPEC

    A type of bituminous emulsion where dispersed particles comprise a bituminous binder and are negatively charged.

  • annual probability of exceedence of the actionAUS-SPEC

    The probability that a value will be exceeded in any one year.NOTE: This is the inverse of the so-called 'return period' better described as the average recurrence interval.


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  • anti-burst reinforcementNATSPEC

    Reinforcement cage surrounding anchorages to control the tensile bursting stresses.

  • application rateAUS-SPEC

    Application Rate: the specified or designed coverage of a specified application specified as litres per m2. 

  • approach sight distanceAUS-SPEC

    Relates to the ability of drivers to observe the roadway layout at an anticipated approach speed.

  • approvedNATSPEC

    Approved, reviewed, directed, rejected, endorsed and similar expressions mean approved (reviewed, directed, rejected, endorsed) in writing by the contract administrator.

  • as-built drawingsAUS-SPEC

    Copies of the design drawings with as-built changes (including repaired defects) marked up to scale with references to the relevant design change notices:Interim as-built drawings are the as-built drawings at the stage of closure of the lot package.Final as-built drawings are the as-built drawings incorporating the changes for all lot packages and are generally submitted before final completion of the project.

  • asphaltAUS-SPEC

    Dense graded asphalt: A mixture of coarse aggregate, fine aggregate, filler and bitumen.Open graded asphalt: A bituminous mix using aggregate containing only small amounts of fine material, and providing a high percentage of air voids.

  • asphaltAUS-SPEC

    A mixture of bituminous binder and aggregate with or without mineral filler, produced hot in a mixing plant, which is delivered, spread and compacted while hot.

  • asphalt pavementAUS-SPEC

    A pavement, the predominant structural strength of which is provided by asphalt layers.

  • assembliesNATSPEC

    A named aggregation of BIM objects that form another object or functional unit.

  • assetAUS-SPEC

    A physical component of a road system or network. Typical assets include sections of pavements, bridges, culverts, traffic signals, signs, road furniture, road reserves, etc.

  • asset protection zone (APZ)/Defendable spaceAUS-SPEC

    A fuel-reduced area surrounding a built asset or structure which provides a buffer zone between a bushfire hazard and an asset. The APZ includes a defendable space within which firefighting operations can be carried out. The size of the required asset protection zone varies with slope, vegetation and Fire Danger Index (FDI).

  • associative dimensioningNATSPEC

    A function of a BIM authoring system that automatically updates the value of a dimension when changes occur to the geometry of the object.

  • attendanceNATSPEC

    Attendance, provide attendance and similar expressions mean give assistance for examination and testing.

  • attenuationNATSPEC

    The reduction of noise or vibration, by whatever method necessary, usually expressed in decibels.

  • authoritiesAUS-SPEC

    Includes service agencies and Road Authorities.

  • authorityNATSPEC

    Any organisation with statutory authority relating to the project, including clearances.

  • automaticAUS-SPEC

    Means designed to operate when activated by a heat , smoke or fire sensing device. 

  • average ambient temperatureNATSPEC

    Average value of the daily maximum and minimum ambient temperatures over the defined period at a site.

  • average exceedance probabilityAUS-SPEC

    The probability of an event being equalled or exceeded within a year.

  • average least dimensionAUS-SPEC

    The average height of the aggregate particles when they are spread as a single layer with their dimensions vertical.

  • average recurrence intervalAUS-SPEC

    The average or expected value of the period between exceedances of a given discharge, it is generally expressed in years.

  • average recurrence intervalAUS-SPEC

    The average time period between occurrences equalling or exceeding a given value.

  • awningAUS-SPEC

    Roof-like structure, usually of limited extent, projecting from a wall of a building.


  • bad groundNATSPEC

    Ground unsuitable for the works, including fill liable to subsidence, ground containing cavities, faults or fissures, ground contaminated by harmful substances and ground that is, or becomes, soft, wet or unstable.

  • baseNATSPEC

    One or more layers of material, forming the uppermost structural element of a pavement and on which the surfacing may be placed.

  • base coatNATSPEC

    A plaster coat applied before the application of the finish coat.

  • base courseAUS-SPEC

    Directly onto the subgrade or subbase if applicable.

  • base/based courseAUS-SPEC

    One or more layers of material forming the uppermost structural element of a pavement and on which the surfacing may be placed. It may be composed of fine crushed rock, natural gravel, broken stone, stabilised material, asphalt or Portland cement concrete.

  • batchNATSPEC

    A quantity of concrete containing a fixed amount of ingredients and produced in a discrete operation.

  • batch and loadAUS-SPEC

    Varies according to mixer types as follows:Central batch mixers: For mixers discharging into a tipper truck, a load may comprise more than one batch.Mobile batch mixers: A batch is deemed to be a load, a load must not comprise more than one batch.Continuous mixers: A batch is a load produced in a single discrete operation.

  • batterAUS-SPEC

    The uniform side slope of walls, banks, cuttings, etc. Usually expressed as a ratio of horizontal to vertical.The amount of such slope or rake, usually expressed as a ratio of horizontal to vertical, distinct from grade.To form a uniform side slope to a wall, bank, or cutting.

  • batterAUS-SPEC

    The face of an embankment or cutting, produced as a result of earthmoving operations involving cutting and filling.

  • beddingNATSPEC

    Mixtures of materials which are applied to substrates in a plastic state and which dry, cure and adhere tiles to substrates:Adhesive bedding: Paving/tiling adhered by adhesives.Mortar bedding: Paving/tiling adhered in a cementitious mortar bed.

  • bicycle path (cycleway)AUS-SPEC

    A path or path section intended for the exclusive use of cyclists, generally referred to as an exclusive bicycle path.

  • bifenthrinNATSPEC

    A synthetic, broad-spectrum pyrethroid insecticide that affects the nervous system of insects.Bifenthrin is registered by the Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority registrar, for use in conformance with the pesticides registrar’s approved label.

  • BIM authoring systemNATSPEC

    An application used for generating data for multiple uses that includes 3D geometric information. EXAMPLES: Autodesk® Revit®, Bentley® AECOsim®, Graphisoft® ArchiCAD®, Nemetschek® Vectorworks® and Tekla® Structures.

  • binderAUS-SPEC

    A binder is any material mixed/ added to the pavement for improvement in pavement qualities.

  • binderAUS-SPEC

    A bituminous material used for waterproofing the surface and holding an aggregate layer to the base.

  • bio-solubleNATSPEC

    A product that dissolves in bodily fluids and is quickly cleared from the lungs.

  • bitumenNATSPEC

    A viscous material from the distillation of crude oil comprising complex hydrocarbons, which is soluble in carbon disulphide, softens when it is heated, is waterproof and has good powers of adhesion. It is produced as a refined by-product of oil.APP Bitumen: Bitumen modified with atactic (meaning non-crystalline or amorphous) polypropylene wax to form a plastomeric sheet. The membrane is reinforced with fibreglass or non-woven polyester (NWP).SBS bitumen: Bitumen modified with Styrene Butadiene Styrene, a thermoplastic rubber that undergoes a phase inversion at elevated temperature and converts to an elastomeric material. The membrane is reinforced with fibreglass or non-woven polyester (NWP).

  • bitumen emulsionAUS-SPEC

    A system of fine droplets of bitumen with or without polymer, suspended in a mixture of water and emulsifier which begins to set upon contact with surfaces and when exposed to air.

  • bitumen emulsion stabilisingAUS-SPEC

    The mixing of bitumen emulsion into the upper pavement layer to increase pavement strength.

  • blended granular materialAUS-SPEC

    Joining of two or more gravel materials in various designed % mix blends using ARRB spreadsheet model to achieve improved structural strength and improved plasticity whether smaller or larger as required.

  • blended granular materialsAUS-SPEC

    Joining of two or more gravel materials in various designed % mix blends to achieve improved structural strength and improved plasticity whether smaller or larger as required. The aim is to examine test results to determine the suitability of the new blend to comply with bitumen sealed base gravel specifications.

  • blended materialAUS-SPEC

    A material formed by the combination and mixing of materials obtained from different sources or rock types or recycled materials, in order to obtain a product with improved properties.

  • boiling waterNATSPEC

    Drinking water at a temperature at or close to 100°C.

  • bond breakerNATSPEC

    A system preventing a membrane bonding to the substrate, bedding or lining.

  • bonding conductorNATSPEC

    Provides electrical connection between the lightning protection system and other metalwork and between various metal parts of a structure or between earthing systems.

  • bonding treatmentNATSPEC

    A treatment of a substrate which improves adhesion of a plaster system.

  • booking (book)NATSPEC

    The procedure of folding pasted surfaces together for easier handling, when applying paste onto wallcoverings.

  • boosterAUS-SPEC

    In-line pressure booster pumping station used to increase the hydraulic gradient.

  • borrow areaNATSPEC

    An area or excavation from which soil, clay, sand, rock or gravel has been excavated for a specific purpose.

  • bound granular materialsAUS-SPEC

    Granular or subgrade materials to which a binder has been added to improve structural stiffness.

  • bound materialAUS-SPEC

    A granular or subgrade material to which a binder has been added to improve structural stiffness.

  • branchNATSPEC

    A duct with no terminals connected to it.

  • breathabilityNATSPEC

    The ability of certain plasters to allow the passage of moisture vapour (rather than water) and air through to the straw bales.

  • built-up air handling plantNATSPEC

    A custom made air handling unit, erected on-site on a building floor using standard panels and proprietary components.

  • bulk excavationNATSPEC

    Any open excavation accessible to the means documented.

  • bulkingAUS-SPEC

    The increase in volume of a layer designated for stabilisation resulting from preliminary pulverisation and/or incorporation of secondary or primary stabilisation binder.

  • bushfire attack levels (BAL)AUS-SPEC

    A method of measuring a site’s potential exposure to ember attack, radiant heat and direct flame contact as defined in AS 3959. It takes into consideration Fire danger index (FDI), the slope of the land, types of surrounding vegetation and the site’s proximity to any building.

  • bushfire prone areaAUS-SPEC

    An area declared as likely to be subject to bushfire attack by the local council or a state government.

  • butt joints (flooring)NATSPEC

    Floor units cross cut square with plain ends for joining over supports.


  • cable supportNATSPEC

    Cable tray, cable ladders and cable mesh cable support systems.

  • capabilityNATSPEC

    The percentage of design water flow rate that the cooling tower is capable of cooling through the design temperature range at the design approach temperature with air entering at the design wet bulb temperature.

  • carriagewayAUS-SPEC

    That portion of a road or bridge devoted particularly to the use of vehicles, that is between guide posts, kerbs, or barriers where these are provided, inclusive of shoulders and auxiliary lanes.

  • carriageway concrete pavementsAUS-SPEC

    Reinforced concrete pavements. Does not include roller compacted concrete bases and subbases.

  • catchmentAUS-SPEC

    A topographically defined area drained by a stream where all outflow is directed to a single point.

  • catchment (area)AUS-SPEC

    A topographically defined area drained by a stream, river or reservoir of water (into a groundwater system).

  • catchment area of any pointAUS-SPEC

    The limits from where surface runoff will make its way, either by natural or man-made paths, to this point.

  • cationic emulsionAUS-SPEC

    A type of bituminous emulsion where the dispersed particles comprise of a bituminous binder and are positively charged.

  • ceiling unitNATSPEC

    Tile, panel, plank, strip or open grid supported within a ceiling suspended system.

  • cement matrix terrazzoNATSPEC

    Facing aggregate in a cement based matrix.

  • certificationNATSPEC

    A written assertion of facts.

  • chain link fencing fabricAUS-SPEC

    Diamond-pattern-woven fencing fabric manufactured from wire.

  • changeable letter systemsNATSPEC

    Sign systems consisting of display boards or holders into which removable individual letters, numbers, etc can be inserted .

  • changeable plate systemsNATSPEC

    Sign systems consisting of fixed plate holders to which removable interchangeable sign plates may be attached or inserted.

  • check-outNATSPEC

    Examination of accuracy and condition of materials and components.

  • checklistNATSPEC

    Form completed during the manufacture/construction process verifying key steps.

  • chemical treated sheet materialNATSPEC

    A planar product impregnated with a termiticide tested in conformance with AS 3660.3 and registered with the pesticides registrar.

  • chilled waterNATSPEC

    Drinking water at a temperature between 6°C and 15°C.

  • claddingAUS-SPEC

    Material that forms the external surface over the framing of a building or structure.

  • clamp plateNATSPEC

    A continuous metal plate bolted to a linear framing element that clamps a membrane in place.

  • clay segmental paversAUS-SPEC

    Manufactured from clay, shale or argillaceous materials which may be mixed with additives. Clay pavers may have square, bevelled (chamfered), rounded or rumbled edges. They are generally rectangular in shape, with the length twice the width, plus 2 mm.

  • clean waterAUS-SPEC

    Water conforming to one of the following:Water that enters the development site from an external source and has not been further contaminated by sediment within the site.Water originating from the site and does not require treatment to reach the required water quality level.Water that would not be further improved if it was to pass through the sediment trap for the site.

  • cleaningNATSPEC

    Removal of any deposit or accumulation of impurities, or any other foreign material and may include dispersion and removal of solids, physical scrubbing, draining and/or disinfection.

  • cleanoutAUS-SPEC

    A subsurface drainage inlet at the surface of the pavement, shoulder or surrounding ground surface. Also known as flushout riser and inspection point.

  • clear zoneAUS-SPEC

    The area adjacent to the traffic lane to be kept clear of obstructions that could be hazardous to errant vehicles. It consists of the verge area and is measured from the nearside edge of the left-hand traffic lane. For divided roads, it is also measured from the offside edge of the right-hand traffic lane to the edge of the pavement for opposing traffic.

  • clearancesNATSPEC

    A formal certificate, approval or condition issued by a statutory authority allowing work in a particular area.

  • clearingAUS-SPEC

    The removal of vegetation or other obstacles at or above ground before the commencement of earthwork, drainage, etc.

  • closed systemNATSPEC

    A water distribution or circulation system in which the water does not come into contact with air during circulation and to which, in normal operation, no water is added.

  • coarse aggregateAUS-SPEC

    A general term for aggregates substantially retained on a sieve of specified size, commonly 4.75 mm.

  • coating contractorNATSPEC

    The protective coatings application contractor conducting the on- or off-site coating application works.

  • coating manufacturerNATSPEC

    The supplier and/or manufacturer of the protective coating materials used.

  • coating system (floor sanding and finishing)NATSPEC

    Materials applied to enhance wear resistance and protect the flooring material.


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  • cofferdamAUS-SPEC

    A structure, usually temporary, built to support the surrounding ground or to exclude water and soil sufficiently to permit work to proceed safely without excessive pumping.

  • cold mix asphaltAUS-SPEC

    A mixture of bituminous binder and aggregates, with or without mineral filler, produced warm or cold in a mixing plant and delivered in a workable condition suitable for stockpiling and spreading and compaction. It is used in areas where it is impractical to do repair work using hot mix.

  • commissioningAUS-SPEC

    Running of the plant and equipment to make sure there is flow through the pumping system, carrying out any necessary testing and making adjustments until it is ready and suitable for normal starting and running under service conditions.

  • compactibility indexNATSPEC

    A comparative measurement used to determine the consistency and the workability of roller compacted concrete.

  • competent personAUS-SPEC

    A person who has, through a combination of training, qualification and experience, acquired knowledge and skills enabling that person to correctly perform a specified task.

  • completion/completion of repairs/completion of worksNATSPEC

    The maintenance contract provides requirements for when the works are deemed complete, including that the works have been completed in conformance with drawings, schedules and specifications.

  • component layers (of wallcoverings)NATSPEC

    Decorative (top) layer (wallpaper): Consisting of ink and a protective polymer coating applied to the top of the intermediate layer. The design and/or texture is printed using various methods such as gravure, flexography, surface printing and screen-printing.Intermediate layer (or the ground): Providing the surface upon which the decorative layer is printed and the background colour.Backing: Is the part of the wallcovering that adheres to the wall substrate. The backing material includes woven and non-woven fabrics and lightweight paper products.

  • compressed fibre cement sheetsNATSPEC

    Factory prefinished double faced autoclaved high density fibre cement sheets with square stone cut edges ground smooth and arrised.

  • concrete class – normalNATSPEC

    Concrete that is specified primarily by a standard compressive strength grade up to 50 MPa and otherwise in conformance with AS 1379 clause 1.5.3.

  • concrete class – specialNATSPEC

    Concrete that is specified to have certain properties or characteristics different from, or additional to, those of normal-class concrete and otherwise in conformance with AS 1379 clause 1.5.4. If special-class concrete is documented for the project, document the relevant parameters in the Concrete properties schedule – performance.

  • concrete segmental paversNATSPEC

    Units of not more than 0.10 m2 in gross plan area, manufactured from concrete, with top and bottom faces parallel, with or without chamfered edges and identified by the following shape types:Shape Type A: Dentated chamfered units which key into each other on four sides, are capable of being laid in herringbone bond, and by plan geometry, when interlocked, resist the spread of joints parallel to both the longitudinal and transverse axes of the units.Shape Type B: Dentated units which key into each other on two sides, are not (usually) laid in herringbone bond, and by plan geometry, when keyed together, resist the spread of joints parallel to the longitudinal axes of the units and rely on dimensional accuracy and accuracy of laying to interlock on the other faces.Shape Type C: Units which do not key together rely on dimensional accuracy and accuracy of laying to develop interlock.Refer to CMAA PA02 for laying patterns examples.

  • connecting strapNATSPEC

    A short conductor for the connection of structures to the lightning protection system.

  • construction jointsAUS-SPEC

    All joints other than fresh joints or where adjoining concrete shows signs of setting.

  • construction recordsAUS-SPEC

    All lot records, non-conformance reports, design change notices, site instructions, photographs and interim as-built drawings applicable to a lot package.

  • consumableNATSPEC

    Materials or components intended to be replaced within the service life of the associated plant or equipment.

  • contamination of landNATSPEC

    The presence of a substance in, on or under the land which is designated hazardous material and/or is at a concentration above that which is normally found in that locality, and presents a risk of harm to human health or to the environment.

  • contour cultivationNATSPEC

    Cultivation to prepare the rehabilitation area on the contour. On steep slopes the land is terraced or benched.

  • contract administratorNATSPEC

    Has the same meaning as architect or superintendent and is the person appointed by the owner or principal under the contract.

  • contractorNATSPEC

    Has the same meaning as builder and is the person or organisation bound to carry out and complete the work under the contract.

  • control lineAUS-SPEC

    A line generally at or near the centreline of a road on which the design is based and from which measurements for setting out may

  • control systemAUS-SPEC

    A lighting control system comprising a combination of some or all of the following:Automatic sensing and control components.Computer interface for programming.Dimming systems.Manual overrides.Motion detection sensors (occupancy sensors).Timers.

  • control system (lighting)NATSPEC

    A lighting control system comprising a combination of some or all of the following:Automatic sensing and control components.Timers.Manual overrides.Programming using a computer interface.

  • cool roomNATSPEC

    A refrigerated space which is designed to maintain a temperature below 5°C and is used primarily for the storage of product.

  • cooling towerNATSPEC

    As defined in AS/NZS 3666.1 and including hybrid coolers.

  • corrective action requestNATSPEC

    A formal advice/instruction to the contractor requesting action to eliminate the cause of a detected nonconformity.

  • councilAUS-SPEC

    The Local Government Authority for the area where the work is carried out.

  • critical fall heightNATSPEC

    The maximum free height of fall for which a surface provides an acceptable level of impact attenuation.

  • cross bank (whoa-boy)NATSPEC

    An earth hump constructed across a track so that runoff is effectively diverted from it. Cross banks are designed to handle larger flows than cross drains, using one of the following methods:Infall cross bank: Used to direct water off the track surface where it is inappropriate to direct water to the side of the road.Outfall cross bank: Used to remove water from table drains at outfall locations.

  • cross drainsNATSPEC

    Drains of various forms that hinder the flow of water down a track and divert it across the track’s surface. The capacity of the drain is defined by its cross-section. Cross drains are designed to handle smaller flows than cross banks but larger flows than can be controlled by crossfall drainage.

  • cross-laminated timber (CLT)NATSPEC

    A prefabricated engineered wood product made of at least three orthogonal layers of graded sawn timber or wood based panels that are laminated by gluing with structural adhesives.

  • crossfallAUS-SPEC

    The slope of the surface of a carriageway measured normal to the design or road centreline.

  • crossfall drainageNATSPEC

    Drainage which occurs when the surface of a track has sufficient cross slope to cause water to flow across and off the surface, rather than along it. Stormwater drainage for unsealed tracks can be classified as follows:Crown: Where water sheds from both sides.Infall: Where water flows into the hillside.Outfall: Where flow is away from the hillside.

  • culvertNATSPEC

    A pipe or similar structure used to direct water under the track.

  • cushion head boxNATSPEC

    A plenum box fitted above a diffuser.

  • custom-built assembliesNATSPEC

    Low voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies manufactured to order and incorporating either purpose built or proprietary components or either purpose built or proprietary bus-bar assemblies.

  • cutback bitumenAUS-SPEC

    Bitumen to which cutter oil (kerosene or similar) has been added to achieve a temporary reduction in viscosity.

  • cutterAUS-SPEC

    A light petroleum distillate (e.g. kerosene or similar) added to bitumen to temporarily reduce its viscosity (cutback bitumen).

  • cyclewayAUS-SPEC

    Portion of a road or footpath for the exclusive use of cyclists.


  • date of completionAUS-SPEC

    The date when:All excavation, backfill and temporary restoration of the road opening is completed and safe for use by traffic.Permanent restoration is completed.

  • deckingNATSPEC

    Intermittently-supported external flooring with drainage gaps between boards.

  • decorative overlaid wood panelsNATSPEC

    Particleboard or fibreboard with a bonded decorative finishing surface such as thermosetting resin (low pressure melamine), PVC film, paper foils or wood veneer.

  • defaultNATSPEC

    Specified value, product or installation method which is to be provided unless otherwise documented.

  • defectAUS-SPEC

    A work lot non-conformance which continues to exist.

  • defect registerAUS-SPEC

    A register of all defects maintained by the contractor. Recorded as either OPEN or CLOSED.

  • defendable spaceAUS-SPEC

    An area adjoining an asset that is managed to reduce combustible elements and is free from constructed impediments. It is a safe working environment in which active firefighting can be undertaken to defend the structure, before and after the passage of a bushfire.

  • delineatorAUS-SPEC

    Small retroreflectors or panels of retroreflective sheeting attached to guide posts to provide a coherent pattern of delineation of carriageway edges as an aid to night driving.

  • demolitionNATSPEC

    The complete or partial dismantling of a building or structure, by pre-planned and controlled methods or procedures.

  • density ratio (soil)NATSPEC

    Percentage of the maximum density at optimum moisture content as determined by AS 1289.5.2.1.

  • design action effectAUS-SPEC

    The effect computed from the design values of the actions or design loads.

  • design capacityAUS-SPEC

    The product of the capacity reduction factor and the nominal capacity.

  • design lifeNATSPEC

    The period of time for which it is assumed, in the design, that an asset will be able to perform its intended purpose with only anticipated maintenance but no major repair or replacement being necessary.

  • design parametersNATSPEC

    Information used as the basis for design. It includes design requirements, performance criteria, performance parameters and similar terms.

  • design review - commissioningNATSPEC

    A review of the design documents to determine conformance with the OPR, including coordination between systems and assemblies being commissioned, features and access for testing, commissioning and maintenance, and other reviews required by the commissioning plan.

  • design situationAUS-SPEC

    Set of conditions for which the design is required to demonstrate that relevant limit states are not exceeded.

  • design working lifeAUS-SPEC

    Assumed period for which a structure or a structural element is to be used for its intended purpose without major repair being necessary.

  • designerNATSPEC

    The professional responsible for the design of a portion of the project.

  • destructive inspection (of trees)NATSPEC

    The washing away of all soil from a rootball to allow inspection of rootball development.

  • diffuserNATSPEC

    A supply air grille mounted in a ceiling or on the underside of a duct through which air is supplied and distributed within a room or interior space of a building.

  • dilapidation recordNATSPEC

    The photographic or video and written record of the condition of the portion of the existing building retained, adjacent buildings, and other relevant structures or facilities, before the start of demolition work.

  • dincel wallNATSPEC

    Polymer based permanent formwork system for concrete walling for external and internal walls, retaining walls, storage tanks and other specialist uses.

  • dismantleNATSPEC

    The reduction of an item to its components in a manner to allow re-assembly.

  • dispositionNATSPEC

    Action taken to resolve non-conformance (Lot specific).

  • documentAUS-SPEC

    Record of information in written or graphical form.

  • documentedNATSPEC

    Documented, as documented and similar terms mean contained in the contract documents.

  • dominant openingAUS-SPEC

    Opening in the external surface of an enclosed building, which directly influences the average internal pressure in response to external pressures at that particular opening.NOTE: Dominant openings need not be large.

  • double detail jointNATSPEC

    A joint formed by turning up and bonding the horizontal membrane to a vertical substrate and adding an overflashing of membrane material bonded to the vertical substrate and folded over and bonded to the horizontal membrane. In certain situations the double detail can be achieved by bonding an angle profile of membrane material to the junction prior to laying the membrane.

  • double-twisted wire meshNATSPEC

    Non-ravelling mesh made by twisting continuous pairs of wires through three one-half (180°) turns to form hexagonal shaped openings.

  • double/double seal (D/D)AUS-SPEC

    A seal consisting of two successive applications of binder each followed by an application of aggregate.

  • downdraftAUS-SPEC

    Vertical air motion originating in a thunderstorm, resulting in severe horizontal winds at ground level.

  • dragAUS-SPEC

    Force acting in the direction of the wind stream; see also lift.

  • drainage blanketsAUS-SPEC

    A drain comprising a blanket of free-draining material. Typically used where a pavement intercepts a subterranean water source with substantial flows or the nature of the water-bearing strata is such that interception by formation or pavement drain is not possible. It is generally considered to be a structural component of the pavement system.

  • drainage structuresAUS-SPEC

    Devices to control stormwater flowing into and through a stormwater drainage system including culverts, inlet and outlet structures, junction boxes, gully pits, drop structures, headwalls, wingwalls, energy dissipaters and ancillary hardware such as grates, frames and step irons as well as subsurface drainage pipes at pits, headwalls and wingwalls.

  • drainage typesAUS-SPEC

    Subsoil drains: Drainage below the ground surface which collects subsurface water throughout its length of ground water or seepage from the subgrade and/or the subbase in cuttings and fill areas.Formation drains: Drainage systems designed to intercept water before it reaches the road/pavement structure. They are generally deeper than pavement drains and are usually remote from the pavement structure. Also known as cut-off drains.Pavement drains: Drainage systems designed to remove water from the subgrade and pavement materials.

  • driplineAUS-SPEC

    The most outer reach of a tree’s branches.

  • dry process fibreboard (MDF)NATSPEC

    Panel material with a nominal thickness of 1.5 mm or greater, manufactured from lignocellulosic fibres (derived from wood or other materials) with application of heat and/or pressure, the bond of which is derived from a synthetic adhesive added to the fibres and the panels are manufactured with a forming moisture content of less than 20%.

  • dual drainageAUS-SPEC

    The major/minor approach to street drainage.

  • dynamic response factorAUS-SPEC

    Factor to account for the effects of fluctuating forces and resonant response on wind-sensitive structures.


  • early age strengthNATSPEC

    A mean compressive strength at 7 days exceeding the values shown in AS 1379 Table 1.2.

  • early age strengthNATSPEC

    A mean compressive strength at 7 days exceeding the values shown in AS 1379 Table 1.2.

  • earth windrowNATSPEC

    A soil ridge built along the track edge during construction or maintenance. Where used to direct runoff to a stable outlet, it is known as a windrow drain.

  • earthing boss (terminal lug)NATSPEC

    A metal boss specially designed and welded to process plant, storage tanks, or steelwork to which earthing conductors are attached by means of removable studs or nuts and bolts.

  • eccentricityAUS-SPEC

    The distance from the centroid of a surface, to the point of application of the resultant force derived from the net wind pressure.

  • economic lifeNATSPEC

    The period of time from the acquisition of an asset to the time when the asset, while still physically capable of fulfilling its function and with only anticipated maintenance, ceases to be the lowest cost alternative for satisfying that function.

  • edge bondingNATSPEC

    The tendency of some coating systems to glue the edges of strip flooring and parquetry panels which prevents an even distribution of movement gaps.

  • edge drainsAUS-SPEC

    Drainage of rigid pavements from the interface between the base and subbase.

  • effective surfaceAUS-SPEC

    A wall, roof or internal surface of a building that contributes significantly to load effects on major structural elements.

  • efficiency indexAUS-SPEC

    The effectiveness of a curing compound in retaining moisture, assessed as a percentage of water retained in the test specimens relative to the uncoated specimens.

  • elapsed delivery timeNATSPEC

    Time between the wetting of the concrete mix and the discharge of the concrete mix at the site.

  • electricity distributorNATSPEC

    Any person or organisation that provides electricity from an electricity distribution system to one or more electrical installations. Includes distributor, supply authority, network operator, local network service provider, electricity retailer or electricity entity, as may be appropriate in the relevant jurisdiction.

  • elevated buildingAUS-SPEC

    Building with a clear, unwalled space underneath the first floor level with a height from ground to underside of the first floor of one-third or more of the total height of the building.

  • embedded generatorNATSPEC

    Electricity generator connected to the local electrical distribution network.

  • embedment materialNATSPEC

    Includes bedding, haunch support and overlay material.

  • emergency access wayAUS-SPEC

    Access used to connect roads and provide alternative access and egress during emergencies where the traffic flow design does not allow two-way access.

  • emergency repairsNATSPEC

    Repairs to restore the normal operating state or safety of the plant or systems.

  • emitterNATSPEC

    A device used to control the rate at which water is applied to a specific area.

  • enclosed buildingAUS-SPEC

    Building that has a roof and full perimeter walls (nominally sealed) from floor to roof level.

  • end terminalsAUS-SPEC

    Device that protect vehicle occupants from injury in an impact with the end of the safety barrier. Can be either leading or departure end treatment.

  • end-matched joints (flooring and decking)NATSPEC

    Floor boards tongue and grooved at the ends to allow jointing between supports.

  • environmentNATSPEC

    The physical factors of the surroundings of human beings including the land, waters, atmosphere, climate, sound, odours, tastes; and the biological factors of animals; and plants and the social factor of aesthetics. Environment, as defined in the Environment Protection Act 2017 (Vic). Protection of the Environment Administration Act 1991 (NSW) defines the environment as the components of the earth including land, air and water, any layer of the atmosphere, organic or inorganic matter and any living organism and human-made or modified structures and areas. See www.environment.gov.au for a more detailed definition see Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (Cth) s. 528.

  • environmental auditNATSPEC

    A review of environmental management practices, in particular the evaluation of a site for environmental liability.

  • environmental impact assessment (EIA)NATSPEC

    A method for predicting environmental impacts of a proposed development including strategies for minimising identified impacts.

  • environmental management plan (EMP)NATSPEC

    A project or site specific plan describing the management of the environmental issues and considerations for the activity being undertaken. This applies to the design, construction and operation of the buildings, external works and infrastructure.

  • erosionAUS-SPEC

    The wearing away of land by the action of rainfall, running water, wind, moving ice or gravitational creep. Soil detachment (erosion) occurs when the erosive forces exceed the soil’s resistance, causing the soil particles to move.

  • erosion classes in relation to soil typesNATSPEC

     Class A: Low soil erodibility. Brown and red soils derived from finer sediments and metasediments.Class B: High soil erodibility. Red soils on fine granites, fine sandstones and basalt.Class C: Very high soil erodibility. Grey and yellow soils derived from granites, sediment and metasediment, especially coarse grained types.Class D: Extreme soil erodibility. Unconsolidated sediment. This is unsuitable for fire access tracks.From the NSW Gov Tracks.

  • erosion control measuresAUS-SPEC

    Measures to prevent or reduce soil movement from wind, rain or flowing water from a construction site resulting from both natural processes and human activity.

  • errorNATSPEC

    The measured value minus the true value of the quantity being measured.

  • errors and omissionsNATSPEC

    For the design prepared by the contractor, errors and omissions have the same meaning as defects.

  • escarpmentAUS-SPEC

    Two-dimensional, steeply sloping, face between nominally level lower and upper plains where the plains have average slopes of not greater than 5%.

  • essential electric powerNATSPEC

    For the purposes of this worksection and within the meaning of the term in AS 2896, essential electric power has the same meaning as vital in AS/NZS 3009.

  • evaporative air coolerNATSPEC

    A device that cools air by the evaporation of water.

  • evaporative efficiencyNATSPEC

    When tested to AS 2913, the cooling performance of the equipment, representing the extent to which the available wet bulb depression will be achieved as the dry bulb temperature drops.

  • expansion jointNATSPEC

    A closing control joint with the joint surfaces separated by a compressible filler to allow axial movement due to thermal expansion or contraction with changes in temperature or creep. It may include unbound dowels to assist vertical deflection control.

  • expansion ratioAUS-SPEC

    The ratio of the maximum volume of the bitumen in its foamed state to the volume of the bitumen once the foaming is completely subsided.

  • extended design domain (EDD)AUS-SPEC

    The design domain for the assessment of existing roads. EDD is a range of values below the lower bound of the NDD.

  • extra-low voltageNATSPEC

    Not exceeding 50 V a.c. or 120 V ripple-free d.c.


  • fabric pestsNATSPEC

    Insects which have the ability to feed on keratin, a proteinaceous constituent of wool and other animal hair. This includes clothes moths, tapestry moths, carpet beetles and other insect species that can damage fabrics by chewing through.

  • faceworkNATSPEC

    Masonry intended to be exposed in a wall.

  • fastenersNATSPEC

    An alternative method to lacing wire used for binding operations.

  • fasteningsNATSPEC

    Clips and ties used to attach reinforcement mesh to fixings.

  • fault current limitersNATSPEC

    Circuit opening devices designed or selected to limit the instantaneous fault current.

  • FBS-1 (fibre-bio-soluble) mineral woolNATSPEC

    Insulation composed of bio-soluble glass or rock fibres.

  • featureNATSPEC

    The grade will determine the level of feature present. Natural characteristics of the wood including gum veins, past borer activity and knots present in the flooring.

  • fibre battsNATSPEC

    Flexible insulation supplied as factory cut pieces and composed of mineral wool (glass and rock fibre) or polyester fibre.

  • fibre blanketsNATSPEC

    Flexible insulation supplied as factory cut rolls and composed of mineral wool (glass and rock fibre) or polyester fibre, and may be combined with reflective facings.

  • fibre cement sheet liningsNATSPEC

    Treated cellulose fibre in a matrix of cement and sand autoclaved sheet, sealed on one side.

  • fibreglassNATSPEC

    Glass-fibre reinforced plastic (GRP).

  • fieldNATSPEC

    A data field is a place where data is stored. Commonly used to refer to a column in a database or a field in a data entry form or web form. It is generally the smallest component under which data is captured. This standard applies the concept of fields to the components of a name (property/file/view) which stores a specific piece of information.

  • fillingNATSPEC

    Treatment to enhance the surface appearance by:Flood filling: To fill the pores of open-grained timber or minor cracks in parquetry.Stopping: To fill punched nail head cavities.

  • filter layersAUS-SPEC

    Used to prevent the loss of permeability in drainage layers from clogging by fine soil particles infiltrating from the subgrade (underlying soil).

  • fine aggregateAUS-SPEC

    A general term for aggregate that substantially passes the 4.75 mm.

  • finish coat (rendering and plastering)NATSPEC

    The final coat of a coating system.

  • finishing treatment (plastering)NATSPEC

    The treatment applied to a finish coat which may include processes and results.

  • fire access routeAUS-SPEC

    A designated route established to separate bushfire hazard areas from developed areas and to provide access within and around the edge of the subdivision. It may be used during firefighting but may also be used for fire prevention.

  • fire access trackAUS-SPEC

    A track constructed and/or maintained expressly for fire management purposes.

  • fire breakAUS-SPEC

    A gap in vegetation or other combustible material (or fuel) that acts as a barrier to slow or stop the progress of a bushfire. A fire break may also serve as a public road.

  • fire hazard propertiesNATSPEC

    Terminology to BCA A5.5.

  • fire trailAUS-SPEC

    A trail constructed to ensure firefighters can access fires and safely contain them. They are also used to assist with management of bushfire risk across the landscape and for the protection of the community and its assets.

  • fire-resisting doorsetNATSPEC

    A doorset which retains its integrity, provides insulation and limits, if required, the transmittance of radiation in a fire.

  • first mode natural frequencyAUS-SPEC

    Frequency of free oscillation corresponding to the lowest harmonic of vibration of a structure.

  • first mode shapeAUS-SPEC

    Shape of a structure at its maximum amplitude under first mode natural vibration.

  • flakiness indexAUS-SPEC

    Is defined as the percentage by mass of stones in an aggregate having an ALD of less than 0.6 times their average dimension.

  • flakingNATSPEC

    The process of loosely folding a membrane back and forth upon itself in concertina-fashion to reduce stresses on the fibres of the membrane fabric by eliminating tight folds and creases.

  • flaky aggregateAUS-SPEC

    Is defined as an aggregate particle with a least dimension (thickness) less than 0.6 of the mean of the smallest sieve size through which the particle passes and the largest sieve size on which the particle is retained.

  • flexible guide postAUS-SPEC

    A guide post that when impacted by a vehicle, deflects and returns to the vertical position without maintenance intervention.

  • flexible pavementAUS-SPEC

    A pavement which obtains its load-spreading properties from intergranular pressure, mechanical interlock and cohesion between the particles of the pavement material.

  • flooring - continuously-supportedNATSPEC

    Flooring which is supported by, and directly fixed to, continuous structural supporting surfaces, including concrete slabs and sheet flooring subfloors.

  • flooring - engineeredNATSPEC

    Manufactured flooring with wearing and decorative surfaces of timber or plastic laminated to supporting layers of plywood or MDF usually with tongues and grooves along the lengths of the boards.

  • flooring - fittedNATSPEC

    Flooring fitted between the walls of each room i.e. not platform floors.

  • flooring - floatingNATSPEC

    Any manufactured flooring panel system not fixed to the subfloor.

  • flooring - hardNATSPEC

    Timber with a wearing surface not easily cut with an abrasive.

  • flooring - intermittently-supportedNATSPEC

    Flooring which is supported by, and spans across joists or battens.

  • flooring - mildNATSPEC

    Timber with a wearing surface easily cut with an abrasive.

  • flooring - sprung floorNATSPEC

    A floating floor engineered to absorb shocks, usually fixed on resilient pads.

  • flooring - strip flooringNATSPEC

    Flooring made from machined timber with tongues and grooves along the length of the strips.

  • flush door panelsNATSPEC

    Door panels with two plane faces which entirely cover and conceal its structure.

  • flush door panels with blockboard coreNATSPEC

    Door panels consisting of a core plate of timber strips laid edge to edge, and to which are bonded no less than two sheets of veneer on each face.

  • flux oilAUS-SPEC

    A petroleum distillate (e.g. diesel or similar) added to bitumen to produce a long-term reduction in viscosity.

  • foamed bitumenAUS-SPEC

    The mixing of atomised water with hot bitumen at 180 to 190⁰C with a foaming agent for use in stabilising granular materials.

  • footpath (pathway)AUS-SPEC

    A public way reserved for the movement of pedestrians, motorised wheelchairs and personal mobility devices.

  • force coefficientAUS-SPEC

    Coefficient that, when multiplied by the incident wind pressure and a reference area, gives the force in a specific direction.

  • formationAUS-SPEC

    The surface of the finished earthworks, excluding cut or fill batters.

  • formation drainsAUS-SPEC

    Drainage of seepage, springs and wet areas within and adjacent to the road formations.

  • formed and gravelAUS-SPEC

    This road is designed to the appropriate geometric design standards with the required drainage. A layer of imported granular material is compacted to the required thickness to support estimated traffic. Resheeting and patrol grading maintenance is required on a regular basis.

  • formed roadAUS-SPEC

    This road is designed to the geometric design standards with the required drainage. These are earth roads made up of local materials with no imported gravel requiring periodic resheeting maintenance. Will require patrol grading maintenance including heavy patching from time to time

  • formworkNATSPEC

    Formwork: The surface, supports and framing used to define the shape of concrete until it is all self-supporting. Formwork types include:Jump formwork: Incrementally moved formwork.Lost formwork: Sacrificial formwork left in place.Slip formwork: Continuously slipped or moving formwork.Table forms: Prefabricated and re-usable formwork systems for slabs and beams.

  • foundation levelNATSPEC

    The level at the underside of the 50 mm thick mass concrete blinding layer, below the reinforced concrete footing.

  • freestanding wallsAUS-SPEC

    Walls that are exposed to the wind on both sides, with no roof attached (e.g. fences).

  • fresh jointsAUS-SPEC

    A joint where the pavement material on both sides of the joint has been placed within 3 hours from the time of mixing the material placed before to one side of the joint.

  • frictional dragAUS-SPEC

    Wind force per unit area acting in a direction parallel to the surface in question.


  • gabionNATSPEC

    Double-twisted wire mesh container, uniformly partitioned into internal cells, interconnected with other units and filled with rocks to form flexible, permeable, monolithic structures. Gabions may be used for landscaping, erosion control, noise attenuation walls, retaining structures, and facing panels for reinforced soil structures.

  • gable roofAUS-SPEC

    Ridged roof with two sloping surfaces and vertical triangular end walls.

  • generic objectNATSPEC

    A generic representation of the common features and properties of a physical element, intended for use in the early stages of design or when the object is not resolved into a product.

  • geopolymer binderAUS-SPEC

    Polymeric binder formed by reacting alumina-silicate pre-cursers with alkaline activator(s).

  • geopolymer concreteAUS-SPEC

    Geopolymer binder aggregates, water and additives.

  • geotechnical site investigationNATSPEC

    The process of evaluating the geotechnical characteristics of the site in the context of existing or proposed construction.

  • geotextileNATSPEC

    A permeable synthetic fabric laid on soil, sand blinding, concrete or masonry substrates, serving to protect, separate, filter or drain.

  • geotextile filterAUS-SPEC

    A fabric manufactured from synthetic fibres of long chained polymer such as polypropylene, polyester or similar material and stabilised against deterioration by ultraviolet light. A geotextile filter can be either non-woven or knitted fabric.

  • geotextile reinforced sealAUS-SPEC

    An application of a bituminous binder into which both aggregate and geotextile are incorporated to provide a durable wearing surface. A layer of binder is applied first, followed by a layer of geotextile fabric, then a second coat of binder, followed by the aggregate.

  • give noticeNATSPEC

    Give notice, submit, advise, inform and similar expressions mean give notice (submit, advise, inform) in writing to the contract administrator. 

  • glass biteNATSPEC

    The depth of glass that is secured inside the frame assembly (rebate).

  • glossNATSPEC

    The optical property of a surface, characterised by its ability to reflect light specularly.

  • gloss unitNATSPEC

    Numerical value for the amount of specular reflection relative to that of a standard surface under the same geometric conditions.

  • gradientAUS-SPEC

    The longitudinal slope of a road or path, usually represented as a ratio of one metre rise to the horizontal distance (e.g. 1:50) or expressed as a percentage (e.g. 2%).

  • granolithic toppingNATSPEC

    A topping mix with the coarse aggregate restricted to between 2 and 3 mm.

  • granular materialNATSPEC

    Termite resistant particles tested to AS 3660.3 and placed to form a termite management system. This includes physical termite management system of mineral granules and chemical termite management systems made of impregnated materials.

  • granular materialsAUS-SPEC

    Granular materials with no significant capacity to resist tensile stresses.

  • grasscloth wallpapersNATSPEC

    Handcrafted natural fibre wallpaper made by gluing grasses or vines to a paper backing.

  • green concreteNATSPEC

    Concrete which has recently set but has not achieved any design strength.

  • guide postAUS-SPEC

    Post used to mark the edge of the road carriageway. They assist the road user by indicating the alignment of the road ahead, especially at horizontal and vertical curves, and in some cases, provide a gauge with which to assess available sight distance.


  • half-lifeAUS-SPEC

    The time taken for the volume of the foamed bitumen to settle to half of the maximum volume achieved.

  • hard-codedNATSPEC

    A field that is coded into a software user interface where the user has no ability to change the field name.

  • hardwareStandards

    To AS AS 4145.1 Section 2.

  • header unitNATSPEC

    Components which run perpendicular to the face of the wall, i.e. into the embankment.

  • healthcare facility representative (nominated in AS 2896)NATSPEC

    Nominated persons required to witness or undertake a test as prescribed in the SA Health Medical Gas System Policy Directive. The persons considered to be ‘healthcare facility representatives’ as nominated in AS 2896 are not clearly defined. The SA Health Medical Gas System Policy Directive provides direction on the persons required to fulfil the role of ‘healthcare facility representative’ for each medical gas and test.

  • heat exchanger efficiencyNATSPEC

    Has the same meaning as heat exchanger effectiveness.

  • heated waterNATSPEC

    Water that has been intentionally heated. It includes hot water, warm water and boiling water.


    High efficiency particulate air, using or containing a filter designed to remove 99.97% of airborne particles, measuring 0.3 μm or greater in diameter passing through it.

  • HF weldingNATSPEC

    The welding of polymer materials by heating them with high frequency electromagnetic waves.

  • high level interfaceNATSPEC

    Systems transfer information in a digital format using an open system interface.

  • high pressure decorative laminates (HPDL)NATSPEC

    Panels consisting of core layers impregnated with phenolic and/or aminoplastic resins and a surface layer(s) impregnated with aminoplastic resins (mainly melamine resins).Sheets consisting of a decorative face and layers of fibrous sheet material (e.g. paper) impregnated with thermosetting resins and bonded together under heat and pressure of at least 5 MPa.

  • high stress seal or reseal (HSS)AUS-SPEC

    A bituminous seal or reseal treatment which may be a single/single or double/double seal, but with a polymer modified binder (PMB) to improve seal performance in areas of high traffic loading and stress.

  • high voltageNATSPEC

    Exceeding low-voltage.

  • high-build low profile latex coatingNATSPEC

    A water based coating designed to be used over textured coatings to increase the exposure performance of the system.

  • hillAUS-SPEC

    Isolated three-dimensional topographic feature standing above the surrounding plains having slopes < 5%.

  • hip roofAUS-SPEC

    A roof with four sloping (pitched) surfaces, pyramidal in shape, and with level eaves all round. A hip roof on a rectangular plan has two triangular sloping roofs at the short sides (hip ends) and two trapezoidal sloping roofs at the long sides.

  • hoardingsAUS-SPEC

    Freestanding (rectangular) signboards, and the like, supported clear of the ground.

  • hold pointAUS-SPEC

    A mandatory verification position in the contract beyond which work cannot proceed without the designated authorisation.

  • hold pointNATSPEC

    The activity cannot proceed without the approval of the contract administrator. If applicable consider including this Optional text by changing to Normal style text. Hold point: Contract administrator intervention of this sort should be minimised, to avoid blurring of responsibilities, to increase precision in documentation, to expedite the works, to avoid an adversarial position and to accord with principles of quality assurance and risk allocation. In quality assurance terms, approval is a hold point rather than a witness point - too many approvals may bog the project down.

  • horizontal alignmentAUS-SPEC

    The bringing together of the straights and curves in the plan view of a carriageway. It is a series of tangents and curves that may or may not be connected by transition curves.

  • hot-dip galvanizedNATSPEC

    Zinc coated to AS/NZS 4680 after fabrication with coating thickness and mass to AS/NZS 4680 Table 1.This applies to galvanizing after fabrication. Galvanized sheet metal and similar materials are covered by 0183 Metals and prefinishes.

  • house signageNATSPEC

    Internal and external project specific signs.


  • if requiredNATSPEC

    A conditional specification term for work which may be shown in the documents or is a legislative requirement.


    Industrial Foundation Classes (ISO 16739). An open file format developed and maintained by buildingSMART for the exchange of information enhanced models.

  • illuminated signsNATSPEC

    Signs consisting of cabinets enclosing a light source, illuminating translucent face panels bearing the specified signage.

  • impact soundNATSPEC

    Sound caused by impacts on building structure. Typical sources include footsteps, dropped objects on horizontal surfaces and the slamming of doors.

  • imported topsoilNATSPEC

    Similar to local natural soil, suitable for the establishment and ongoing viability of the selected vegetation, free of weed propagules and of contaminants, and classified by texture to AS 4419 Appendix K Table K1, as follows:Fine: Clay loam, fine sandy clay loam, sandy clay loam, silty loam, loam.Medium: Sandy loam, fine sandy loam.Coarse: Sand, loamy sand.

  • imposed actionAUS-SPEC

    A variable action resulting from the intended use or occupancy of the structure.

  • inadequate foundation materialAUS-SPEC

    Material beneath or adjacent to the proposed drainage structures with insufficient strength to support the structure and loads on the structure, or material with characteristics that would adversely affect the performance or construction of the drainage structure.

  • incandescent lampNATSPEC

    Lamps covered in AS 4934.2 including both tungsten filament and tungsten halogen types.

  • incoming busbarsNATSPEC

    Busbars connecting incoming terminals to line side terminals of main switches.

  • ingress protectionNATSPEC

    IP, IP code, IP rating and similar expression have the same meaning as IP Code in AS 60529.

  • initial sealAUS-SPEC

    An application of a sprayed seal to a prepared basecourse which has not been primed. It is intended to adhere to the base, whilst providing a temporary wearing course for traffic.

  • initial sealAUS-SPEC

    An application of a primerbinder with a cover aggregate to a prepared base. 

  • initial treatmentAUS-SPEC

    An application of a primer to a prepared base, without cover aggregate, to provide penetration of the surface, temporary waterproofing and to obtain a bond between the pavement and the subsequent seal or asphalt. It is a preliminary treatment to a more permanent bituminous surfacing.

  • initial treatmentNATSPEC

    An application of a prime (prime coat) or initial seal to a prepared basecourse.

  • insertion pointNATSPEC

    The point on an object used to place it into a model.

  • inspection and test planAUS-SPEC

    The document identifying the required inspections and tests of the works. It includes verification check points designated as Hold point, Witness point and Review point.

  • inspection and test plans (ITP)NATSPEC

    A series of formal inspection and test plans, prepared by the coating contractor to reflect the specific inspection and testing that will be carried out on the surface preparation, coating application and the record keeping tasks to be undertaken.

  • instructionNATSPEC

    A document that specifies the key steps and sequence in the manufacture/construction for an activity and what materials and equipment will be used to achieve the required standard.

  • integrated management manualNATSPEC

    A document setting out the general policies, procedures and practices of an organisation.

  • integrated management systemNATSPEC

    The organisational structure, responsibilities, procedures, processes and resources to make sure that the product or service meets requirements.

  • integrated systems testsNATSPEC

    Tests conducted on the project as a complete, integrated system to verify successful integration, interaction, and operation of all interrelated systems to the project requirements.

  • intermediate postsAUS-SPEC

    Fence posts positioned at regular, equally spaced intervals between corner and/or end posts, to provide support for the fencing material.

  • investigative inspectionNATSPEC

    Any method of root inspection that involves the washing away of all or portions of the soil from the rootball to expose a section or all the roots.


  • jointsNATSPEC


  • kerbs and channels (gutters)AUS-SPEC

    Includes all forms of concrete channels (gutters), dish drains and mountable median and barrier kerbing.

  • known historyNATSPEC

    Supplier documentation, demonstrating and enabling verification that the product was grown by essentially the same processes and under essentially the same system of control.

  • kvsNATSPEC

    The flow rate of water in m3/h through a fully open control valve that creates a pressure drop of 1 bar across the valve.


  • lacing wireNATSPEC

    Wire used to assemble and interconnect empty units to close and secure rock-filled units or used as internal stiffeners.

  • lag distanceAUS-SPEC

    Horizontal distance downwind, required for the effects of a change in terrain roughness on wind speed to reach the height being investigated.

  • landformAUS-SPEC

    The type and shape of terrain, usually including topography, geological characteristics, coastlines, rivers and water bodies.

  • large culvert unitAUS-SPEC

    Culvert unit with a span exceeding 1200 mm up to 4200 mm and a height from 1200 mm up to 4200 mm.

  • large treeNATSPEC

    A tree grown in a container not less than 20 L or ex-ground with a minimum rootball diameter of 400 mm.

  • latex extensible wall coating (or membrane coating)NATSPEC

    A non-aggregate flexible watertight finish.

  • lattice towersAUS-SPEC

    Three-dimensional frameworks comprising three or more linear boundary members interconnected by linear bracing members joined at common points (nodes), enclosing an open area through which the wind may pass.

  • layNATSPEC

    The manner, direction and pitch in which the strands are laid around the centre of a rope, or in which the wires are laid around the central strand. Construction of steel rope is designated by two numbers. The first indicates the number of strands that make up the rope, the second number describes the number of wires that make up each strand.

  • layered objectsNATSPEC

    An object typically constructed from one or more layers of materials to form a building system. Typically these are "system" objects, provided by the BIM authoring system without fixed geometry, where the user can modify the layers and thickness but the geometry is created on placement in the model.

  • legibility distanceAUS-SPEC

    The maximum distance that the various types of traffic control signs or devices can clearly be seen under normal operating conditions and where there is no restriction to the line of sight.

  • level of serviceAUS-SPEC

    A qualitative measure describing operational conditions within a traffic stream such as speed and travel time, freedom to manoeuvre, traffic interruptions, comfort, convenience and safety and their perception by motorists and/or passengers.

  • levels of gloss finishNATSPEC

    When the specular direction is 60 degrees, surfaces with the following specular gloss reading is defined as follows:Full gloss: Over 85 gloss units.Gloss: Over 50 and up to 85 gloss units.Semi-gloss (satin): Over 20 and up to 50 gloss units.Low gloss (low sheen): Over 5 and up to 20 gloss units.Flat finish (matt): Up to 5 gloss units.

  • libraryNATSPEC

    A collection of reusable BIM objects stored as separate files that are used to facilitate the use of standardised designed or manufactured elements and objects over a project or series of projects.

  • light dutyNATSPEC

    Gross vehicle mass < 10 t.

  • limit statesAUS-SPEC

    States beyond which the structure no longer satisfies the design criteria.NOTE: Limit states separate desired states (compliance) from undesired states (non-compliance).

  • limit states, serviceabilityAUS-SPEC

    States that correspond to conditions beyond which specified service criteria for a structure or structural element are no longer met.NOTE:  The  criteria  are  based  on  the  intended  use  and  may  include  limits  on  deformation, vibratory response, degradation or other physical aspects.

  • limit states, ultimateAUS-SPEC

    States associated with collapse, or with other similar forms of structural failure.NOTE: This generally corresponds to the maximum load-carrying resistance of a structure or structural element but, in some cases, to the maximum applicable strain or deformation.

  • lining paper (wall liner)NATSPEC

    A thick, plain wallcovering, available in a variety of weights, installed under the decorative wallpaper as a preparatory or foundation layer to smooth out rough, damaged or textured walls.

  • lippageNATSPEC

    Height deviation between adjacent units.

  • liquid appliedNATSPEC

    A water-based formulation which cures to form an elastomeric membrane. Urethane modified acrylics have better resistance to ponding. Products include acrylics, modified polyurethanes (water-based), polyurea and modified cementitious systems.

  • loadAUS-SPEC

    A single truckload of concrete comprising one or more batches.

  • load bearing construction (straw bale)NATSPEC

    Also known as Nebraska style where straw bale walls support the load from the roof and upper floor(s) without a structural frame.

  • local authority (local council)NATSPEC

    A body established for the purposes of local government by or under a law applying in a state or territory.

  • locally sourcedNATSPEC

    Stock procured from district sources that is best suited to climatic, soil and environmental conditions in the immediate area of site.

  • longitudinal linemarkingAUS-SPEC

    All lines that are generally parallel to the traffic flow, such as centre, lane, edge, turn, continuity and transition lines and outline markings.

  • longitudinal seamNATSPEC

    A joint or seam in the direction of airflow.

  • lotNATSPEC

    Any part of the works that has been constructed/manufactured under a continuous operation of uniform conditions and is homogeneous with respect to material quality and general appearance.

  • lotAUS-SPEC

    Any part of the works that has been constructed/manufactured under a continuous operation of uniform conditions and is homogeneous with respect to material quality and general appearance.

  • lot-packageAUS-SPEC

    One or more work lots of the same work kind collated under the same inspection and test plan.

  • louvres - continuousNATSPEC

    Louvres that run continuously past, and are supported by, concealed framing or brackets.

  • louvres - horizontalNATSPEC

    Louvres that span horizontally between frame stiles, mullions or vertical supports.

  • louvres - verticalNATSPEC

    Louvres that span vertically between frame heads and sills, or horizontal supports.

  • low gradient flow diversion (drainage) techniqueAUS-SPEC

    A flow diversion drain, channel or bank with a gradient sufficiently low to maintain subcritical flow along its length.

  • low level interfaceNATSPEC

    Systems transfer information via terminals and voltage free contacts.

  • low voltageNATSPEC

    Exceeding extra-low voltage, but not exceeding 1000 V a.c. or 1500 V d.c.


  • main circuit supply busbarsNATSPEC

    Busbars connecting incoming functional unit terminals, or incoming busbars where no main switches are included, to outgoing functional unit terminals or outgoing functional unit tee-offs.

  • maintenanceNATSPEC

    Work that is carried out to preserve an asset, to allow for its continued use and function over its designed service life.Corrective maintenance: Maintenance initiated as a result of plant, equipment, systems, elements, before or after functional failure. This work can be planned or unplanned and includes repairs and replacement.Preventive maintenance: Planned maintenance of plant, equipment and other systems or elements, including cyclical maintenance, fire safety measures and statutory requirements.

  • major systemAUS-SPEC

    The network of planned and unplanned drainage routes providing safe, well-defined overland flow paths for rare and extreme storm runoff events. It includes roads, natural channels, streams, culverts, community retention/detention basins and other facilities.

  • mandrelAUS-SPEC

    A short length of smooth pipe of internal diameter 20 mm - 30 mm greater than the external diameter of the slotted pipe being enclosed by filter fabric.

  • manufacturers’ and suppliers’ recommendationsNATSPEC

    Recommendations, instructions, requirements, specifications (and similar expressions) provided in written or other form by the manufacturer relating to the suitability, use, installation, storage and/or handing of a product.

  • manufacturer’s recommendationsNATSPEC

    Recommendations, instructions, requirements, specifications (and similar expressions) provided in written or other form by the manufacturer and/or supplier relating to the suitability, use, installation, storage and/or handling of a product.

  • masonryNATSPEC

    A preformed component, intended for use in masonry construction, either with or without mortar joints.

  • match (pattern match)NATSPEC

    The point where the design matches at the seams.

  • material design / formulationAUS-SPEC

    A statement outlining the specific material critical components which forms the basis for QA testing and verification, including any on site dilution or manufacturer recommendations as to use and handling of the product prior to application.

  • matv (Master Antenna Television)NATSPEC

    System that primarily provides access to terrestrial television signals but may also carry radio services. Terrestrial signals may be distributed at their original frequency or shifted to a more convenient frequency. In-house services may also be provided by modulating base band signals from an appropriate source.

  • medical breathing airNATSPEC

    For the purposes of this worksection medical breathing air and medical air have the same meaning.

  • membraneNATSPEC

    A thin and flexible sheet of fabric material.

  • membrane linerNATSPEC

    The waterproof barrier between the water and the substrate and as follows:Seamless membrane liners: Low VOC emitting, single component, self curing liquid polymers applied directly to concrete or masonry substrates as a seamless film.Sheet membrane liners: Ultra-violet resistant, flexible sheet membranes installed on concrete, masonry or stable soil substrates and with seams lapped and sealed.

  • membrane plateNATSPEC

    A metal plate that clamps the corner of a membrane to its support structure, or a pair of plates that clamp a membrane corner between them and are then attached by a hinged fitting to the support structure.

  • membranes (waterproof)NATSPEC

    Impervious barriers to liquid water which may be:Installed below floor finishes.Installed behind the wall sheeting or render and termed External.Installed to the face of the wall sheeting or render and termed Internal.Applied in liquid or gel form and air cured to form a seamless film.Applied in sheet form with joints lapped and sealed.

  • metadataNATSPEC

    The term for the collection of properties, names, or data associated with an object, element or file. (Can also be known as Attributes, Parameters and Properties).

  • metal faced boardNATSPEC

    Sheet metal (usually stainless steel) adhesive fixed to moisture resistant particleboard.

  • metal oxide varistorsNATSPEC

    Semiconductors that protect electronic components and systems from transient voltage.

  • metallic-coatedNATSPEC

    Steel coated with zinc or aluminium-zinc alloy as follows:Metallic-coated steel sheet: To AS 1397. Metal thicknesses specified are base metal thicknesses.Ferrous open sections zinc coated by an in-line process: To AS/NZS 4791.Ferrous hollow sections zinc coated by a continuous or specialised process: To AS/NZS 4792.AS 1397 covers a wide range of finishes, coating grades and materials. It is used throughout the building industry for cold-formed sections such as studs, ceiling sections and roofing products. Specifications to AS 1397 should preferably include the base metal thickness and coating designations e.g. 1.6 mm galvanized grade G2 steel with Z275 coating.AS/NZS 4791 and AS/NZS 4792 exclude electrogalvanized (zinc plated) steel.

  • microsurfacingAUS-SPEC

    A bituminous slurry surfacing that contains polymer modified emulsion binder, which is capable of being spread in layers with variable thickness for rut-filling and correction courses, and for wearing course applications requiring good surface texture. Microsurfacing is cured using a chemically controlled curing process.

  • mineral fillerAUS-SPEC

    A fine material, the majority of which passes a 75 µm sieve, derived from aggregate or other similar granular material.

  • minimum gap sight distanceAUS-SPEC

    Critical acceptance gap that drivers are prepared to accept when undertaking a crossing or turning manoeuvre at intersections.

  • minor roadAUS-SPEC

    All roads which become part of the public road system and are supplementary to arterial and sub-arterial roads. Minor roads may include local sub-arterial roads, collector roads, local roads, and access streets. The terminology of road hierarchy may be different in different states. Refer to the relevant State Road Authorities for more information https://www.australia.gov.au/information-and-services/transport-and-regional/roads-and-road-transport/authorities

  • minor systemAUS-SPEC

    The gutter and pipe network capable of carrying and controlling flows from frequent runoff events. It includes kerb and channels, inlet structures, open drains and underground pipes and on-site detention facilities.

  • mixAUS-SPEC

    The proportions of component materials in a quantity of concrete.

  • mixAUS-SPEC

    The proportions of component materials in a quantity of slurry seal or microsurfacing treatment mixture.Mix design: The designed proportion of component materials comprising the surfacing treatment mixture.Production mix: Mix produced in the plant and delivered to the site in a workable condition suitable for stockpiling, spreading and compaction.

  • mix designAUS-SPEC

    The designed portion of constituent materials comprising the type and source of components, target grading, binder content and volumetric properties of the mix.

  • mobile shelvingNATSPEC

    Also referred to as compactus shelving.

  • mobile workAUS-SPEC

    Work that entails vehicles moving progressively along the roadway at speeds significantly lower than other traffic, with all traffic control devices being either vehicle mounted or regularly moved along the road.

  • modified granular materialAUS-SPEC

    Granular materials to which small amounts of stabilising agent have been added to improve their performance without causing a significant increase in structural stiffness.

  • modified materialAUS-SPEC

    Granular materials to which small amounts of stabilising agent have been added to improve their performance (e.g. adjusting plasticity) without causing a significant increase in structural stiffness.

  • moisture content (timber)NATSPEC

    The percentage by mass of water present in the timber.

  • moment-resisting frame, specialAUS-SPEC

    Concrete or steel moment-resisting frame designed and detailed to achieve high structural ductility and where plastic deformation is planned under ultimate actions (see Table 6.2).


  • net continuous rated output (or prime rating)NATSPEC

    Net continuous electrical output available at alternator terminals, not including the electrical power consumed by the generating set's dependent and essential auxiliaries.

  • net short-time rated output (or stand-by rating)NATSPEC

    Net electrical output available from the generating set for 1 hour in every 12 hours at net continuous rated output, not including electrical power consumed by the generating set's dependent and essential auxiliaries.

  • networkAUS-SPEC

    Defined as:A connected system of roads and infrastructure that heavy vehicles can travel on. Can be restricted to a certain class(es) of heavy vehicles (NHVR).Set of roads which provide a means of road based travel within a region. In transport terms it is defined in terms of links and nodes.

  • Network Utility OperatorNATSPEC

    The entity undertaking the piped distribution of drinking water or natural gas for supply or is the operator of a sewerage system or external stormwater drainage system. This definition is based on the wording in the Plumbing Code of Australia (PCA) but expanded to include natural gas. The Network Utility Operator is also commonly known by names like the supply authority, water board, etc. See also Utility service provider.

  • new pavementAUS-SPEC

    A combination of a base and surface course placed on a subgrade to support the traffic load and distribute it to the road bed for flexible pavements or rigid pavements.

  • no fines concreteAUS-SPEC

    Material consisting graded coarse aggregate, typically to a single AS sieve size, bound together by a mixture of cement and water to supply sufficient strength. The result is an open textured cellular concrete with many voids and increased permeability. No fines concrete is only used under trafficked areas.

  • nominal sizeAUS-SPEC

    A size designation of an aggregate which gives an indication of the largest particle size present.

  • nominated mixAUS-SPEC

    The designed mix submitted for approval.

  • non-aggregate textured latex coatingNATSPEC

    A latex coating selected for aesthetic purposes to provide decorative profiles according to the application technique used.

  • non-conformanceAUS-SPEC

    The non-fulfilment of documented requirements.

  • non-conformance reportNATSPEC

    A mandatory (standard format) submission by the contractor that details the non-conforming work and the contractor’s proposed disposition of the non-conformance.

  • non-gating terminalAUS-SPEC

    A road safety barrier terminal designed to allow an impacting vehicle to pass through the terminal and so compromise the safety barrier.

  • non-load bearing construction (straw bale)NATSPEC

    Straw bale walls supporting only their own weight, such as in infill panels, within some type of framed structure.

  • non-rigid road safety barrier systemAUS-SPEC

    A flexible barrier system where the barrier elements under an impact provide substantial movement, deformation and deflection.

  • normal design domain (NDD)AUS-SPEC

    The design domain for a new road that defines the normal limits for the values of parameters that have traditionally been selected for new roads.

  • notice of non-conformanceNATSPEC

    Formal instruction to the contractor of product non-conformance to documented requirements. It automatically creates a Hold Point and requires a non-conformance report (NCR) from the contractor.


    A measure of water turbidity or the optical clarity of a liquid.


  • obtainNATSPEC

    Obtain, seek and similar expressions mean obtain (seek) in writing from the contract administrator.

  • on-site plant materialNATSPEC

    Plant material growing in natural ground conditions.

  • opacityNATSPEC

    The ability of a paint or textured and membrane coating to obliterate the colour difference of a substrate.

  • open drainsAUS-SPEC

    All drains other than pipe and box culverts and include catch drains, channels (gutters) and kerbs and channels (gutters).

  • open systemNATSPEC

    A water distribution or circulation system that is not a closed system.

  • organic wasteNATSPEC

    Includes all food wastes, vegetative wastes from land clearing and pruning operations, biosolids produced from the treatment of liquid wastes, garden wastes and forestry waste (bark and saw dust) and paper and cardboard products.

  • origin pointNATSPEC

    A fixed point of reference for the geometry of the surround space defined as X, Y, and Z. Objects have an origin point that all other points in the object reference. A model has an origin point and objects placed in the model reference this.

  • other markingsAUS-SPEC

    All diagonal and chevron markings on the pavement including symbols, words, numerals and arrows, kerb markings and markings for parking.

  • outer separatorAUS-SPEC

    The portion of the road reserve separating a through carriageway from a service road.

  • overlay zoneAUS-SPEC

    The part of the trench backfill immediately over the utility service, for a maximum of 300 mm.

  • ownerNATSPEC

    Has the same meaning as principal.

  • oxidation of bitumenAUS-SPEC

    A binder which becomes hard and brittle as a result of chemical attack by oxygen in the presence of heat and sunlight.


  • packaged air conditioningNATSPEC

    DX one-piece package or split system with total cooling capacity tested to AS/NZS 3823.1.1 or AS/NZS 3823.1.2, standard test condition T1:Room air conditioner: < 8 kWr.Packaged air conditioner: ≥ 8 kWr.

  • packaged air handling unitNATSPEC

    A proprietary AHU manufactured off site, factory assembled and type-tested.

  • paintAUS-SPEC

    In this worksection implies pavement marking paint.

  • paint or coating systemNATSPEC

    A product in liquid form, which when applied to a surface, forms a dry film having protective, decorative or other specific technical properties.

  • parametricNATSPEC

    The use of pre-programmed rules or algorithms to provide the user with the ability to change or configure objects during modelling.

  • parquetNATSPEC

    Timber mosaic parquet panels or wood block parquet bonded to a subfloor either directly or over an underlay, as follows:Mosaic parquet panels: Pre-assembled timber finger modules held together to form tiles or panels.Wood block parquet: Rectangular blocks of timber with length a multiple of width (e.g. 260 x 65 mm) laid individually to produce a pattern.

  • partial inspection (of trees)NATSPEC

    A method of exposing a section of a root system to enable inspection of root development by washing the soil away in a wedge-shaped section from the stem to the extremity of the rootball. This soil can be gently replaced so the tree is not damaged.

  • particleboardNATSPEC

    Panel material manufactured under pressure and heat from particles of wood (wood flakes, chips, shavings, sawdust and similar) and/or lignocellulosic material in particle form (flax shives, hemp hurds, bagasse fragments, rice hulls, wheat straw and similar) with the addition of an adhesive.

  • partition - fully demountableNATSPEC

    A partition system in which any component may be demounted without damage, using only small hand tools, and subsequently reassembled without cutting, trimming or refinishing.

  • partition - glazedNATSPEC

    A partition system consisting of a suite of exposed sections forming door and window frames, ceiling channels, sills, glazing and accessories; and generally intended for use in conjunction with framed and lined partition systems.

  • partition - semi demountableNATSPEC

    A partition system in which the major components are designed to be removed and reused but panels or linings, which are likely to be damage during removal, are not.

  • paste the wall (non-woven)NATSPEC

    Papers installed by applying paste to the wall rather than the paper. The paper can be removed in one piece.

  • patch fixed glazingNATSPEC

    Glass panels supported by mechanical fixing to glass edges.Support provided by use of pressure plates clamped to glass without drilling holes.

  • pathwayAUS-SPEC

    See footpath.

  • pavementAUS-SPEC

    The portion of a carriageway placed above the subgrade for the support of, and to form a running surface for, vehicular traffic including subbase and base course.

  • pavement interface drainsAUS-SPEC

    Drain the interface between pavements with different structures and may be oriented transversely or longitudinally.

  • pavement markingAUS-SPEC

    All longitudinal linemarking, transverse lines, raised pavement markers and other markings placed on the road to control traffic movement or parking.

  • paversNATSPEC

    Units made from concrete, clay, stone and/or other inorganic raw materials, generally over 20 mm thick, used as coverings for horizontal surfaces. Larger pavers over 0.08 m2 in size are often referred to as flags.

  • paving unitAUS-SPEC

    A purpose-built continuous flow mixing unit capable of accurately metering each individual component material into a mixer which thoroughly blends these materials to form a homogeneous mixture and transfers the mix into a spreader box for application to the pavement surface.

  • pedestalNATSPEC

    The structure directly supporting the pavers, including head, base, column, any adjustment and any locking devices.

  • performance audit (Process audit, technical procedure audit, methods audit)NATSPEC

    An evaluation of whether nominated methods and procedures are being adhered to in practice.

  • perimeter roadsAUS-SPEC

    Part of the asset protection zone. They provide a separation between the building and the bushfire hazard by acting as a wide, permanent and low maintenance fire break.

  • periodic maintenanceNATSPEC

    Planned routine maintenance of plant and equipment (proactive), including fire safety measures and statutory requirements.

  • permanent actionAUS-SPEC

    Action that is likely to act continuously and for which variations in magnitude with tiem are small compared with the mean value.

  • permanent control measuresAUS-SPEC

    Measures/works implemented to control run-off water quality beyond the construction and maintenance stages.

  • permanent marksNATSPEC

    Survey control marks that are permanent by nature and are uniquely defined in the state control survey. Also known as State survey marks (SSM) or Bench marks (BM).

  • permeable baseAUS-SPEC

    A free-draining bound layer, capable of draining both surface water and preventing water accumulation from the subgrade below. The flow of water through this layer is retarded only by the cross slope and any obstructions.

  • permeable paversAUS-SPEC

    Segmental paving units designed and manufactured for PICP, to permit rapid infiltration of rainfall.

  • pervious pipe systemAUS-SPEC

    Comprises drainage pipes perforated, slotted, porous pipes, or impervious pipes laid with open joints.

  • phreatic line or water tableAUS-SPEC

    The top flow line of a saturated soil mass below which seepage takes place, is called the Phreatic line. Hydrostatic pressure acts below the phreatic line whereas atmospheric pressure exists above the phreatic line. This line separates a saturated soil mass from an unsaturated soil mass. It is not an equipotential line, but a flow line.

  • pipeNATSPEC

    Includes pipe and tube.

  • pipe surroundNATSPEC

    Includes pipe overlay, pipe side support, side zone and haunch zone.

  • plan areaAUS-SPEC

    The Works area.

  • plan transitionAUS-SPEC

    The length over which widening and shift is developed from the ‘tangent-spiral’ point to the ‘spiral-curve’ point; i.e. the length between the tangent and the curve.

  • plant establishment periodNATSPEC

    The period between the date of practical completion and the end of the defects liability period.

  • plasterNATSPEC

    A mixture of binders, aggregate and water which is applied to substrates in a plastic state and dries and cures to a hard surface which may subsequently be decorated:Cement plaster: Contains Portland cement as the principal binder.Gypsum plaster: Contains hydrated or anhydrous calcium sulfate as the principal binder.

  • plasteringNATSPEC

    The process of coating the framing or solid surfaces of a building with a plastic material which hardens and then may be decorated or remain self-finished.

  • plastering systemNATSPEC

    One or more coats of plaster and associated treatments comprising some or all of the following in sequence:Base coat 1 or 2.Bonding treatment.Finish coat.Finishing treatment.

  • platform flooringNATSPEC

    Flooring laid over the whole of the joisted floor structure prior to the erection of external and internal wall frames.

  • plenum boxNATSPEC

    A lower velocity (larger volume) duct element behind an air grille intended to allow equalisation of air flow over the air grille.

  • pliable building membraneNATSPEC

    To AS/NZS 4200.1 and equivalent to sarking-type materials as defined in the NCC.

  • point fixed glazingNATSPEC

    Glass panels supported by mechanical fixing through the glass.Support provided by use of mechanical fittings fixed though holes in the glass. These may include spider fittings fixed to a structural substrate or frame.

  • pollution incidentNATSPEC

    An incident or set of circumstances during or as a consequence of which there is, or is likely to be, a leak, spill or other escape of a substance as a result of which pollution has occurred, is occurring or is likely to occur.

  • polymer modified binder (PMB)AUS-SPEC

    Materials added to microsurfacing materials to provide enhanced performance for strength and flexibility properties of the final delivered surfacing. These materials may be such materials as fibres or emerging technologies, and their use and inclusion should be substantiated by laboratory testing for the desired attributes.

  • Polymer modified emulsion (PME)AUS-SPEC

    A bitumen emulsion containing a polymer modifier to assist in the development of early aggregate retention and enhanced performance during service. The polymer modifier may be added prior to, during or post emulsion manufacture to achieve specific performance attributes.

  • PolyureaNATSPEC

    Two component, rapid curing liquid elastomeric membrane applied with specialised equipment.

  • polyurethaneNATSPEC

    Water or solvent based formulations which moisture cure to form an elastic rubber membrane. They can be made more cheaply with bitumen at the expense of long-term properties. 

  • portable operator's terminalNATSPEC

    A device that is portable, not permanently connected and used for human communication with the system.

  • post extensionAUS-SPEC

    An extension of the fence post above the normal height of chain-link fabric, which may be angled or vertical, to which barbed wire may be attached.

  • powder coatingNATSPEC

    The process of preparing, applying, fusing and curing a thermoset powder coating material to a substrate:Thermoset powder coating: A mixture of finely ground particles of pigment and resin sprayed on to a prepared substrate. Charged powder particles adhere to electrically grounded surfaces until heated and fused into a smooth coating in a curing oven.Polyester powder coating: Uses an enhanced polyester resin.Fluoropolymer powder coating: Uses PTFE (poly tetra fluoro ethylene) for aluminium substrates.

  • pozzolanAUS-SPEC

    A siliceous or alumino siliceous material, which in itself possesses little or no cementitious value but which in finely divided form may be mixed with lime or Portland cement to form a cementitious material.

  • practical completion or defects free completionNATSPEC

    The requirements for these stages of completion are defined in the relevant building contract for the project.

  • pre-commissioningAUS-SPEC

    Preparation of plant or equipment so that it is in a safe and proper condition and ready for commissioning and operation. It includes all aspects of plant operation such as safety, electrical, mechanical and instrumentation and testing of components.

  • pre-insulated rigid ductworkNATSPEC

    (Also referred to as composite board ductwork.) Rigid ductwork fabricated from panels consisting of an insulating core faced on each side with metal.

  • precast concreteNATSPEC

    Concrete building elements, cast in moulds and cured away from the final structural position, and then transported, lifted and fixed into position.

  • prefabricated geocomposite drainAUS-SPEC

    A proprietary product typically consisting of a plastic core wrapped in geotextile material, functioning as a single or second stage filter. Also termed as geocomposite edge drain and strip filter drain. These drains can be installed in narrower trenches than traditional pipe drains.

  • prefilled gabionNATSPEC

    A gabion assembled and filled, then lifted and transported before installation.

  • preformed shower baseNATSPEC

    A preformed, prefinished vessel (including integral upstands) installed as the finished floor of a shower compartment, and provided with a connection point to a sanitary drainage system.

  • primary treatment SQIDAUS-SPEC

    Removal of the majority of gross pollutants and coarse-medium grained sediments by screening or sedimentation, e.g. GPT’s, trash racks, sediment trap.

  • primerAUS-SPEC

    A bituminous material of low viscosity and low surface tension used in priming.

  • primerNATSPEC

    An oil alkyd or acrylic based coating used to improve bonding of wallcoverings to hard, glossy, slick, slippery or non-porous surfaces.

  • primer, prime coatNATSPEC

    The first coat of a painting system that helps bind subsequent coats to the substrate and which may inhibit its deterioration.

  • primer/sealerNATSPEC

    An oil alkyd or acrylic based coating which combines the functions of a sealer and a primer.

  • primerbinderAUS-SPEC

    A material, more viscous than a primer, and required to act both as a primer and binder, and used in initial sealing.

  • principalAUS-SPEC

    The asset owner. Does not include agents such as the Superintendent or Independent certifier.

  • principalNATSPEC

    Principal has the same meaning as owner, client and proprietor and is the party to whom the contractor is legally bound to construct the works.

  • product audit (Conformance audit, Service audit)NATSPEC

    An assessment of the conformity of the product with the specified technical requirements.

  • production assessmentNATSPEC

    An assessment procedure for concrete defined by strength grade, carried out by the supplier and based on the statistical assessment of standard compressive strength tests on concrete, specified by compressive strength and produced by a specific supplying plant.

  • production filter mixAUS-SPEC

    A mix produced by a supplier using a stationary screening plant to meet the documented filter requirements.

  • production mixAUS-SPEC

    Mix produced in the plant and delivered to the site in a workable condition suitable for stockpiling, spreading and compaction.

  • professional engineerNATSPEC

    As defined by the NCC.In some states and territories, additional or alternative criteria may apply e.g. Registered Professional Engineer, Queensland (RPEQ).

  • professional engineerAUS-SPEC

    A person who is:If legislation is applicable: A registered professional engineer in the relevant discipline who has appropriate experience and competence in the relevant field.If legislation is not applicable: Registered in relevant discipline on the National Engineering Register (NER), a corporate member of Engineers Australia or eligible to become a corporate member registered on (NER), and has appropriate experience and competence in the relevant field. In some states and territories, additional or alternative criteria may apply e.g. Registered Professional Engineer Queensland (RPEQ).

  • progressive inspectionsNATSPEC

    Inspections that are required progressively on a component during the course of the project.

  • project assessmentNATSPEC

    An assessment procedure for concrete defined by strength grade, specified at the customer’s option, which provides additional test data for the statistical assessment of concrete supplied to a specific project.

  • proof testingAUS-SPEC

    Application of test loads to a structure, sub-structure, member or connection, to ascertain the structural characteristics of that one item under test.

  • propertyNATSPEC

    A characteristic, feature or measurable factor associated with an object that can help define the object (or system). (Can also be known as Attribute, Parameter or Metadata).

  • property accessAUS-SPEC

    Access from a public road system to private land and habitable buildings for firefighting.

  • property setNATSPEC

    A grouping of properties that belong together based on some principle, e.g. viewpoint, lifecycle stage. (ISO 15686-4)

  • proprietaryNATSPEC

    Identifiable by naming the manufacturer, supplier, installer, trade name, brand name, catalogue or reference number.

  • proprietary assembliesNATSPEC

    Low voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies available as a catalogue item, consisting of the manufacturer's standard layout and equipment. Minor modifications are permissible to accommodate equipment and accessories, whilst retaining standard format.

  • proprietary luminairesNATSPEC

    Luminaires available as a catalogue item.

  • proprietary objectNATSPEC

    A representation of the common features and properties of an obtainable product.

  • protected speciesAUS-SPEC

    Plants identified by Council or other relevant authorities as protected species.

  • protective underlay and overlayNATSPEC

    A layer of puncture resistant geotextile.

  • prototypeNATSPEC

    A full size mock-up of components, systems or elements to demonstrate or test construction methods, junctions and finishes, and to define the level of quality.

  • prototype testingAUS-SPEC

    Application of test loads to one or more samples of structures, sub-structures, members or connections to ascertain the structural characteristics of the population that the sample represents.

  • provideNATSPEC

    Provide and similar expressions mean supply and install and include development of the design beyond that documented.

  • public roadsAUS-SPEC

    Includes the perimeter road and internal road system of any urban or rural subdivision.

  • PVC membraneNATSPEC

    Flexible plastic sheet membrane (vinyl).


  • qualified registered surveyorAUS-SPEC

    A surveyor who is eligible for membership of the Surveying and Spatial Sciences Institute as a registered surveyor.

  • quality assurance (QA)AUS-SPEC

    The systematic action necessary to give confidence of satisfactory quality. An element of QA is quality control.

  • quality assurance representativeAUS-SPEC

    Appointed by the principal for a specific project and responsible for the auditing, review and surveillance of procedures and documentation required by the contractor’s approved Quality plan.

  • quality checklistsAUS-SPEC

    Forms completed during the manufacture/construction process verifying key steps, and records required for the Quality register. Checklists apply to each identified lot of work.

  • quality design checklistsAUS-SPEC

    Forms completed during the design process verifying key steps, and records.

  • quality management representative (QMR)AUS-SPEC

    Also known as Project quality representative, appointed by the contractor for a specific project with the authority and responsibility for the implementation and operation of the Quality plan, so that QMS requirements are not subordinated to design and productivity.

  • quality management systemAUS-SPEC

    The organisational structure, responsibilities, procedures, processes and resources for implementing quality management.

  • quality management system requirementsAUS-SPEC

    The administrative activities affecting quality that will be implemented and controlled so that the product or a service meets documented quality requirements.

  • quality packageNATSPEC

    A designated part of the works, which may include the whole works, for which an individual quality system is required.

  • quality planAUS-SPEC

    A management plan prepared by a contractor for a specific project, complying with relevant standards, setting out policies, management responsibilities, procedures and systems that will be used to ensure and demonstrate achievement of specified project requirements.

  • quality registerAUS-SPEC

    The files containing all quality control records including test results, completed check lists, certificates of compliance and consignment dockets for materials procured.


  • rainfall erosivityAUS-SPEC

    The R-factor is a measure of rainfall erosivity and is defined as the mean annual sum of individual storm erosion index values, EI30, where E is the total storm kinetic energy and I30 is the maximum 30-min rainfall intensity. It is measured as (MJmm/ha/hr). When factors other than rainfall are held constant, soil losses are directly proportional to the magnitude of rainfall erosivity. The R-factor represents the climatic influence on water-related soil erosion, and can be used to quantify broad-scale, climate-driven, soil erosion potential.

  • rampAUS-SPEC

    An inclined access way that has a constant gradient anywhere between 1:14 and 1:20.

  • rated currentsNATSPEC

    Continuous uninterrupted current ratings within the assembly environment under in-service operating conditions.

  • rated short-circuit currentsNATSPEC

    Maximum prospective symmetrical root mean square (r.m.s.) current values at rated operational voltage, at each assembly incoming supply terminal.

  • reaction timeAUS-SPEC

    The time taken for a driver to perceive and react to a particular stimulus and take appropriate action. It is measured in seconds.

  • reconstructionAUS-SPEC

    Treatments requiring full removal and replacement and/or improvement of the existing pavement structure including subbase, base course, and surface course.

  • record drawingsNATSPEC

    Record drawings has the same meaning as as-installed drawings, as-built drawings and work-as-executed drawings.Record drawing is the preferred term for post-construction drawings as they are usually based on information supplied by the contractor and others on completion of the work rather than the designer's observation and documentation of the actual construction. As the designer usually has a limited construction role, certification of Record drawings, if required, should be by the contractor.

  • record drawingsNATSPEC

    Record drawings has the same meaning as as-installed drawings, subsequently altered, as-built drawings and work-as-executed drawings.

  • recordsAUS-SPEC

    Documents and data, no longer subject to alteration, that provides evidence of activities performed.

  • recoverNATSPEC

    The disconnection and removal of an item in a manner to allow re-installation.

  • recovered/reclaimed materialsNATSPEC

    Material previously used in a building or project which is then re-used in another project. The material may be altered, re-sized, refinished, or adapted, but is not reprocessed in any way, and remains in its original form.

  • recycled materialsAUS-SPEC

    Materials manufactured from recycled material such as crushed concrete, bricks, terracotta tiles or glass or reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP).

  • redevelopment siteAUS-SPEC

    A site that had (or was originally zoned to have) a lower density development than is proposed.

  • redressingNATSPEC

    Dressing back the surface of the original face of the stone.

  • referenced documentsNATSPEC

    Standards and other documents whose requirements are included in this specification by reference.

  • registerNATSPEC

    A supply air grille mounted in a wall or on the side of a duct.

  • rehabilitationAUS-SPEC

    Resurfacing, stabilisation, restoration and rehabilitation work undertaken to restore serviceability and to extend the service life of an existing road. This may include partial recycling of the existing pavement, placement of additional surface materials, or other work required to return an existing pavement, including shoulders, to a condition of improved structural or functional adequacy.

  • rehabilitationAUS-SPEC

    Resurfacing, reconstruction heavy patching and stabilisation work undertaken to restore serviceability and to extend the service life of an existing road.

  • relative compactionNATSPEC

    The ratio between the field bulk density and the bulk density of the job mix when compacted in the laboratory.

  • relative compaction (of a core specimen)AUS-SPEC

    The ratio (expressed as a percentage) of the mass per unit volume core specimen to the average mass per unit volume of the standard cylinders.

  • relative level toleranceNATSPEC

    Maximum deviation from a 3 m straightedge laid on the surface.

  • render, renderingNATSPEC

    Plaster, plastering, usually single coat and usually cement:lime:sand.

  • repairNATSPEC

    Unplanned, corrective maintenance to building fabric, plant and equipment to restore the function, appearance, strength and longevity appropriate with the age and past service of the asset.

  • repairsNATSPEC

    Unplanned/corrective maintenance (reactive).

  • replace/replacementNATSPEC

    Replacement of components on a regular cycle on a like for like basis, e.g. repainting, replacement of plant.

  • requiredNATSPEC

    Required by the contract documents, the local or statutory authorities.

  • resealAUS-SPEC

    A sprayed seal applied to an existing sealed, or asphalt surface.

  • residual binderAUS-SPEC

    A binder that remains in services after any volatiles have evaporated.

  • residual bitumenAUS-SPEC

    Residual bitumen is the net bitumen in the stabilised material remaining after the water has evaporated.

  • resilient floor coverings classificationNATSPEC

    To EN ISO 10874. EN ISO 10874 classifies resilient floor coverings by level of use for domestic, commercial and industrial applications.

  • resin based seamless floor finishNATSPEC

    Any combination of a resin based flooring system that combines two part resins, with or without an aggregate, to provide a continuous floor coating without joints except those that may already exist in the substrate.

  • resolutionNATSPEC

    The smallest difference between indications of a displaying device that can be meaningfully distinguished.

  • retempering of concreteAUS-SPEC

    Use of water or admixtures in the mixer to delay the setting of concrete.

  • retreatmentAUS-SPEC

    An application of a sprayed bituminous treatment on an existing bituminous surfacing.

  • review pointAUS-SPEC

    Other check points other than hold points and witness points requiring verification of requirements and collection of records.

  • rigid guide postAUS-SPEC

    A guide post which when impacted by a vehicle, fails by fracturing or remains intact and straight, but not vertical.

  • rigid pavementNATSPEC

    A pavement composed of concrete or having a concrete base course.

  • rigid pavementsAUS-SPEC

    A pavement composed of concrete or having a concrete base course.Seals:Double/double: Two applications of binder and two applications of aggregate.Single/single: A single application of binder and a single application of aggregate.

  • rigid road safety barrier systemAUS-SPEC

    A road safety barrier system where there is no observable dynamic deflection. The deformation is contained in the impacting vehicle.

  • road authorityAUS-SPEC

    As defined by the Roads Act in the state where the road is located.

  • road authorityAUS-SPEC

    An authority with legislated responsibility for the management and maintenance of roads.

  • road networkAUS-SPEC

    A framework for movement by other modes, including pedestrian, bicycle and bus and plays a vital role in supporting neighbourhoods and town centres.

  • road reserveAUS-SPEC

    The strip of public land between abutting property boundaries, specifically gazetted for the provision of public road and controlled by the definitions of the Roads Act (as per applicable State legislation). It includes the road carriageway, as well as footpaths, verges and landscape.

  • road safety barrier systemAUS-SPEC

    A physical barrier separating the work area and the travelled path, designed to resist penetration by an out of control vehicle and as far as reasonably practicable, to redirect out of control vehicles back into the travelled path.

  • rockAUS-SPEC

    Monolithic material with volume greater than 0.5 m3 in sites which cannot be removed until broken up by explosives, rippers or percussion tools. For support purposes material hardness on the Mohr scale not less than 3 and not deteriorate on exposure to the atmosphere.

  • rockNATSPEC

    Monolithic material with volume greater than 0.3 m3 that cannot be removed until broken up by rippers or percussion tools.

  • rock catch fenceAUS-SPEC

    Fence to prevent rocks landing on roads.

  • rock filled mattressNATSPEC

    Double-twisted wire mesh container, uniformly partitioned into internal cells, approximately 300 mm high, interconnected with other units and filled with rocks. Rocked filled mattresses may be used for landscaping, soil erosion control and for drainage (as kerb and channel gutters).

  • roller compacted concreteAUS-SPEC

    A relatively dry concrete mix with very low slump and compacted using smooth drum rollers.

  • roof slate or shingleNATSPEC

    A non-interlocking fibre cement, terracotta, timber or slate product used to form the field of the roof.

  • room dividersNATSPEC

    Proprietary systems comprising overhead tracks and carriers supporting doors or panels which are linked, or can be linked, to provide complete partition-type enclosures within defined limits, and which may be opened by sliding and stacking to the sides of openings, inclusive of manufacturer's standard operating gear, hardware, and accessories necessary for satisfactory performance.Accordion doors: Double-walled dividers in which the walls comprise twin rows of paired folding door panels, or equivalent paired folding walls of flexible materials attached to pantograph frames, the pairs linked together at the centre and suspended from the points of linkage.Folding doors: Centre-hung door panels hinged together, stacking by sliding and pivoting.Operable walls: Partition panels independently suspended and stackable, with provision for linking together at the vertical edges and for preventing lateral movement at the bottom when closed.

  • room fan coil unit (FCU)NATSPEC

    A unit having a supply air flow less than 400 L/s and consisting of casing housing coils and a direct drive fan designed for mounting exposed within a room. The casing may also house filters and other items. Includes manufacturer's variations within a range of this type of unit mounted concealed with or without connected ducts.

  • rope edgeNATSPEC

    An edge seam incorporating rope or chord reinforcement.

  • roundaboutAUS-SPEC

    A form of intersection channelisation in which traffic circulates clockwise around a central island and all entering traffic is required to give way to traffic on the circulating roadway.

  • routine serviceNATSPEC

    Inspection (including survey), testing and preventive maintenance at specific intervals.

  • rubberNATSPEC

    Polymeric material, either natural or synthetic that is elastomeric.


  • safe intersection sight distance (SISD)AUS-SPEC

    Relates to an overall check that vehicles utilising the intersection have sufficient visibility to allow reaction and deceleration so as to provide adequate stopping distance in potential collision situations.

  • safety barrier systemAUS-SPEC

    A longitudinal structure which restrains and/or redirects, in a controlled manner, vehicles which are out of control. A safety barrier system includes one or more safety barriers with associated end treatments and transitions.

  • safety bollardAUS-SPEC

    A heavy duty post designed to prevent vehicular access into a pedestrian area.

  • sail trackNATSPEC

    A lipped channel extruded section designed to retain the rope edge of a membrane against the structure to which the sail track is fixed.

  • sampleNATSPEC

    A physical example that illustrates workmanship, materials or equipment, and establishes standards by which the work will be judged. It includes samples and sample panels. 

  • sanding – basicNATSPEC

    Sanding procedures resulting in an even plane surface free of irregularities, suitable for finish sanding or parquet, overlay strip flooring, or other surface coverings.

  • sanding – finishNATSPEC

    Sanding procedures resulting in a surface suitable for the application of the coating system.

  • screenNATSPEC

    Includes sunscreens, trafficable sunscreens, external louvres and blinds, shutters, awnings and pergolas fixed to building facades or openings; to control sunlight and/or provide privacy, to screen plant and equipment, or to provide an architectural feature. It applies to fixed, adjustable, operable and automatically controlled types.

  • sealAUS-SPEC

    A thin surface layer of bituminous binder into which aggregate is incorporated. A sprayed seal may incorporate more than one application of binder and aggregate and may also be combined with a layer of geotextile fabric.

  • sealantsNATSPEC

    Material in liquid (including aerosol) form or mastic form (including mastic embedded in fabric) designed to prevent air, water and vapour leakage. If mastic sealant is specified, do not use liquid sealant. If liquid sealant is specified do not use mastic sealant. This clarifies ambiguity in the use of such terms in AS 4254.1 and AS 4254.2. AS 4254.1 includes tapes in its definition of sealing media.

  • sealerNATSPEC

    A product used to seal substrates to prevent the following:Materials from bleeding through to the surface.Reaction of the substrate with incompatible top coats.Undue absorption of the following coat into the substrate.

  • sealer (wall coverings)NATSPEC

    An oil alkyd or acrylic based coating for sealing porous substrates so that adhesives are not absorbed into the wall and there are no bleed throughs to the wallcovering.

  • sealingNATSPEC

    Treatment to:Prevent excessive penetration of coating system.Prevent edge bonding by the coating system.

  • sealsAUS-SPEC

    Double/double: Two applications of binder and two applications of aggregate.Single/single: A single application of binder and a single application of aggregate.

  • secondary steelworkNATSPEC

    Steelwork used to provide support to non-structural items, in addition to the main structural steelwork.

  • secondary treatmentAUS-SPEC

    An application of a sprayed bituminous treatment on an initial treatment.

  • secondary treatment SQIDAUS-SPEC

    Removal of the majority of coarse, medium and fine grained sediments, as well as a significant proportion of the pollutants attached to sediments, by enhanced sedimentation and filtration, e.g. infiltration basins and wet ponds.

  • security fenceAUS-SPEC

    A fence designed to prevent pedestrian entrance to unsafe areas

  • sedimentAUS-SPEC

    Sediment is the result of erosion, and consists of small detached soil particles. Sedimentation occurs when the transportation of detached soil particles ceases or slows and the soil particles then settle or fall out of suspension.

  • sediment control measuresAUS-SPEC

    Measures to reduce the impact of erosion by trapping and retaining sediment before it is discharged into the surrounding environment. Flowing sediment is captured and held in place long enough for it to settle.

  • select fillAUS-SPEC

    Backfill material with known properties and grading placed and compacted in layers.

  • selected material zoneAUS-SPEC

    The top part of the upper zone of formation in which material of a specified higher quality is required.

  • selvedge wireNATSPEC

    Terminal wire used to edge the wire mesh perpendicular to the double twist by mechanically wrapping the wires around 2.5 times minimum or by inserting it throughout the twists and folding one mesh length.

  • semi rigid barrierAUS-SPEC

    A barrier with limited movement.

  • semi-flexible guide postAUS-SPEC

    A guide post which when impacted by a vehicle, fails by bending but can be straightened with maintenance intervention.

  • separated pathAUS-SPEC

    A path divided into separated sections one of which is designated for the exclusive use of cyclists and an alternate section for other path users.

  • serviceNATSPEC

    After sales' service, repairs, maintenance.

  • service roadAUS-SPEC

    A low traffic volume roadway parallel to and separated from an arterial road by an outer separator to limit vehicular access direct to the low volume road.

  • service roadAUS-SPEC

    A low traffic volume road way parallel to and separated from an arterial road by an outer separator to limit vehicular access direct to the low volume road.

  • serviceabilityAUS-SPEC

    Ability of a structure or structural element to perform adequately for normal use under all expected actions.

  • setbackAUS-SPEC

    The distance required, through planning provisions, to separate a building from the bushfire hazard, street frontage or adjacent buildings or property boundary.

  • shade fabricNATSPEC

    A fabric designed to prevent a proportion of sunlight or other light from reaching the area beyond the shade fabric.

  • shade structureNATSPEC

    A tensioned membrane structure having the primary purpose of providing shade to a surface.

  • shallow embankmentsAUS-SPEC

    Embankments less than 1.5 m depth from the top of pavement to natural surface.

  • shotcreteNATSPEC

    Cement concrete, containing aggregate up to 13 mm in size, applied from a spray nozzle by means of compressed air.

  • shoulderAUS-SPEC

    The portion of formed and sealed carriageway that is adjacent to the traffic lanes and flush with the sealed surface of the pavement.

  • shoulder widthAUS-SPEC

    The measurement taken from the outer edge of the traffic lane to the edge of usable carriageway and excludes any berm, verge, rounding or extra width provided to accommodate guideposts and guard fencing.

  • shower trayNATSPEC

    An internal or external liquid applied or sheet membrane system used to waterproof the floor and the wall/floor junctions of a shower area.

  • shrubNATSPEC

    A woody perennial plant smaller than a tree, usually having permanent stems branching from or near the ground.

  • side friction factor (f)AUS-SPEC

    A measure of the frictional force between the pavement and the vehicle tyre.

  • sight distanceAUS-SPEC

    The distance, measured along the carriageway, over which the visibility occurs between the driver and an object or between two drivers at specific heights above the carriageway in their lane of travel.

  • sightlineAUS-SPEC

    The perimeter of the opening, which admits daylight (also known as glazing line).

  • single/double sealAUS-SPEC

    A seal consisting of a single application of binder followed by a double application of aggregate.

  • single/single seal (S/S)AUS-SPEC

    A seal consisting of a single application of binder followed by a single application of aggregate.

  • site rockNATSPEC

    Rocks selected for salvage.

  • site sectionsAUS-SPEC

    The site divided into sections based on the catchment area draining to each permanent drainage structure in the works, including the following:Access and haulage tracks.Borrow pits and stockpile areas.Compound areas, including Contractor’s facilities and concrete batching areas.

  • site topsoilNATSPEC

    Natural soil, excavated from the site, that contains organic matter, supports plant life, conforms generally to the fine-to-medium texture classification to AS 4419 and is free from the following:Stones more than 25 mm diameter.Clay lumps more than 50 mm diameter.Weeds and tree roots.Sticks and rubbish.Material toxic to plants.

  • size (sizing)NATSPEC

    A liquid painted onto walls to prepare them for the wallpaper. It creates a slippery surface of uniform porosity so that wallpaper slides easily into place and adheres evenly.

  • slabAUS-SPEC

    A portion of concrete base bounded by joints or free edges.

  • slab, mismatchedAUS-SPEC

    Where any joint meets a slab and is not continued across that slab.

  • slab, odd-shapedAUS-SPEC

    A slab is considered odd-shaped if:It contains blockouts, for example, for drainage structure.The dimensions measured normal and parallel to the longitudinal joints, are variable within a slab, the maximum value of the ratios applies.

  • slip sheetNATSPEC

    A sheet used to isolate the membrane system from the supporting substrate or from the topping or mortar bedding. The most common material is polyethylene.

  • slurry sealAUS-SPEC

    A thin layer of slurry, usually without a polymer modifier, consisting of a mixture of bitumen emulsion, aggregate, water and additives. Slurry seals are cured through a thermal process.

  • small culvert unitAUS-SPEC

    Culvert unit with a span up to 1200 mm and a height up to 1200 mm.

  • small treesNATSPEC

    Tree or shrub grown in a container less than 20 L (other than tubes or plant cells) or ex-ground trees of size index less than 35.

  • smatv – l bandNATSPEC

    MATV system where satellite signals are distributed in native L Band QPSK at the Intermediate Frequency delivered by the LNB.

  • smatv – qamNATSPEC

    MATV system where satellite signals received at the dish are transmodulated at the headend and distributed as QAM at frequencies below 860 MHz.

  • smoke-doorsetNATSPEC

    A doorset which restricts the passage of smoke.

  • soil blendNATSPEC

    A landscape soil derived from the blending of two or more of sand, natural soil material or organic materials, and with a bulk density and organic matter content to meet site specific requirements.

  • soldier courseNATSPEC

    A course of whole or trimmed rectangular pavers at the pavement restraint edge.

  • soundNATSPEC

    Pressure fluctuations in air within the audible range.

  • sound absorptionNATSPEC

    The sensation perceived by the sense of hearing and the process by which sound energy is converted into heat, leading to the reduction in sound pressure level.

  • sound insulation (isolation)NATSPEC

    Reduction of sound energy passing through building elements.

  • space factorAUS-SPEC

    Ratio of the sum of the cross sectional areas of the installed cables to the internal cross sectional area of the conduit.

  • special care locationsNATSPEC

    Locations in which patients are dependent on specific gases such as oxygen, nitrous oxide, medical breathing air, medical suction, e.g. anaesthetizing area, recovery room, intensive care units (adult, child or neonatal), coronary care unit.

  • special processesNATSPEC

    Those processes, the results of which cannot be directly examined to establish full conformance. Assurance of satisfactory conformance depends on evidence generated during the process.

  • specimenNATSPEC

    A portion of a sample which is submitted for testing.

  • speed (85th percentile)AUS-SPEC

    The speed at or below which 85% of the vehicles travel:Design speed: A speed fixed for the design and correlation of those geometric features of a carriageway that influence vehicle operation.Desired speed: The speed over a section of a road adopted by a driver as influenced by the road geometry and other environmental factors.Operating speed: The speed for an existing road at a time when traffic volumes are low and which allows a free choice of speed within the road alignment.

  • spoilAUS-SPEC

    Surplus excavated material.

  • spray applied preservation treatmentsAUS-SPEC

  • sprayed concreteAUS-SPEC

    Concrete pneumatically applied at high velocity on to a surface. Application may be either a wet or dry process, to produce a sound homogeneous product with a surface finish reasonably uniform in texture and free from blemishes. Sprayed concrete is also called Shotcrete.

  • sprayed to contourNATSPEC

    Sprayed coatings applied directly to the surface of an element without reinforcement.

  • spreaderAUS-SPEC

    A specialised truck mounted unit with computer controlled rear dispatch capability of binders.

  • stabilisationAUS-SPEC

    The process by which the intrinsic properties of a pavement material are permanently altered by the addition of a stabilisation binder and/or granular material to meet performance expectations in its operating, geological and climatic environment.

  • stabilisation bindersAUS-SPEC

    Materials that are used for the purpose of improving the properties of a subgrade or pavement. They are categorised in terms of their main constituents.

  • stabilised materialAUS-SPEC

    Any material which has been stabilised.

  • stabiliserAUS-SPEC

    A specialised plant/machine with a centrally mounted mixing chamber, that can be connected to a watercart for moisture control and allows uniformity of mixing and depth control during the stabilisation process.

  • staged granular filtersAUS-SPEC

    Single stage filter: A granular filter material placed in contact with the trench sides and surrounding the pervious pipe system.First stage filter: A granular filter material or geotextile placed in contact with the trench sides and surrounding a second stage filter surrounding the pervious pipe system.Second stage filter: A granular filter material or geotextile placed in contact with the pervious pipe system and surrounding a first stage filter.

  • stainingNATSPEC

    Treatment to alter the colour of the timber surface.

  • start response timeNATSPEC

    Total elapsed time from receipt of start signal to final connection to load.

  • start-upNATSPEC

    The initial starting or activating of dynamic equipment including executing construction checklists.

  • state fire authorityAUS-SPEC

    An organisation authorised to manage fire and emergency services within a state. It is also responsible for providing development guidelines and controls in bushfire prone land for that state.

  • static completionNATSPEC

    Systems, components and building elements are statically compete when:Their construction and installation is compete and as documented, including completion of all systems, components and building elements on which they are dependent for commissioning. For example, air handling systems are not statically complete if the spaces served have windows missing or if doors required to be closed for commissioning are held open. They are safe and ready for commissioning.The have been inspected and all outstanding remedial work that may adversely affect commissioning is complete. This permits commissioning to proceed if minor work such as painting and labelling is not complete. All construction quality tests have been successfully completed.Documented cleaning is complete.All spaces required for access for commissioning are safe to use and cleared of all obstructions.

  • statutory authorityNATSPEC

    A public sector entity created by legislation, that is, a specific law of the Commonwealth, State or Territory.

  • statutory signageNATSPEC

    Signs prescribed by the NCC and statutory authorities.

  • steep gradient flow diversion techniqueAUS-SPEC

    A flow diversion drain, channel or chute with gradient sufficiently steep to cause supercritical flow within its length.

  • steppingNATSPEC

    The relative surface level of adjacent paving elements within the expanse of the main pavement.

  • stiffenersNATSPEC

    Wire used for support of facing by connecting the front panel to the back panel of the gabion.

  • stone claddingNATSPEC

    Non-loadbearing facing units of natural stone or cast stone, mechanically fixed with structural fixings to the structural background or to precast concrete units, used as both external cladding and internal lining.

  • stopping sight distanceAUS-SPEC

    The sum of the braking distance and the distance the vehicle travels at a design speed during a reaction time of 2.5 seconds.

  • stormwater management planAUS-SPEC

    A plan to manage the stormwater quantity and quality within a catchment and protect receiving water features, such as the protection of existing waterways, lakes and wetlands.

  • strain alleviating membrane (SAM)AUS-SPEC

    A sprayed seal with the binder containing a relatively large concentration of rubber or polymer modifier. It is used to absorb strains that occur in a road pavement and thereby reduce reflection cracking.

  • strain alleviating membrane interlayer (SAMI)AUS-SPEC

    The application of a polymer modified binder into which aggregate is incorporated. A SAMI is used as an interlayer between an asphalt wearing course and underlying layers to provide alleviation from tensile strains developed beneath it.

  • strainer postsAUS-SPEC

    Fence posts at significant variations in levels and at intervals, as documented, with either bracing stays or bracing cables to achieve the required tension of support cables and chain-link fabric.

  • strawNATSPEC

    The plant structure from grains (or grasses) between the root crown and the grain head. Straw types include wheat, rice, barley and oat.

  • straw baleNATSPEC

    A compressed rectangular mass of the straw left over after grain heads are removed, bound with steel wire or polypropylene twine.

  • stretcher unitNATSPEC

    Components running horizontally and parallel to the face of the wall.

  • structural elementAUS-SPEC

    Physically distinguishable part of a structure, for example, wall, column, beam, connection.

  • structural robustnessAUS-SPEC

    Ability of a structure to withstand events like fire, explosion, impact or consequences of human errors, without being damaged to an extent disproportionate to the original cause.

  • structural silicone sealantNATSPEC

    Cold liquid applied, single-component or multi-component, structural silicone sealant conforming to ASTM C1184.

  • structural silicone sealantNATSPEC

    Cold liquid applied, single-component or multi-component, chemically curing elastomeric structural silicone sealant conforming to ASTM C1184.

  • structureAUS-SPEC

    Organized combination of connected structural elements designed to provide some measure of resistance.

  • structure-borne soundNATSPEC

    Sound waves transmitted within the building structure and re-radiated into other spaces as airborne sound. Typical sources include direct impact from dropped objects and vibrating machinery.

  • sub-branchNATSPEC

    A duct connected to one or more terminals.

  • sub-catchmentAUS-SPEC

    A topographically defined area drained by a tributary or branch drain of a primary stream, river or main draining catchment.

  • sub-pavement drainsAUS-SPEC

    Drainage of the pavement layers where the subbase is not a macadam crushed rock.

  • subbaseNATSPEC

    Material laid on the subgrade below the base either for the purpose of making up additional pavement thickness required, to prevent intrusion of the subgrade into the base, or to provide a working platform.

  • subbaseAUS-SPEC

    Course granular preferably impervious material usually DGS40 specification.Provides structural strength.Prevents intrusion of parent material into wearing course or base course layer, if applicable.

  • subcontractorNATSPEC

    A person or organisation, other than the principal, having a contract with the contractor for the provision of part of the works. If there is no formal definition in the contract, consider including this Optional text by changing to Normal style text.

  • subcontractorNATSPEC

    A person or organisation, other than the principal, having a contract with the contractor for the provision of part of the works.

  • subfloorNATSPEC

    The structure that supports the flooring.

  • subgradeNATSPEC

    The trimmed or prepared earth material on which the pavement, footing or slab is constructed. Generally taken to relate to the upper line of the earth material.

  • subgradeAUS-SPEC

    Natural parent material with CBR% greater than 5. If less than 5 excavate as unsuitable material.

  • subsoil drainsAUS-SPEC

    Drainage of ground water and/or the pavement in cuttings.

  • substrateNATSPEC

    The surface to which a material or product is applied.

  • superelevationAUS-SPEC

    A slope on a curved pavement selected to enhance forces assisting a vehicle to maintain a circular path.

  • superintendentNATSPEC

    Superintendent has the same meaning as contract administrator or principal's representative unless the contract requires otherwise. Austroads AGPD03 clause 5.1.2 further defines the role of a superintendent.

  • supplyNATSPEC

    Supply, furnish and similar expressions mean supply only.

  • surfacingNATSPEC

    An impact-attenuating surface consisting of one or more material components cast in situ, formed into a sheet, tile or other continuous surface where the underlying protective properties of the impact surfacing remain constant with consecutive and/or repeated use.

  • survey markNATSPEC

    A survey peg, bench mark, reference mark, signal, alignment, level mark or any other mark used or intended to be used for the purpose of setting out, checking or measuring the work.

  • system auditNATSPEC

    An examination of the documented quality management system represented by the quality manual, quality plan and quality register to evaluate their effectiveness in meeting the requirements of Australian Standards and the contract documents.

  • systems, subsystems, equipment and componentsNATSPEC

    Where these terms are used together or separately, they mean as-built systems, subsystems, equipment, and components.


  • table drainNATSPEC

    Excavated open channels, running parallel with and forming part of the track formation. Table drains direct runoff to disposal areas further downslope.

  • tee-off busbarsNATSPEC

    Busbars connecting main busbars to incoming terminals of outgoing functional units.

  • temporary control measuresAUS-SPEC

    Measures required to control and filter the run-off from areas disturbed by the contractor’s activities.

  • tensioned membraneNATSPEC

    A thin cloth or sheet that is held in a predetermined 2- or 3-dimensional shape under permanent tension. The shape and the tension are interrelated and designed to safely carry the permanent and imposed loads (such as those resulting from wind actions) in a predictable manner.

  • tensioned membrane structureNATSPEC

    The total structure comprising the tensioned membrane(s), supporting structures, rigging, foundations and existing structures to which they are attached.

  • terminal (mechanical services)NATSPEC

    A supply, return or exhaust diffuser, grille or equivalent device discharging air into, or drawing air from, a space.

  • terminal, terminationNATSPEC

    Fittings fixed to the ends of wire ropes for the attachment of other fittings or building elements.

  • termination barNATSPEC

    A preformed strip for securing sheet membranes to wall substrates at their top termination line.

  • terrazzoNATSPEC

    Mixtures of binders, marble or glass aggregates and water, dried, cured, ground to expose the aggregate, sealed and polished to provide a finished surface.

  • tertiary treatment sqidAUS-SPEC

    Removal of the majority of sediments, attached pollutants and dissolved pollutants by sedimentation, filtration and biological uptake, e.g. constructed wetlands.

  • testsNATSPEC

    Tests carried out on completed installations or systems, to demonstrate that the installation or system, including components, controls and equipment, operates correctly, safely and efficiently, and meets performance and other requirements. The contract administrator may direct that completion tests be carried out after the date of completion.

  • tests – completionNATSPEC

    Tests carried out on completed installations or systems and fully resolved before the date for practical completion, to demonstrate that the installation or system, including components, controls and equipment, operates correctly, safely and efficiently, and meets performance and other requirements. The superintendent may direct that completion tests be carried out after the date for practical completion.

  • tests – pre-completionNATSPEC

    Tests carried out before completion tests, including:Production: Tests carried out on a purchased item, before delivery to the site.Progressive: Tests carried out during installation to demonstrate performance in conformance with this specification.Site: Tests carried out on site.Type: Tests carried out on an item identical with a production item, before delivery to the site.

  • thermal insulation terminologyNATSPEC

    To AS/NZS 4859.1.

  • thermoplastic materialAUS-SPEC

    In this worksection implies thermoplastic pavement marking material. It consists of aggregate, pigment, binder, glass beads and extenders capable of being softened by heating and hardened by cooling.

  • thimbleNATSPEC

    An insert placed in an end loop of wire.

  • thrie beamAUS-SPEC

    Triple corrugated beam component of a public domain non-rigid road safety barrier system.

  • tileNATSPEC

    Thin slab made from clay and/or other inorganic raw materials used generally as coverings for floors and walls and adhered to continuous supporting substrates.

  • tiles – cementitiousNATSPEC

    Cement based prefinished tiles.

  • tiles – dry-pressedNATSPEC

    Tiles made from a finely milled body mixture and shaped in moulds at high pressure. Also known as Type B.

  • tiles – extrudedNATSPEC

    Tiles whose body is shaped in the plastic state in an extruder then cut to size. Also known as Type A.

  • tiles – industrial castNATSPEC

    Tile products of reconstituted stone. Also known as manufactured stone.

  • tiles – natural stoneNATSPEC

    Tiles cut from natural stone.

  • tiles – terrazzo – cementitiousNATSPEC

    Manufactured cementitious terrazzo tiles formed in a suitable machine to give sufficient compaction and density to the finished surface, and moisture cured before grinding and honed at the place of manufacture. Thickness usually 35 mm.

  • tiles – terrazzo – resinNATSPEC

    Manufactured terrazzo tiles with the facing aggregate in a resin matrix and pre polished. Thickness usually up to 22 mm.

  • time of concentrationAUS-SPEC

    The time required for storm runoff to flow from the most remote point on the catchment to the outlet of the catchment or to the inlet of a drainage structure within the catchment.

  • toleranceNATSPEC

    The permitted difference between the upper limit and the lower limit of dimension, value or quantity.Tolerance is an absolute value without a positive or a negative sign. It is commonly expressed by ± permitted deviation so that the value of the tolerance is implicit.

  • top dressingNATSPEC

    A soil which is suitable for surface application to turf and lawns.

  • toppingNATSPEC

    Mixture of binders, aggregate and water applied to substrates in a plastic state and dried and cured to a hard surface.

  • topping functionNATSPEC

    Levelling: Topping placed to receive applied floor finishes.Wearing: Topping placed to act as the finished floor.

  • topping methodNATSPEC

    Bonded or post applied: Topping which is bonded to a hardened substrate from which laitance has been removed and to which a bonding agent has been applied.Floating: Topping which is separated from a hardened substrate by a resilient layer.Monolithic or wet applied: Topping placed on a plastic substrate so that a chemical bond is created between the substrate and the topping.Separated: Topping which is separated from a concrete subfloor by a membrane.

  • topsoilNATSPEC

    Includes landscape soil, low density soils and soils for turf and lawns.

  • total air quantityNATSPEC

    The sum of air flows to connected terminals, branches or sub-branches under the conditions of measurement.

  • total system SHGCNATSPEC

    Solar heat gain coefficient as defined by the NCC and tested in conformance with NFRC 200.

  • total system U-ValueNATSPEC

    Thermal transmittance as defined by the NCC and tested in conformance with NFRC 100.

  • traffic control plan (TCP)AUS-SPEC

    Traffic guidance scheme (TGS): An arrangement of temporary traffic control devices to warn traffic and guide it around through or past a worksite or temporary hazard.

  • traffic controllerAUS-SPEC

    A competent person whose duty is to control traffic at a work site.

  • traffic laneAUS-SPEC

    That part of the roadway set aside for one-way movement of a single stream of vehicles.

  • traffic lane widthAUS-SPEC

    Traffic lanes are measured to the face of the kerb or to the lane line for multi-lane roads or roads with shoulders.

  • traffic management plan (TMP)AUS-SPEC

    A document describing all essential traffic management matters associated with roadworks or works on roads. This includes risk assessment, traffic demand and accommodation, traffic routing and control and provision for vulnerable road users and special vehicles such as buses, trams or over-dimensional vehicles.

  • transitionAUS-SPEC

    A type of interface used when less stiff longitudinal road safety barrier system is connected to a stiffer interface.

  • transition zonesAUS-SPEC

    Hand paved concrete which is cast in otherwise mechanically paved concrete, such as at transverse construction joints in mechanically paved work.

  • transverse jointNATSPEC

    A connection between two duct sections, with the connection at an angle most often perpendicular, to the direction of airflow. It includes slip joints at fire dampers to AS 1682.2.

  • transverse linesAUS-SPEC

    All lines that are marked at right angles to the general traffic flow, such as Stop/Give way lines and pedestrian crosswalk lines.

  • treatment trainAUS-SPEC

    Sequencing of SQID’s to optimise treatment performance.

  • trial mixAUS-SPEC

    Trialling of the nominated mix to demonstrate that the mix design conforms to the documented requirements.

  • trunk drainsAUS-SPEC

    Large capacity channels or conduits which carry runoff from local street drainage systems to receiving waters including natural or artificial channels, transitions and hydraulic structures, culverts and road crossings, naturally occurring ponds and lakes, artificial detention or retention storages.

  • turnbuckleNATSPEC

    A coupling device comprised of a central body internally threaded at both ends, into which threaded fittings with opposite handed threads are inserted, allowing tension between the coupled items to be increased or decreased by rotation of the central body, and without causing rotation of the fittings.

  • type A blanketsAUS-SPEC

    Blankets constructed in fill road embankments where it is necessary to provide an open graded filter material to prevent upward flow of groundwater by capillary action into the road pavement material or a saturation weakening of the subgrade just below the pavement.

  • type B blanketsAUS-SPEC

    Blankets constructed to intercept water in road cuttings uplifting into pavements by capillary action from water charged aquifers underlying the road formation.


  • unbound baseAUS-SPEC

    A base comprising granular or mechanically stabilised materials and without the capacity to resist significant tensile stresses.

  • unbound materialAUS-SPEC

    Materials that are natural, manufactured or recycled mineral blends of graded particles which have not been modified or bound.

  • undercoatNATSPEC

    An intermediate coat formulated to prepare a primed surface or other prepared surface for the finishing coat.

  • underlayNATSPEC

    A non-structural layer of sheet material or in situ levelling material on the substrate to provide a smooth and level surface.

  • unformed roadAUS-SPEC

    These are non-engineered roads that simply consists of a track that is cleared of vegetation. These are often not all weather roads and carry very low traffic volumes.

  • uninterruptible power supply (UPS)NATSPEC

    Battery operated static inverter system with automatic controls to provide electrical power in the event of an interruption to the primary supply.

  • unsealed roadAUS-SPEC

    A road surface that comprises of either natural parent material or gravel added and is not surfaced by bitumen or concrete.

  • unsuitable materialAUS-SPEC

    Material not suitable for support of pavement or layer of fill including:Material showing deformation, rutting, softness, yielding, distress or instability under proofrolling or the loading from construction machinery.Topsoil, peat or any organic material.Soluble material, e.g. gypsum or salt rock.Susceptible to scouring or classified as Emerson Class number 1 or 2.

  • utility authorityAUS-SPEC

    Refer to Principal.

  • utility service providerNATSPEC

    Includes organisations providing power, water, sewerage, gas and telecommunications services.


  • validationNATSPEC

    Confirmation, through the provision of objective evidence, that requirements for a specific intended use or application have been fulfilled.

  • vapour permeable (breathable) membraneNATSPEC

    A flexible membrane material, normally used for secondary waterproofing that allows for the transmission of water vapour.

  • variable actionAUS-SPEC

    Action for which the variation in magnitude with time is neither negligible in relation to the mean value nor monotonic.

  • variable refrigerant flow (VRF) systemNATSPEC

    A direct expansion refrigeration system consisting of multiple indoor units connected to a single outdoor unit. VRF system has the same meaning as multiple split system.

  • variable room identification systemsNATSPEC

    Changeable plate systems incorporating fixed room numbers and removable name strips.

  • vav terminalNATSPEC

    VAV box has the same meaning as VAV terminal.

  • vebe testingAUS-SPEC

    A flow test on a vibrating table, used as a measure of workability in a stiff mix.

  • vehicle movement plan (VMP)AUS-SPEC

    A drawing showing the preferred travel paths for vehicles associated with a work site entering, leaving or crossing the through traffic stream.

  • verge (rural)AUS-SPEC

    Defined area of the formation in rural roads outside the shoulder at the top of the batter slope.

  • verge (urban)AUS-SPEC

    That portion of the road formation not covered by the carriageway or footpath.

  • verificationNATSPEC

    Provision of evidence or proof that a performance requirement has been met or a default exists.

  • vertical alignmentAUS-SPEC

    The longitudinal profile along the centreline of a road consisting of series of grades and vertical curves.

  • view controlNATSPEC

    A function within the BIM Authoring System that controls which objects, or parts of objects, are visible at any time in a model. BIM Authoring System control object viewing in different ways, such as layers or subcategories.


  • w-beamAUS-SPEC

    Double corrugated beam component of a public domain non-rigid road safety barrier system.

  • waffle raft slabNATSPEC

    A stiffened raft slab with closely spaced ribs separated by straw bales, constructed on the ground and with slab panels suspended between ribs, over the straw bales.

  • wallcoveringNATSPEC

    A flexible sheet of paper, fabric, veneer or vinyl with a repeating pattern for adhering on walls as a decorative finish and protection.

  • wallpaper type - PrepastedNATSPEC

    Papers with a cured adhesive applied to the backing which can be activated with water.

  • wallpaper type - UnpastedNATSPEC

    Papers with no paste applied to the backing. Paste is applied at the installation stage by brush or a pasting machine.

  • water agencyAUS-SPEC

    An authority, board, business, corporation, Council or local government body with the responsibility for planning or defining design, construction and maintenance requirements for a water supply and/or sewerage system.

  • water resistant (WR)NATSPEC

    The property of material that restricts moisture movement and will not degrade under conditions of moisture.

  • water sensitive urban designAUS-SPEC

    Design principles aimed at improving the sustainable management of the urban water cycle. It integrates the planning and design of urban water cycle, water supply, waste water, stormwater and groundwater management, urban design and environmental protection.

  • waterproof (WP)NATSPEC

    The property of a material that does not allow moisture to penetrate through it.

  • waterwayAUS-SPEC

    Include the bed and banks of the following:A river, creek, stream or other natural channel in which water flows (continuously or intermittently);The stormwater system;A lake, pond, lagoon or marsh in which water collects (continuously or intermittently).

  • waterway works licenceAUS-SPEC

    This licence is required for:Construction, alteration, operation, removal or decommissioning of  any works on a waterway or groundwater bore.Works to deviate a waterway or private dam, and covers all domestic and stock dams that are built on waterways. This approval is not required for farm dams that are not on a waterway.

  • wearing courseAUS-SPEC

    That part of the pavement specifically designed to resist abrasion from traffic and to minimise the entry of water. Also referred as the ‘sheeting layer’; it is maintained with patrol grading and replenished after some years as its thickness is reduced and/or when a large amount of fine material has been lost as dust.

  • weather – coldNATSPEC

    Ambient shade temperature less than 10°C.

  • weather – hotNATSPEC

    Ambient shade temperature greater than 30°C.

  • weedNATSPEC

    An invasive plant that degrades natural areas, reduces the sustainability or affects the health of people and animals.

  • weirNATSPEC

    The raised spillway of a waterfall or the opening on a skimmer inlet.

  • wet areaNATSPEC

    An area within a building supplied with a floor waste.

  • wet process fibreboardNATSPEC

    Panel material with a nominated thickness of 1.5 mm or greater, manufactured from lignocellulosic fibres (derived from wood or other materials) with application of heat and/or pressure, the bond of which is derived from the felting of the fibres and the panels are manufactured with a forming moisture content greater than 20%.

  • wicketNATSPEC

    Door side-hung on the vertical guide and interlocking with the closed curtain.

  • wildlife fenceAUS-SPEC

    Fence that prevents wildlife approaching a roadway and creating a hazard.

  • windowsAUS-SPEC

    A shallow ridge of material formed by the action of a grader (or other) blade during in situ cutting or mixing operations.

  • wire nettingAUS-SPEC

    Hexagonal-pattern-woven mesh manufactured from metallic-coated or uncoated (bare) wire.

  • wire rope safety barrierAUS-SPEC

    A road safety system consisting of wire rope cables under high tension that are supported on posts and anchored at the ends.

  • witness pointAUS-SPEC

    A nominated position, in the different stages of the Contract, where the option of attendance may be exercised by the Superintendent, after notification of the requirement.

  • workableAUS-SPEC

    Ease with which the mix may be placed and compacted.

  • working timeAUS-SPEC

    The duration at which the contractor has to mix a binder, compact and trim stabilised material before the material loses its intended strength. An unconfined compressive strength (UCS) test is used for the establishment of working time.

  • worksNATSPEC

    All labour, plant, equipment and materials required to complete a project in conformance with the contract documents.

  • workstationNATSPEC

    A system comprising an assembly of demountable acoustic screens, work tops, mobile pedestal or credenza storage units, drawer units, individual bookshelves, ceiling ducted services with power pole or floor ducted cable enclosures, and accessories necessary for assembly and installation.


  • zone of influenceNATSPEC

    A foundation zone bounded by planes extending downward and outward from the bottom edge of a footing, slab or pavement and defining the extent of foundation material having influence on the stability or support of the footings, slab or pavement.