• A17-grade timberStandards

    A stress grade of timber for which the specific suite of characteristic values given in Table H3.1, Appendix H, are applicable. NOTE: A17-grades are assigned to seasoned hardwood timber in accordance with grading Standards AS 2082. 

  • absolute level toleranceNATSPEC

    Maximum deviation from design levels.

  • access for maintenanceNATSPEC

    Includes access for maintenance, inspection, measurement, operation, adjustment, repair, replacement and other maintenance related tasks.Access required for other purposes such as firefighting and people with a disability are not included in this term.

  • access hatchStandards

    A device normally closed but which can be opened to provide access through a platform, roof or other similar structure. NOTE: Also known as trapdoor.   

  • accessibleBCA (NCC)

    means having features to enable use by people with a disability.

  • accessibleStandards

    Describes all or port of a site, building or facility that complies with this Standard, and that can be approached, entered and used by people with disabilities.

  • accessible, readilyNATSPEC

    Readily accessible, easily accessible, easy access and similar terms mean capable of being reached quickly and without climbing over or removing obstructions, mounting upon a chair, or using a movable ladder, and in any case not more than 2.0 m above the ground, floor or platform.

  • accessory for slate or shingle and shake roofingNATSPEC

    A concrete or terracotta product used to finish the slate and shingle roof and may include apex, ridge and barge capping.

  • accessory for slate roofingAUS-SPEC

    A concrete or terracotta product used to finish the slate and shingle roof and may include apex, ridge and barge capping.

  • accesswayBCA (NCC)

    means a continuous accessible path of travel (as defined in AS 1428.1) to, into or within a building.

  • accreditationNATSPEC

    Certification by a statutory or approved authority of the facilities, capabilities, objectivity, competence and integrity of an organization or individual to provide a specified service and/or required operation.

  • accredited testing laboratoryNATSPEC

    An organisation accredited by the National Association of Testing Authorities (NATA) to test in the relevant field

  • accuracyNATSPEC

    The closeness of the agreement between the result of a measurement and the true value of the particular quantity being measured.

  • acoustic insulationNATSPEC

    Materials or methods of construction to reduce the transmission of airborne and structure-borne sound through floors, walls and ceilings or other enclosing elements in buildings.

  • acoustic materialNATSPEC

    Building material with specific acoustic properties to achieve sound transmission loss, sound absorption, damping of resonance or resilience against impact noise.

  • acoustic underlayNATSPEC

    A resilient material laid between the structural floor and the flooring material to provide sound isolation.

  • actionStandards

    Set of concentrated or distributed forces acting on a structure (direct action), or deformation imposed on a structure or constrained within it (indirect action).Note: The term load is also often used to describe direct actions.

  • action effects (internal effects of actions, load effects)NATSPEC

    Internal forces and bending moments due to actions (stress resultants).

  • active leafStandards

    In a door with two leaves, the leaf that carries the latching or locking mechanism and typically has an operable handle.

  • activity centreNATSPEC

    Urban planning term for those places that are vibrant hubs where people shop work, meet, relax and often live.

  • added fillerNATSPEC

    Mineral matter, suitable for use in asphalt – at least 75% of which is finer than 75 µm and all of which is finer that 600 µm – which is added to the combined aggregate of an asphalt mix. Typical materials include hydrated lime, flyash, cement, cement works flue dust, ground limestone and rock dust other than that which occurs as a natural component of the combined aggregate.

  • adhesion (paint)NATSPEC

    Adhesion (paint): The sum total of forces of attachment between a dry film and its substrate.

  • adhesion agentNATSPEC

    A substance for promoting adhesion between binder and aggregates, normally in the presence of water.

  • adhesives - cementitious (C)NATSPEC

    Adhesive in which the binders are hydraulic, e.g. General purpose cement, with aggregates and organic additives.

  • adhesives - dispersion (D)NATSPEC

    Adhesives in which the binders are in the form of aqueous polymer dispersion with mineral fillers and organic additives.

  • adhesives - reaction resin (R)NATSPEC

    Adhesives in which in the binders are synthetic resins with mineral fillers and organic additives. The curing occurs by chemical reaction.

  • advanced plants (species)NATSPEC

    Plant species containerised and established in 300 mm containers but less than 45 L containers.

  • aerodynamic shape factorStandards

    Factor to account for the effects of the geometry of the structure on surface pressure due to wind.

  • aged care buildingBCA (NCC)

    means a Class 9c building for residential accommodation of aged persons who, due to varying degrees of incapacity associated with the ageing process, are provided with personal care services and 24 hour staff assistance to evacuate the building during an emergency. 

  • aggregate filled textured latex coatingNATSPEC

    An aggregate filled medium to high profile textured coating selected for aesthetic purposes to provide maximum relief from underlying surface irregularities according to the application technique used.

  • aggregates/sand/fillerNATSPEC

    Some spray applied preservation materials incorporate either the spreading of or inclusion of fillers/sands or aggregates. For the purposes of this worksection these materials are referred to as coarse graded materials and are defined as materials added to (either before spraying to form part of the material applied or after spraying as a dressing) of the application proposed.

  • air - exhaust airStandards

    Air, other than returned air, removed from an enclosure by mechanical means and discharged to atmosphere. 

  • air - outdoor airStandards

    Air outside the building. 

  • air - recycle airStandards

    that portion of air removed from enclosures as return air and returned as part of the supply air by mechanical means. 

  • air - relief airStandards

    That portion of return air that is not recycled, including air leakage through a facade or discharge through specific relief paths. 

  • air - return airStandards

    Air removed from an enclosure by mechanical means, all of which may be expelled by as relief air, or all or part of it may be recycled. 

  • air - smoke exhaust airStandards

    Air handled by the smoke exhaust system during operation in the smoke-control mode. NOTE: Also known as smoke-spill air. 

  • air - supply airStandards

    Air introduced into an enclosure by mechanical means. 

  • air damperStandards

    A motorized mechanical damper that opens or closes to control air as part of a smoke control system. 

  • air grilleNATSPEC

    An air grille of metal or other material fitted to the inlet or outlet end of an air duct or within walls, floors, ceilings or doors. It includes all types of diffusers, registers and other grilles.

  • air handling plantNATSPEC

    Proprietary and non-proprietary pre-assembled plant and prefabricated and site erected plant and plenums. Includes room fan coil units and air handling units.

  • air handling unit (AHU)NATSPEC

    A unit having a supply air flow not less than 400 L/s and consisting of casing housing a fan and coils. The casing may also house filters, dampers and other items. Includes larger sizes of units sometimes referred to as fan coil units.

  • air outletStandards

    Any opening through which air is delivered to an enclosure by an air-handling system of a building. 

  • air-conditioningBCA (NCC)

    for the purposes of Section J, means a service that actively cools or heats the air within a space, but does not include a service that directly - a) cools or heats cold or hot rooms; or b) maintains specialised conditions for equipment or processes, where this is the main purpose of the service. 

  • air-handling plantStandards

    A component part of an air-handling system that includes equipment providing air movement, as well as equipment for the purpose of controlling the direction, rate of airflow, division of airflow or condition of air (i.e. concentration level of contaminants, temperature and humidity). 

  • air-handling systemStandards

    A system for the purpose of directing air in a positive and controlled manner to or from specific enclosures by means of air-handling plant, ducts, plenums, air-distribution devices or automatic controls. 

  • air-pressurization systemStandards

    An air-handling system designed to establish a pressure differential in accordance with this standard. 

  • airborne soundNATSPEC

    Sound radiated directly from a source, such as a loudspeaker or machine, into the surrounding air.

  • airflow rateStandards

    The volumetric flow rate of air derived from the mass flow rate by dividing it by the density, normalized to 1.2kg/m2 (1.2g/L). NOTE: For buildings located at an altitude substantially differing from sea level, specified airflow rates should be adjusted. 

  • airlockStandards

    A room or compartment provided to disconnect a sanitary compartment or other enclosure from another room or space in the building. 

  • allowable working timeNATSPEC

    Measured from the commencement of incorporating/mixing the first application of the supplementary stabilisation binder into the unstabilised pavement materials to the completion of trimming.

  • alpineStandards

    Regions where the maximum snow load is usually due to accumulation from a number of successive snowfalls.

  • alpine areaBCA (NCC)

    means land - a) likely to be subject to significant snowfalls; and b) in New South Wales, A.C.T. or Victoria more than 1200 m above the Australian Height Datum; and c) in Tasmania more than 900 m above the Australian Height Datum.

  • alterationBCA (NCC)

    in relation to a building, includes an addition or extension to a building. 

  • alternative solutionNATSPEC

    means a Performance Solution. 

  • aluminium joineryNATSPEC

    The collective term used for aluminium framed and glazed windows and doors.

  • ambient temperatureNATSPEC

    The air temperature at the time of mixing and placing of concrete.

  • ambient waterNATSPEC

    Potable water at a temperature provided by the cold waterpiping system, without further heating or cooling.

  • ambulant people with disabilitiesStandards

    People who are able to walk but have mobility or manipulative impairments.

  • ameliorant materialAUS-SPEC

    Additives used to make or improve soil.

  • anchor trenchNATSPEC

    A trench excavated around the perimeter of a water feature in which the edges of the geotextile and sheet membrane liner are buried and that diverts surface water runoff.

  • ancillary for tile roofingNATSPEC

    A moulded non-metallic product used to finish the roof, includes apex, ridge, and barge tiles.

  • angle of approachStandards

    The angle between the centre-line of one path of travel and the centre-line of an adjoining path of travel.

  • angle of approachStandards

    The angle between the centre-line of one continuous accessible path of travel and the centre-line of an intersecting continuous accessible path of travel.

  • anionic bitumenNATSPEC

    A type of bituminous emulsion where dispersed particles comprise a bituminous binder and are negatively charged.

  • anionic bitumen emulsionNATSPEC

    A binder material in which the suspended particles are negatively charged.

  • annual energy consumptionNATSPEC

    means the theoretical amount of energy used annually by the building's services, excluding kitchen exhaust and the like. 

  • annual probability of exceedence of the actionNATSPEC

    The probability that a value will be exceeded in any one year.NOTE: This is the inverse of the so-called 'return period' better described as the average recurrence interval.

  • anti-burst reinforcementNATSPEC

    Reinforcement cage surrounding anchorages to control the tensile bursting stresses.

  • apexStandards

    The truss joint formed where two sloping top chords of a truss intersect, generally at the highest point of the truss. 

  • applicantStandards

    An entity (or entities) who seeks (seek) a particular test or assessment service in accordance with this Standard. 

  • application rateNATSPEC

    Application Rate: the specified or designed coverage of a specified application specified as litres per m2. 

  • approach sight distanceNATSPEC

    Relates to the ability of drivers to observe the roadway layout at an anticipated approach speed.

  • appropriate authorityNATSPEC

    means the relevant authority with the statutory responsibility to determine the particular matter. 


    approved Approved, reviewed, directed, rejected, endorsed and similar expressions mean approved (reviewed, directed, rejected, endorsed) in writing by the contract administrator.

  • areaStandards

    The area of the panel between sightlines after glazing, calculated using the sight size.

  • arrised edgeStandards

    The result of removing sharp edges.

  • aspect ratioStandards

    The ratio of the longer side of a panel to its shorter side.

  • aspect ratioStandards

    Ratio of the average roof height of a building to the smallest horizontal dimension, or the ratio of the largest dimension of a structural member to its crosswind breadth.

  • asphaltNATSPEC

    Dense graded asphalt: A mixture of coarse aggregate, fine aggregate, filler and bitumen.Open graded asphalt: A bituminous mix using aggregate containing only small amounts of fine material, and providing a high percentage of air voids.

  • asphaltAUS-SPEC

    A mixture of bituminous binder and aggregate with or without mineral filler, produced hot in a mixing plant, which is delivered, spread and compacted while hot.

  • asphalt pavementNATSPEC

    A pavement, the predominant structural strength of which is provided by asphalt layers.

  • assembly buildingBCA (NCC)

    means a building where people may assemble for - a) civic, theatrical, social, political, or religious purposes including a library, theatre, public hall or place of worship; or b) educational purposes in a school, early childcare centre, preschool, or the like ; orc) entertainment, recreational or sporting purposes including - i) a discotheque, nightclub or a bar area of a hotel or motel providing live entertainment or containing a dance floor; or ii)a cinema; or iii)a sports stadium, sporting or other club; or d) transit purposes including a bus station, railway station, airport or ferry terminal. 

  • assessment methodBCA (NCC)

    means a method that can be used for determining that a Performance Solution or Deemed-to-Satisfy Solution complies with the Performance Requirements.

  • assessment reportStandards

    A document that confirms the FRL and is prepared for the purpose of meeting the requirements of NCC, BCA Volume 1, Specification A2.3.NOTE: Also referred to as a 'formal opinion'.

  • asset protection zone (APZ)/Defendable spaceNATSPEC

     An area surrounding a development managed to minimise fuel loads and reduce the bushfire hazards. It is also referred to as a fire protection zone. It aims to protect human life, property and highly valued public assets. It comprises an inner protection area (IPA) and outer protection area (OPA).

  • astragalStandards

    A member, or combination of members, applied to one or both doors of a pair at their meeting stiles to close the clearance gap for the purpose of providing a weather seal, minimizing the passage of light or sound between doors or retarding the passage of smoke and flame during a fire. 

  • atriumBCA (NCC)

    means a space within a building that connects 2 or more storeys, and - a) is wholly or substantially enclosed at the top by a floor or roof (including a glazed roof structure); and b) includes any adjacent part of the building not separated by an appropriate barrier to fire; but c) does not include a stairwell, rampwell or the space within a shaft.

  • Atrium (Standards)Standards

    As defined in Part G3 of the NCC.

  • atrium wellBCA (NCC)

    means a space in an atrium bounded by the perimeter of the openings in the floors or by the perimeter of the floors and the external walls. 

  • attendanceNATSPEC

    Attendance, provide attendance and similar expressions mean give assistance for examination and testing.

  • attenuationNATSPEC

    The reduction of noise or vibration, by whatever method necessary, usually expressed in decibels.

  • attic trussStandards

    A roof truss supporting both roof and a habitable or non-habitable storage floor space contained within. 

  • authoritiesNATSPEC

    Any authority or agency covering statutory requirements relating to the project, including clearances for work in that particular area.

  • authoritiesAUS-SPEC

    Includes service agencies and Road Authorities.

  • automaticNATSPEC

    means designed to operate when activated by a heat , smoke or fire sensing device. 

  • automatic (standards)Standards

    The process of a system having the capability of starting or operating without user intervention. 

  • automatic suppression systemStandards

    A system, when activated by the heat of a fire or its products of combustion, that will actively have an impact on the rate of growth of the fire and which may contain the size of the fire, reduce it or extinguish it. NOTE: Active systems include fire sprinklers, inert gas flooding and deluge and water spray systems. 

  • average ambient temperatureNATSPEC

    Average value of the daily maximum and minimum ambient temperatures over the defined period at a site.

  • average exceedance probabilityNATSPEC

    The probability that a given rainfall total accumulated over a given duration will be exceeded in any one year.

  • average recurrence intervalNATSPEC

    The average or expected value of the period between exceedances of a given discharge, it is generally expressed in years.

  • average recurrence intervalAUS-SPEC

    The average or expected value of the period between exceedances of a given rainfall total accumulated over a given duration. It is implicit in this definition that the periods between exceedances are generally random.

  • average recurrence interval (BCA)BCA (NCC)

    applied to rainfall, means the expected average interval between exceedances for a 5 minute duration  rainfall intensity. 

  • average specific extinction areaBCA (NCC)

    means the average specific extinction area for smoke as determined by AS/NZS 3837.

  • awningNATSPEC

    Roof-like structure, usually of limited extent, projecting from a wall of a building.


  • backflow prevention deviceNATSPEC

    A device on an irrigation system that prevents water from re-entering the potable water lines once it flows into the irrigation pipes.

  • backstageBCA (NCC)

    means a space associated with, and adjacent to, a stage in a class 9b building for scenery, props, equipment, dressing rooms, or the like. 

  • bad groundNATSPEC

    Ground unsuitable for the work, including fill liable to subsidence, ground containing cavities, faults or fissures, ground contaminated by harmful substances and ground which is, or becomes, soft, wet or unstable.

  • balanced constructionNATSPEC

    Flush door construction where the facings on one side of the core are nominally equal in thickness, grain direction, properties and arrangement to those on the other side of the core, such that uniformly distributed changes in moisture content will not cause warpage.

  • balustradeStandards

    A low wall forming a parapet to a stair, ramp, balcony, raised level, or a change in levels.

  • barrierStandards

    The assembly of components, natural or otherwise, that restrict access to the pool. The barrier includes items such as fences, posts and panels, gate units, gates and doorsets, constructed or natural walls retaining or otherwise; sides of buildings, and balustrades on a balcony, where they form part of the intended barrier. 

  • barrier heightStandards

    The height of the barrier perpendicular to the finished ground level. 

  • baseNATSPEC

    One or more layers of material, forming the uppermost structural element of a pavement and on which the surfacing may be placed.

  • base coatNATSPEC

    A plaster coat applied before the application of the finish coat.

  • base courseAUS-SPEC

    Directly onto the subgrade or subbase if applicable.

  • base, structuralStandards

    Level at which earthquake motions are considered to be imported to the structure, or the level at which the structure as a dynamic vibrator is supported (see Figure 1.5(C)).

  • base/based courseNATSPEC

    One or more layers of material forming the uppermost structural element of a pavement and on which the surfacing may be placed. It may be composed of fine crushed rock, natural gravel, broken stone, stabilised material, asphalt or Portland cement concrete.

  • baseline dataStandards

    Data derived from the approved design and commissioning, which serve as a basis for subsequent comparison with the data derived from inspection, test and survey. 

  • batchNATSPEC

    A quantity of concrete containing a fixed amount of ingredients and produced in a discrete operation.

  • batch and loadNATSPEC

    Varies according to mixer types as follows:Central batch mixers: For mixers discharging into a tipper truck, a load may comprise more than one batch.Mobile batch mixers: A batch is deemed to be a load, a load must not comprise more than one batch.Continuous mixers: A batch is a load produced in a single discrete operation.

  • batterAUS-SPEC

    The uniform side slope of walls, banks, cuttings, etc. Usually expressed as a ratio of horizontal to vertical.The amount of such slope or rake, usually expressed as a ratio of horizontal to vertical, distinct from grade.To form a uniform side slope to a wall, bank, or cutting.

  • batterAUS-SPEC

    The face of an embankment or cutting, produced as a result of earthmoving operations involving cutting and filling.

  • beadStandards

    A strip of wood, metal, sealant or other suitable material secured to the rebate to retain the glass. Also known as glazing bead or sealant bead.

  • bearing wall systemStandards

    Structural system in which loadbearing walls provide support for all or most of the vertical loads while shear walls or braced frames provide the horizontal earthquake resistance.

  • beddingNATSPEC

    Mixtures of materials which are applied to substrates in a plastic state and which dry, cure and adhere tiles to substrates:Adhesive bedding: Paving/tiling adhered by adhesives.Mortar bedding: Paving/tiling adhered in a cementitious mortar bed.

  • bicycle path (cycleway)NATSPEC

    A path or path section intended for the exclusive use of cyclists, generally referred to as an exclusive bicycle path.

  • bifenthrinNATSPEC

    A synthetic, broad-spectrum pyrethroid insecticide that affects the nervous system of insects.Bifenthrin is registered by the Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority registrar, for use in conformance with the pesticides registrar’s approved label.

  • binderNATSPEC

    A bituminous material used for waterproofing the surface and holding an aggregate layer to the base.

  • biteStandards

    The width of silicone used to bond the fin or frame member to the edge of the glass panel.

  • bitumenNATSPEC

    A viscous material from the distillation of crude oil comprising complex hydrocarbons, which is soluble in carbon disulphide, softens when it is heated, is waterproof and has good powers of adhesion. It is produced as a refined by-product of oil.APP Bitumen: Bitumen modified with Atactic (meaning non-crystalline or amorphous) polypropylene wax to form a plastomeric sheet. The membrane is reinforced with fibreglass or non-woven polyester (NWP).SBS bitumen: Bitumen modified with Styrene Butadiene Styrene, a thermoplastic rubber that undergoes a phase inversion at elevated temperature and converts to an elastomeric material. The membrane is reinforced with fibreglass or non-woven polyester (NWP).

  • bitumen emulsion stabilisingNATSPEC

    The mixing of bitumen emulsion into the upper pavement layer to increase pavement strength.

  • blended granular materialAUS-SPEC

    Joining of two or more gravel materials in various designed % mix blends using ARRB spreadsheet model to achieve improved structural strength and improved plasticity whether smaller or larger as required.

  • blended granular materialsAUS-SPEC

    Joining of two or more gravel materials in various designed % mix blends to achieve improved structural strength and improved plasticity whether smaller or larger as required. The aim is to examine test results to determine the suitability of the new blend to comply with bitumen sealed base gravel specifications.

  • blended materialNATSPEC

    A material formed by the combination and mixing of materials obtained from different sources or rock types or recycled materials, in order to obtain a product with improved properties.

  • blockStandards

    A small piece of lead, rubber or other suitable material used to position the glass in the frame.

  • boilerBCA (NCC)

    means a vessel or an arrangement of vessels and interconnecting parts, wherein steam or other vapour is generated, or water or other liquid is heated at a pressure above that of the atmosphere, by the application of fire, the products of combustion, electrical power, or similar high temperature means, and - a) include superheaters, reheaters, economisers, boiler piping, supports, mountings, valves, gauges, fittings, controls, the boiler settings and directly associated equipment; butb) excludes a fully flooded or pressurised system where water or the other liquid is heated to a temperature lower than the normal atmospheric boiling temperature of the liquid. 

  • boiling waterNATSPEC

    Potable water at a temperature at or close to 100°C.

  • bond breakerNATSPEC

    A system preventing a membrane bonding to the substrate, bedding or lining.

  • bonding conductorNATSPEC

    Provides electrical connection between the lightning protection system and other metalwork and between various metal parts of a structure or between earthing systems.

  • bonding treatmentNATSPEC

    A treatment of a substrate which improves adhesion of a plaster system.

  • booking (book)NATSPEC

    The procedure of folding pasted surfaces together for easier handling, when applying paste onto wallcoverings.

  • boosterNATSPEC

    In-line pressure booster pumping station used to increase the hydraulic gradient.

  • borrow areaNATSPEC

    An area or excavation from which soil, clay, sand, rock or gravel has been excavated for a specific purpose.

  • borrowed airStandards

    Air that is borrowed by a naturally ventilated enclosure and used to ventilate an adjoining enclosure.

  • bottom chordStandards

    A member forming the lower boundary of a truss and which generally supports a ceiling. 

  • bound granular materialsNATSPEC

    Granular or subgrade materials to which a binder has been added to improve structural stiffness.

  • bound materialNATSPEC

    A granular or subgrade material to which a binder has been added to improve structural stiffness.

  • boundary barrierStandards

    A dividing barrier between two adjoining properties. 

  • braced frameStandards

    Two-dimensional structural system composed of an essentially vertical truss (or its equivalent) where the members are subject primarily to axial forces when resisting earthquake actions.

  • braced frame, concentricStandards

    Braced frame in which bracing members are connected at the column-beam joints (see Table 6.5(A)).

  • braced frame, eccentricStandards

    Braced frame where at least one end of each brace intersects a beam at a location away from the column-beam joint (see Table 6.2).

  • brailleStandards

    A system of touch reading for the blind, which employs raised dots that are evenly arranged in quadrangular letter spaces or cells.

  • branchNATSPEC

    A duct with no terminals connected to it.

  • breathabilityNATSPEC

    The ability of certain plasters to allow the passage of moisture vapour (rather than water) and air through to the straw bales.

  • building authority or other regulatory authorityStandards

    Body having statutory powers to control the design and erection of buildings or structures, including scaffolding, in the area in which the building or structure concerned is to be erected. 

  • Building ClassStandards

    The Class, as defined in the NCC.

  • building classificationStandards

    As defined in the NCC. 

  • building solutionBCA (NCC)

    means a solution which complies with the Performance Requirements and is a - a) Performance Solution; orb) Deemed-to-Satisfy Solution; orc) combination of (a) and (b).

  • buildings - non-residentialStandards

    Buildings other than those defined in Clause, such as hotels, hostels, motels, shops, offices, schools, public assembly buildings, and factories, and those parts of residential buildings common to a group of dwellings such as common circulation areas in blocks of two or more flats.

  • buildings - residentialStandards

    Buildings and such portions of buildings used as separate dwelling houses and flats, but not incorporating common circulation areas in blocks of two or more flats.

  • built-up air handling plantNATSPEC

    A custom made air handling unit, erected on-site on a building floor using standard panels and proprietary components.

  • bulkingNATSPEC

    The increase in volume of a layer designated for stabilisation resulting from preliminary pulverisation and/or incorporation of secondary or primary stabilisation binder.

  • bushfire attack levels (BAL)NATSPEC

    A method of measuring a site’s potential exposure to ember attack, radiant heat and direct flame contact as defined in AS 3959. It takes into consideration Fire danger index (FDI), the slope of the land, types of surrounding vegetation and the site’s proximity to any building.

  • bushfire prone areaAUS-SPEC

    An area declared as likely to be subject to bushfire attack by the local council or a state government.

  • butt joints (flooring)NATSPEC

    Floor units cross cut square with plain ends for joining over supports.


  • cable supportNATSPEC

    Cable tray, cable ladders and cable mesh cable support systems.

  • camberStandards

    upward vertical displacement built into the truss at truss panel points to compensate for long-term deflection due to anticipated permanent actions. 

  • canopyBCA (NCC)

    Roof adjacent to or attached to a building, generally not enclosed by walls.

  • cantileverStandards

    part of a truss that extends beyond its outermost support, exclusive of the overhang. 

  • capabilityNATSPEC

    The percentage of design water flow rate that the cooling tower is capable of cooling through the design temperature range at the design approach temperature with air entering at the design wet bulb temperature.

  • capacity factorStandards

    A factor applied to the characteristic capacity to obtain the design capacity. 

  • carparkBCA (NCC)

    means a building that is used for the parking of motor vehicles but is neither a private garage nor used for the servicing of vehicles, other than washing, cleaning or polishing. 

  • carriagewayAUS-SPEC

    That portion of a road or bridge devoted particularly to the use of vehicles, that is between guide posts, kerbs, or barriers where these are provided, inclusive of shoulders and auxiliary lanes.

  • carriagewayStandards

    That portion of a road or bridge devoted particularly to the use of vehicles, inclusive of shoulders and auxiliary lanes. It is usually designated as that part of a public road (way) between kerbs.

  • carriageway concrete pavementsNATSPEC

    Reinforced concrete pavements. Does not include roller compacted concrete bases and subbases.

  • catchmentNATSPEC

    A topographically defined area drained by a stream where all outflow is directed to a single point.

  • catchment (area)NATSPEC

    A topographically defined area drained by a stream, river or reservoir of water (into a groundwater system).

  • catchment area of any pointNATSPEC

    The limits from where surface runoff will make its way, either by natural or man-made paths, to this point.

  • cationic bitumen emulsionNATSPEC

    A binder material in which the suspended particles are positively charged.

  • cationic emulsionNATSPEC

    A type of bituminous emulsion where the dispersed particles comprise of a bituminous binder and are positively charged.

  • cavity wallBCA (NCC)

    for the purposes of FV1, means a wall that incorporates a drained cavity. 

  • ceiling unitNATSPEC

    Tile, panel, plank, strip or open grid supported within a ceiling suspended system.

  • cellular core doorNATSPEC

    Timber hollow core doors with cellulose mesh grid or honeycomb core encased by timber rails and stiles.

  • cement matrix terrazzoNATSPEC

    Facing aggregate in a cement based matrix.

  • central air-handling systemStandards

    An air-handling system that is capable of recycling air from one or more fire compartments to another one or more fire compartments. 

  • certificate of accreditationBCA (NCC)

    means a certificate issued by a state territory accreditation authority stating that the properties and performance of a building material or method of construction or design fulfill specific requirements of the BCA.

  • certificate of conformityBCA (NCC)

    means a certificate issued under the ABCB scheme for products and systems certification stating that the properties and performance of a building material or method of construction or design fulfill specific requirements of the BCA.

  • certificationNATSPEC

    A written assertion of facts.

  • certifierStandards

    A person or organisation acting on behalf of an authorized by the manufacturer who assumes the responsibility for approving the installation of a fire-resistant roller shutter in accordance with this Standard. 

  • chain link fencing fabricNATSPEC

    Diamond-pattern-woven fencing fabric manufactured from wire.

  • chair railStandards

    A fixed glazing bar, or rigid push-bar, that provides protection from human impact.

  • changeable letter systemsNATSPEC

    Sign systems consisting of display boards or holders into which removable individual letters, numbers, etc can be inserted .

  • changeable plate systemsNATSPEC

    Sign systems consisting of fixed plate holders to which removable interchangeable sign plates may be attached or inserted.

  • characteristic snow load on the ground (Sg)Standards

    Load at a site with accepted probability of not being exceeded during some reference period (years).NOTE: In meteorology the term 'weight of the ground snow cover' is also used.

  • characteristics capacityStandards

    The product of characteristic value and geometric section property appropriate to the action effect. 

  • check-outNATSPEC

    Examination of accuracy and condition of materials and components.

  • checklistNATSPEC

    Form completed during the manufacture/construction process verifying key steps.

  • chemical treated sheet materialNATSPEC

    A planar product impregnated with a termiticide tested in conformance with AS 3660.3 and registered with the pesticides registrar.

  • child-resistant doorsetStandards

    A barrier installed in a residential building that comprises a door, door frame, self-closing device and latch. 

  • child-resistant doorset (standards)Standards

    A doorset that compromises a door, door frame, self-closing device and self-latching device, that is designed to provide an access way from the building to the swimming pool. 

  • child-resistant windowsStandards

    The opening part of a window that is protected din accordance with Clause 2.6.

  • chilled waterNATSPEC

    Potable water at a temperature between 6°C and 15°C.

  • circulation spaceStandards

    Area within a building that is used for pedestrian travel, which is a passageway, corridor, hallway, stairway, lobby, atrium, enclosed walkway and mall, shop, area in a room that leads to another room, path of travel in car park and loading dock that leads to an exit or other path of travel to an exit. 

  • circulation spaceStandards

    Contains the net unobstructed area for a minimum height of 2000 mm above the finished floor or ground surface (unless otherwise specified in this Standard), which is that space surrounding built elements, landscape elements, and fixtures and fittings required for movement into and within buildings.

  • circulation spaceStandards

    A clear unobstructed area, to enable persons using mobility aids to manoeuvre.

  • claddingNATSPEC

    Material that forms the external surface over the framing of a building or structure.

  • clamp plateNATSPEC

    A continuous metal plate bolted to a linear framing element that clamps a membrane in place.

  • clay segmental paversNATSPEC

    Manufactured from clay, shale or argillaceous materials which may be mixed with additives. Clay pavers may have square, bevelled (chamfered), rounded or rumbled edges. They are generally rectangular in shape, with the length twice the width, plus 2 mm.

  • clean waterNATSPEC

    Water conforming to one of the following:Water that enters the development site from an external source and has not been further contaminated by sediment within the site.Water originating from the site and does not require treatment to reach the required water quality level.Water that would not be further improved if it was to pass through the sediment trap for the site.

  • cleaningNATSPEC

    Removal of any deposit or accumulation of impurities, or any other foreign material and may include dispersion and removal of solids, physical scrubbing, draining and/or disinfection.

  • cleanoutNATSPEC

    A subsurface drainage inlet at the surface of the pavement, shoulder or surrounding ground surface. Also known as flushout riser and inspection point.

  • clear zoneNATSPEC

    The horizontal width of space available for the safe use of an errant vehicle. It consists of the verge area and is measured from the nearside edge of the left-hand traffic lane. For divided roads, it is also measured from the offside edge of the right-hand traffic lane to the edge of the pavement for opposing traffic.

  • clearancesNATSPEC

    A formal certificate, approval or condition issued by an authority to allow work to be carried out in a particular area.

  • clearingNATSPEC

    The removal of vegetation or other obstacles at or above ground before the commencement of earthwork, drainage, etc.

  • climate zoneBCA (NCC)

    means an area defined in Figure A1.1 and in Table A1.1 for specific locations, having energy efficiency provisions based on a range of similar climatic characteristics. 

  • closed systemNATSPEC

    A water distribution or circulation system in which the water does not come into contact with air during circulation and to which, in normal operation, no water is added.

  • coarse aggregateNATSPEC

    A general term for aggregates substantially retained on a sieve of specified size, commonly 4.75 mm.

  • coating contractorNATSPEC

    The protective coatings application contractor conducting the on- or off-site coating application works.

  • coating manufacturerNATSPEC

    The supplier and/or manufacturer of the protective coating materials used.

  • coating system (floor sanding and finishing)NATSPEC

    Materials applied to enhance wear resistance and protect the flooring material.

  • cofferdamNATSPEC

    A structure, usually temporary, built to support the surrounding ground or to exclude water and soil sufficiently to permit work to proceed safely without excessive pumping.

  • cold mix asphaltNATSPEC

    A mixture of bituminous binder and aggregates, with or without mineral filler, produced warm or cold in a mixing plant and delivered in a workable condition suitable for stockpiling and spreading and compaction. It is used in areas where it is impractical to do repair work using hot mix.

  • collapse-susceptible timberStandards

    Timber, for which the shrinkage values before and after reconditioning differ by more than 2%. NOTE: Information on shrinkage values can be obtained from the following references: a) KINGSTON, R.S.T. and RISDON C.J.E. Shrinkage and Density of Australian and other South-west Pacific Woods. Division of Forest Products Technological Paper No. 13. CSIRO, 1961. b) BUDGEN, B. Shrinkage and Density of some Australian and South-east Asian Timbers. Division of Building Research Technological Paper (Second Series) No. 38, CSIRO, 1981. 

  • combination of actionsBCA (NCC)

    Set of design values used to confirm that the limit states are not exceeded under simultaneous influence of different actions.

  • combined poolStandards

    A part indoor pool and a part outdoor pool. 

  • combustibleBCA (NCC)

    means - a) applied to a material - combustible as determined by AS 1530.1; and b) applied to construction or part of a building - constructed wholly or in part of combustible materials. 

  • combustible (standards)Standards

    As defined in the NCC.

  • commissioningNATSPEC

    Running of the plant and equipment to make sure there is flow through the pumping system, carrying out any necessary testing and making adjustments until it is ready and suitable for normal starting and running under service conditions.

  • common wallBCA (NCC)

    means a wall that is common to adjoining buildings.

  • compactibility indexNATSPEC

    A comparative measurement used to determine the consistency and the workability of roller compacted concrete.

  • competent personNATSPEC

    A person who has, through a combination of training, qualification and experience, acquired knowledge and skills enabling that person to correctly perform a specified task.

  • competent person (standards)Standards

    A person who has had appropriate training or practical experience (or both) to provide safe and satisfactory performance. 

  • completion/completion of repairs/completion of worksNATSPEC

    The maintenance contract provides requirements for when the works are deemed complete, including that the works have been completed in conformance with drawings, schedules and specifications.

  • componentStandards

    Hardware used in the manufacture and installation of roof trusses, including nailplates, bracing and other brackets and connections. 

  • component layers (of wallcoverings)NATSPEC

    Decorative (top) layer: Consists of ink and a protective polymer coating applied to the top of the intermediate layer. The design and/or texture is printed using various methods such as gravure, flexography, surface printing and screen-printing.Intermediate layer (or the ground): It provides the surface upon which the decorative layer is printed and the background colour.Substrate or backing: The part of the wallcovering that adheres to the wall substrate. The backing material includes woven and non-woven fabrics and lightweight paper products.

  • compressed fibre cement sheetsNATSPEC

    Factory prefinished double faced autoclaved high density fibre cement sheets with square stone cut edges ground smooth and arrised.

  • concrete class – normalNATSPEC

    Concrete that is specified primarily by a standard compressive strength grade up to 50 MPa and otherwise in conformance with AS 1379 clause 1.5.3.

  • concrete class – specialNATSPEC

    Concrete that is specified to have certain properties or characteristics different from, or additional to, those of normal-class concrete and otherwise in conformance with AS 1379 clause 1.5.4. If special-class concrete is documented for the project, document the relevant parameters in the Concrete properties schedule – performance.

  • concrete segmental paversNATSPEC

    Units of not more than 0.10 m2 in gross plan area, manufactured from concrete, with top and bottom faces parallel, with or without chamfered edges and identified by the following shape types:Shape Type A: Dentated chamfered units which key into each other on four sides, are capable of being laid in herringbone bond, and by plan geometry, when interlocked, resist the spread of joints parallel to both the longitudinal and transverse axes of the units.Shape Type B: Dentated units which key into each other on two sides, are not (usually) laid in herringbone bond, and by plan geometry, when keyed together, resist the spread of joints parallel to the longitudinal axes of the units and rely on dimensional accuracy and accuracy of laying to interlock on the other faces.Shape Type C: Units which do not key together rely on dimensional accuracy and accuracy of laying to develop interlock.Refer to CMAA PA02 for laying patterns examples.

  • conditioned spaceBCA (NCC)

    means a space within a building, including a ceiling or under-floor supply air plenum or return air plenum, where the environment is likely, by the intended use of the space, to have its temperature controlled bu air conditioning, but does not include - a) a non-habitable room of a Class 2 building or Class 4 part of a building in which a heater with a capacity of not more than 1.2 kW or 4.3 MJ/hour provides the air conditioning; or b) a space in a Class 6, 7, 8, or 9b building where the input energy to an air conditioning system is not more than 15W/m2 or 15J/s.m2 (54Kj/hour.m2); or c) a lift shaft.  

  • connecting strapNATSPEC

    A short conductor for the connection of structures to the lightning protection system.

  • connectionStandards

    Mechanical means that provide a load path for actions between structural elements, non-structural elements and structural and non-structural elements.

  • construction activity actionsBCA (NCC)

    means actions due to stacking of building materials or the use of equipment, including cranes and trucks, during construction or actions which may be induced by floor to floor propping.  

  • construction jointsNATSPEC

    All joints other than fresh joints or where adjoining concrete shows signs of setting.

  • consumableNATSPEC

    Materials or components intended to be replaced within the service life of the associated plant or equipment.

  • contamination of landNATSPEC

    The presence of a substance in, on or under the land which is designated hazardous material and/or is at a concentration above that which is normally found in that locality, such that there presents a risk of harm to human health or to the environment.

  • continuous accessible path of travelStandards

    An uninterrupted path of travel to or within a building, providing access to all required facilities.NOTE: For non-ambulatory people, this accessible path does not incorporate any step, stairway, turnstile, revolving door, escalator or other impediment which would prevent it from being safely negotiated by people with disabilities.

  • continuous accessible path of travelStandards

    An uninterrupted path of travel to, into or within a building providing access to all accessible facilities.

  • contour cultivationNATSPEC

    Cultivation to prepare the rehabilitation area on the contour. On steep slopes the land is terraced or benched.

  • contract administratorNATSPEC

    Has the same meaning as architect or superintendent and is the person appointed by the owner or principal under the contract.

  • contractorNATSPEC

    Has the same meaning as builder and is the person or organisation bound to carry out and complete the work under the contract.

  • control lineNATSPEC

    A line generally at or near the centreline of a road on which the design is based and from which measurements for setting out may

  • control systemAUS-SPEC

    A lighting control system comprising a combination of some or all of the following:Automatic sensing and control components.Computer interface for programming.Dimming systems.Manual overrides.Motion detection sensors (occupancy sensors).Timers.

  • control system (lighting)NATSPEC

    A lighting control system comprising a combination of some or all of the following:Automatic sensing and control components.Timers.Manual overrides.Programming using a computer interface.

  • cool roomNATSPEC

    A refrigerated space which is designed to maintain a temperature below 5°C and is used primarily for the storage of product.

  • corewoodStandards

    Timber adjacent to or including the pith, that is, of density less than 80% that of the density of mature trees. NOTE: For plantation grown softwoods, corewood may be avoided by excluding all timber within a radius of 50mm from the centre of the pith that has a growth ring width greater than 6mm. 

  • corrective action requestNATSPEC

    A formal advice/instruction to the contractor requesting action to eliminate the cause of a detected nonconformity.

  • corrective maintenanceNATSPEC

    Maintenance initiated as a result of plant, equipment, systems, elements, before or after functional failure. This work can be planned or unplanned and includes repairs and replacement.

  • councilNATSPEC

    The Local Government Authority for the area where the work is carried out.

  • cove trussStandards

    A truss supported at a point on the overhang, rather than the usual support at the heel, beyond the point where the bottom chord (or end-web) meets the top chord. 

  • crash railStandards

    A rail, together with its fixings, capable of withstanding a load of 750 N/m length, acting in any direction without contact with the glazing material.

  • critical fall heightNATSPEC

    The maximum free height of fall for which a surface provides an acceptable level of impact attenuation.

  • critical radiant fluxBCA (NCC)

    means the critical heat flux at extinguishment as determined by AS ISO 9239.1.

  • cross bank (whoa-boy)NATSPEC

    An earth hump constructed across a track so that runoff is effectively diverted from it. Cross banks are designed to handle larger flows than cross drains, using one of the following methods:Infall cross bank: Used to direct water off the track surface where it is inappropriate to direct water to the side of the road.Outfall cross bank: Used to remove water from table drains at outfall locations.

  • cross drainsNATSPEC

    Drains of various forms that hinder the flow of water down a track and divert it across the track’s surface. The capacity of the drain is defined by its cross-section. Cross drains are designed to handle smaller flows than cross banks but larger flows than can be controlled by crossfall drainage.

  • crossfallNATSPEC

    The slope of the surface of a carriageway measured normal to the design or road centreline.

  • crossfall drainageNATSPEC

    Drainage which occurs when the surface of a track has sufficient cross slope to cause water to flow across and off the surface, rather than along it. Stormwater drainage for unsealed tracks can be classified as follows:Crown: Where water sheds from both sides.Infall: Where water flows into the hillside.Outfall: Where flow is away from the hillside.

  • cubicleNATSPEC

    A small space or compartment partitioned off, often within a wet area.

  • culvertNATSPEC

    A pipe or similar structure used to direct water under the track.

  • curtain wallBCA (NCC)

    means a non-loadbearing external wall that is not a panel wall. 

  • cushion head boxNATSPEC

    A plenum box fitted above a diffuser.

  • custom-built assembliesNATSPEC

    Low voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies manufactured to order and incorporating either purpose built or proprietary components or either purpose built or proprietary bus-bar assemblies.

  • cutback bitumenNATSPEC

    Bitumen to which cutter oil (kerosene) has been added to achieve a temporary reduction in viscosity.

  • cutterNATSPEC

    A light petroleum distillate (e.g. kerosene) added to bitumen to temporarily reduce its viscosity (cutback bitumen).

  • cutter oilNATSPEC

    A light petroleum distillate (e.g. kerosene) added to bitumen to temporarily reduce its viscosity.

  • cyclewayNATSPEC

    Portion of a road or footpath for the exclusive use of cyclists.


  • damperStandards

    An automatic operable device mounted in a duct, plenum or opening for the purposes of controlling air or smoke flow. 

  • date of completionNATSPEC

    The date when:All excavation, backfill and temporary restoration of the road opening is completed and safe for use by traffic.Permanent restoration is completed.

  • daylight sizeStandards

    The clear unsupported opening size that admits light.

  • deckingNATSPEC

    Intermittently-supported external flooring with drainage gaps between boards.

  • decorated glassStandards

    Clear or patterned glass processed by craftsmen for decorative effect. Stained glass, leadlights and sandblasted, acid-etched, embossed and printed glass fall into this category. Decorative interlayers may also be incorporated in laminated glass.

  • decorative overlaid wood panelsNATSPEC

    Particleboard or fibreboard with a bonded decorative finishing surface such as thermosetting resin (low pressure melamine), PVC film, paper foils or wood veneer.

  • deemed-to-satisfy provisionsBCA (NCC)

    means provisions which are deemed to satisfy the Performance Requirements. 

  • deemed-to-satisfy solutionBCA (NCC)

    means a method of satisfying the Deemed-to-Satisfy Provisions. 

  • defaultNATSPEC

    Specified value, product or installation method which is to be provided unless otherwise documented.

  • defined flood eventBCA (NCC)

    means the flood event selected for the management of flood hazard for the location of specific development as determined by the appropriate authority. 

  • defined flood levelBCA (NCC)

    means the flood level associated with a defined flood event relative to a specified datum. 

  • delineatorNATSPEC

    Small retroreflectors or panels of retroreflective sheeting attached to guide posts to provide a coherent pattern of delineation of carriageway edges as an aid to night driving.

  • demolitionNATSPEC

    The complete or partial dismantling of a building or structure, by pre-planned and controlled methods or procedures.

  • density ratio (soil)NATSPEC

    Percentage of the maximum density at optimum moisture content as determined by AS 1289.5.2.1.

  • depthStandards

    The distance measured along the direction of travel.

  • design action effectNATSPEC

    The effect computed from the design values of the actions or design loads.

  • design action effect or design load effectStandards

    The action or load effect computed from the design actions or design loads. 

  • design action or design loadStandards

    The combination of the nominal actions or loads and the load factors, as specified in AS/NZS 1170.0.

  • design capacityNATSPEC

    The product of the capacity reduction factor and the nominal capacity.

  • design capacity (standards)Standards

    The product of the capacity factor, modification factors and characteristics capacity of a structural element. 

  • design characteristic value/characteristic value for designStandards

    A specific design property suitable for use in the calculation of design capacity of a structural element. NOTE: This definition may differ from the meaning given or applied in other contexts. 

  • design lifeNATSPEC

    The period of time for which it is assumed, in the design, that an asset will be able to perform its intended purpose with only anticipated maintenance but no major repair or replacement being necessary.

  • design lifeStandards

    Period over which a structure or structural element is required to perform its function without repair. 

  • design parametersNATSPEC

    Information used as the basis for design. It includes design requirements, performance criteria, performance parameters and similar terms.

  • design resistance effectStandards

    The resistance effect computed from the loads and design capacities contributing towards the stability limit state resistance. 

  • design review - commissioningNATSPEC

    A review of the design documents to determine conformance with the OPR, including coordination between systems and assemblies being commissioned, features and access for testing, commissioning and maintenance, and other reviews required by the commissioning plan.

  • design situationNATSPEC

    Set of conditions for which the design is required to demonstrate that relevant limit states are not exceeded.

  • design wind speedNATSPEC

    Wind speed for use in design, adjusted for annual probability of exceedence, wind direction, geographic position, surrounding environment and height.

  • design working lifeNATSPEC

    Assumed period for which a structure or a structural element is to be used for its intended purpose without major repair being necessary.

  • designated bushfire prone areaBCA (NCC)

    means land which has been designated under a power of legislation as being subject, or likely to be subject, to bushfires. 

  • designerNATSPEC

    The professional responsible for the design of a portion of the project.

  • destructive inspection (of trees)NATSPEC

    The washing away of all soil from a rootball to allow inspection of rootball development.

  • detention centreBCA (NCC)

    means a building in which persons are securely detained by means of the built structure including a prison, remand centre, juvenile detention centre, holding cells or psychiatric detention centre. 

  • diaphragmStandards

    Structural system (usually horizontal) that acts to transmit earthquake actions to the seismic-force-resisting system.

  • diffuserNATSPEC

    A supply air grille mounted in a ceiling or on the underside of a duct through which air is supplied and distributed within a room or interior space of a building.

  • dilapidation recordNATSPEC

    The photographic or video and written record of the condition of the portion of the existing building retained, adjacent buildings, and other relevant structures or facilities, before the start of demolition work.

  • dincel wallNATSPEC

    Polymer based permanent formwork system for concrete walling for external and internal walls, retaining walls, storage tanks and other specialist uses.

  • direct fix cladding wallBCA (NCC)

    for the purposes of FV1, means a wall with cladding attached directly to the wall framing without the use of a drained cavity. 

  • direction of travelStandards

    The path a person travels along, which may be a footpath, passageway, walkway, ramp, stairs, landing or similar.

  • directional indicatorStandards

    An indicator used to indicate direction of travel through a space or to an object or service.

  • directional pattern (elongated pattern)Standards

    A pattern that indicates the direction of travel to be taken.

  • discrepancyNATSPEC

    A difference between contract information about the site and conditions encountered on the site, including but not limited to discrepancies concerning the following:The nature or quantity of the material to be excavated or placed.Existing site level.Services or other obstruction beneath the site surface.

  • discrete tactile ground surfarce indicatorsStandards

    Tactile ground surface indicators that are individually installed, which provide the same luminance for the sloping sides and upper surface of the truncated cone.

  • dismantleNATSPEC

    The reduction of an item to its components in a manner to allow re-assembly.

  • dispositionNATSPEC

    Action taken to resolve non-conformance (Lot specific).

  • distance pieceStandards

    Small blocks of resilient, non-absorbent material (such as extruded rubber) used to prevent the displacement of glazing compound or sealant by external loading. They are positioned opposite each other between the glass and rebate, and glass and bead.

  • documentNATSPEC

    Record of information in written or graphical form.

  • documentedNATSPEC

    Documented, as documented and similar terms mean contained in the contract documents.

  • domestic structureStandards

    Single dwelling or one or more attached dwellings (single occupancy units) complying with Class 1a or 1b as defined in the Building Code of Australia.

  • dominant openingNATSPEC

    Opening in the external surface of an enclosed building, which directly influences the average internal pressure in response to external pressures at that particular opening.NOTE: Dominant openings need not be large.

  • doorStandards

    A hinged, sliding, or otherwise supported openable barrier providing entrance to and exit from a building, corridor, or room. Doors may be framed or unframed.

  • door frameNATSPEC

    Includes jamb linings.

  • door leaf of similar constructionStandards

    A door leaf having the same core materials and form of construction and capable of achieving a fire resistance level (FRL) the equivalent of the tested assembly. 

  • doorsetNATSPEC

    An assembly comprising a door or doors and supporting frame, guides and tracks including the hardware and accessories necessary for operation.Fire-resisting doorset: A doorset which retains its integrity, provides insulation and limits, if required, the transmittance of radiation in a fire.Smoke-doorset: A doorset which restricts the passage of smoke.

  • doorsetStandards

    A complete assembly compromising - a) the door leaf or leaves including any glazing and other inbuilt features. b) the doorframe; if any, with its fixings to the wall and, for a sliding doorset, with all guides and their respective fixings to the lintel, wall or sill; c) any fixed panel and its associated transom or mullion (including the methods of fixing) that is contained within the doorframe; d) all hardware; and e) fixtures and fittings attached to the door leaf or doorframe. 

  • doorset certifierStandards

  • doorstopStandards

    The part of a doorframe against which the door leaf stops. 

  • double detail jointNATSPEC

    A joint formed by turning up and bonding the horizontal membrane to a vertical substrate and adding an overflashing of membrane material bonded to the vertical substrate and folded over and bonded to the horizontal membrane. In certain situations the double detail can be achieved by bonding an angle profile of membrane material to the junction prior to laying the membrane.

  • double glazingStandards

    Glazing that incorporates two panels, separated with an airspace, for the purpose of sound insulation or thermal insulation, or both.

  • double-acting doorsetStandards

    A doorset whose leaf is equally capable of opening in either direction, usually having no stop in its frame, and may be single-leaf or multi-leaf. 

  • double-twisted wire meshNATSPEC

    Non-ravelling mesh made by twisting continuous pairs of wires through three one-half (180°) turns to form hexagonal shaped openings.

  • double/double seal (D/D)NATSPEC

    A seal consisting of two successive applications of binder each followed by an application of aggregate.

  • downdraftNATSPEC

    Vertical air motion originating in a thunderstorm, resulting in severe horizontal winds at ground level.

  • downstreamStandards

    in the direction of airflow, away from a nominated reference point. 

  • dragNATSPEC

    Force acting in the direction of the wind stream; see also lift.

  • drainage blanketsNATSPEC

    A drain comprising a blanket of free-draining material. Typically used where a pavement intercepts a subterranean water source with substantial flows or the nature of the water-bearing strata is such that interception by formation or pavement drain is not possible. It is generally considered to be a structural component of the pavement system.

  • drainage structuresNATSPEC

    Devices to control stormwater flowing into and through a stormwater drainage system including culverts, inlet and outlet structures, junction boxes, gully pits, drop structures, headwalls, wingwalls, energy dissipaters and ancillary hardware such as grates, frames and step irons as well as subsurface drainage pipes at pits, headwalls and wingwalls.

  • drainage typesNATSPEC

    Subsoil drains: Drainage below the ground surface which collects subsurface water throughout its length of ground water or seepage from the subgrade and/or the subbase in cuttings and fill areas.Formation drains: Drainage systems designed to intercept water before it reaches the road/pavement structure. They are generally deeper than pavement drains and are usually remote from the pavement structure. Also known as cut-off drains.Pavement drains: Drainage systems designed to remove water from the subgrade and pavement materials.

  • driplineNATSPEC

    The most outer reach of a tree’s branches.

  • dry process fibreboard (MDF)NATSPEC

    Panel material with a nominal thickness of 1.5 mm or greater, manufactured from lignocellulosic fibres (derived from wood or other materials) with application of heat and/or pressure, the bond of which is derived from a synthetic adhesive added to the fibres and the panels are manufactured with a forming moisture content of less than 20%.

  • dual drainageNATSPEC

    The major/minor approach to street drainage.

  • ductStandards

    A component part of an air-handling system, intended for the passage of air from one part of an air-handling system to another. 

  • duct (standards)Standards

    A component part of an air-handling system that is intended for the passage of air from one part of an air-handling system to another (see also definition of "plenum"). 

  • ductility (of a structure)Standards

    Ability of a structure to sustain its load-carrying capacity and dissipate energy when responding to cyclic displacements in the inelastic range during an earthquake.

  • duration of loadingStandards

    period during which a member, a structural element or a complete structure is subject to a specified load level. NOTES: 1. For the purposes of interpretation in the use of load-duration factors in this Standard Clause strength and stiffness properties of timber under load are time dependent. 

  • dynamic response factorNATSPEC

    Factor to account for the effects of fluctuating forces and resonant response on wind-sensitive structures.


  • early age strengthNATSPEC

    A mean compressive strength at 7 days exceeding the values shown in AS 1379 Table 1.2.

  • early age strengthNATSPEC

    a mean compressive strength at 7 days exceeding the values shown in AS 1379 Table 1.2.

  • early childhood centreBCA (NCC)

    means any premises or part thereof providing or intending to provide a centre-based education and care service within the meaning of the Education and Care Services national Law Act 2010 (Vic), the Education and Care Services National Regulations and centre-based services that are licensed or approved under State Territory children's services law, but excludes education and care primarily provided to school aged children in outside school hours settings. 

  • earth windrowNATSPEC

    A soil ridge built along the track edge during construction or maintenance. Where used to direct runoff to a stable outlet, it is known as a windrow drain.

  • earthing boss (terminal lug)NATSPEC

    A metal boss specially designed and welded to process plant, storage tanks, or steelwork to which earthing conductors are attached by means of removable studs or nuts and bolts.

  • earthquake actionsStandards

    Intertia-induced actions arising from the response to earthquake of the structure.

  • eccentricityNATSPEC

    The distance from the centroid of a surface, to the point of application of the resultant force derived from the net wind pressure.

  • economic lifeNATSPEC

    The period of time from the acquisition of an asset to the time when the asset, while still physically capable of fulfilling its function and with only anticipated maintenance, ceases to be the lowest cost alternative for satisfying that function.

  • economy cycleStandards

    The automatic operation of an air-handling system whereby outdoor air is used to provide cooling when ambient conditions are suitable. 

  • edge blocksStandards

    Rubber blocks that prevent glass from moving sideways in the glazing rebate from thermal effects or vibration.

  • edge bondingNATSPEC

    The tendency of some coating systems to glue the edges of strip flooring and parquetry panels which prevents an even distribution of movement gaps.

  • edge clearanceStandards

    The space between the edge of the glass and frame rebate.

  • edge coverStandards

    The distance between the edge of the glass and the sightline.

  • edge drainsNATSPEC

    Drainage of rigid pavements from the interface between the base and subbase.

  • edge workingStandards

    The process of removing sharp edges from the surface and/or cut edge of glass by grinding, smoothing, bevelling and/or polishing.NOTE: For different edge finish requirements for specific applications, see AS/NZS 4668.

  • effective aerodynamic areaStandards

    The area of an equivalent aerodynamically perfect orifice, and equals the penetration area required by the natural ventilation device, multiplied by the discharge coefficient determined under test. NOTE: For determining effective aerodynamic area, see AS/NZS 4740.

  • effective depth of charringStandards

    the calculated depth to which the timber is considered as being charred. 

  • effective heightBCA (NCC)

    means the vertical distance between the floor of the lowest storey included in the calculation of rise in storeys and the floor of the topmost storey (excluding the topmost storey if it contains only heating, ventilating, lift or other equipmenet, water tanks or similar service units).

  • effective outdoor airflowStandards

    The sum of introduced outdoor air, residual effective outdoor air recycled from the enclosure(s), air-cleaning device effective outdoor air and transferred effective outdoor air. 

  • effective pipe lengthNATSPEC

    The centre-line length dimension specified by the manufacturer and subject to permissible tolerances.

  • effective residual sectionStandards

    The timber section remaining after removal of the calculated effective depth of charring from all fire-exposed surfaces. The effective residual section is considered to retain the same mechanical properties it possessed before exposure to the standard fire. 

  • effective surfaceNATSPEC

    A wall, roof or internal surface of a building that contributes significantly to load effects on major structural elements.

  • efficiency indexNATSPEC

    The effectiveness of a curing compound in retaining moisture, assessed as a percentage of water retained in the test specimens relative to the uncoated specimens.

  • elapsed delivery timeNATSPEC

    Time between the wetting of the concrete mix and the discharge of the concrete mix at the site.

  • electric passenger liftBCA (NCC)

    means a power-operated lift for raising or lowering people in a car in which the motion of the car is obtained from an electric motor mechanically coupled to the hoisting mechanism. 

  • electricity distributorNATSPEC

    Any person or organisation that provides electricity from an electricity distribution system to one or more electrical installations. Includes distributor, supply authority, network operator, local network service provider, electricity retailer or electricity entity, as may be appropriate in the relevant jurisdiction.

  • electricity network substationBCA (NCC)

    means a building in which high voltage supply is converted or transformed and which is controlled by a licensed network service provider designated under a power of legislation. 

  • electrohydraulic passenger liftBCA (NCC)

    means a power-operated lift for raising or lowering people in a car in which the motion of the car is obtained from the action of the liquid under pressure acting on a piston or ram, the pressure being generated by a pump driven by an individual electric motor. 

  • elevated buildingNATSPEC

    Building with a clear, unwalled space underneath the first floor level with a height from ground to underside of the first floor of one-third or more of the total height of the building.

  • embedded generatorNATSPEC

    Electricity generator connected to the local electrical distribution network.

  • embedment materialNATSPEC

    Includes bedding, haunch support and overlay material.

  • emergency access wayNATSPEC

    Access used to connect roads and provide alternative access and egress during emergencies where the traffic flow design does not allow two-way access.

  • emergency repairsNATSPEC

    Repairs to restore the normal operating state or safety of the plant or systems.

  • emitterNATSPEC

    A device used to control the rate at which water is applied to a specific area.

  • enclosed buildingNATSPEC

    Building that has a roof and full perimeter walls (nominally sealed) from floor to roof level.

  • enclosureStandards

    An individual room, space or part thereof. 

  • enclosure (standards)Standards

    An individual room, space or part thereof. 

  • encroachmentStandards

    The intrusion of a building component, fixture or fitment into a continuous accessible path of travel or circulation space.

  • end treatmentNATSPEC

    A device which protects vehicle occupants from injury in an impact with the end of the safety barrier. Can be either leading or departure end treatment.

  • end-matched joints (flooring and decking)NATSPEC

    Floor boards tongue and grooved at the ends to allow jointing between supports.

  • envelopeBCA (NCC)

    the purposes of section J, means the parts of the building's fabric that separate a conditioned space or habitable room from - a) the exterior of the building; or b) a non-conditioned space including - i) the floor of a rooftop plant room, lift-machine or the like; and ii) the floor above a carpark or warehouse; and iii) the common wall with a carpark, warehouse or the like. 

  • environmentNATSPEC

    The physical factors of the surroundings of human beings including the land, waters, atmosphere, climate, sound, odours, tastes, the biological factors of animals and plants and the social factor of aesthetics. Environment, as defined in the Environment Protection Act 1970 Victoria. The New South Wales Protection of the Environment Administration Act 1991 defines the environment as the components of the earth including land, air and water, any layer of the atmosphere, organic or inorganic matter and any living organism and human-made or modified structures and areas. See www.environment.gov.au for a more detailed definition under section 528 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (Commonwealth).

  • environmental auditsNATSPEC

    A review of environment management practices, in particular the evaluation of a site for environmental liability.

  • environmental impact assessmentNATSPEC

    A method for predicting environmental impacts of a proposed development including minimising identified impacts.

  • environmental management plan (EMP)NATSPEC

    A project or site specific plan describing the management of the environmental issues and considerations for the activity being undertaken. This applies to the design, construction and operation of the buildings, external works and infrastructure.

  • equipment plenumStandards

    An air chamber, integrated with air-handling plant, intended for the collection and passage of air, to which one or more ducting systems may be connected to form part of an air-handling installation within a building. 

  • equivalentBCA (NCC)

    means equivalent to the level of health, safety and amenity provided by the Deemed-to-Satisfy Provisions.

  • erosionNATSPEC

    The wearing away of land by the action of rainfall, running water, wind, moving ice or gravitational creep. Soil detachment (erosion) occurs when the erosive forces exceed the soil’s resistance, causing the soil particles to move.

  • erosion classes in relation to soil typesNATSPEC

     Class A: Low soil erodibility. Brown and red soils derived from finer sediments and metasediments.Class B: High soil erodibility. Red soils on fine granites, fine sandstones and basalt.Class C: Very high soil erodibility. Grey and yellow soils derived from granites, sediment and metasediment, especially coarse grained types.Class D: Extreme soil erodibility. Unconsolidated sediment. This is unsuitable for perimeter tracks.From the NSW Gov Tracks.

  • erosion control measuresNATSPEC

    Measures to prevent or reduce soil movement from wind, rain or flowing water from a construction site resulting from both natural processes and human activity.

  • errorNATSPEC

    The measured value minus the true value of the particular quantity being measured.

  • Errors and omissionsNATSPEC

    For the design prepared by the contractor, errors and omissions have the same meaning as defects.

  • escarpmentNATSPEC

    Two-dimensional, steeply sloping, face between nominally level lower and upper plains where the plains have average slopes of not greater than 5%.

  • essential electric powerNATSPEC

    For the purposes of this worksection and within the meaning of the term in AS 2896, essential electric power has the same meaning as vital in AS/NZS 3009.

  • essential latching componentsStandards

    The latching components that are critical for latching the doorset, which include- a) the latch bolt; b) the strike; and c) the bolt-retaining plate. 

  • essential servicesStandards

    Safety services, as defined in AS/NZS 3000.

  • evacuation routeBCA (NCC)

    means the continuous path of travel (including exits, public corridors and the like) from any part of a building, including within a sole-occupancy unit in a Class 2 or 3 building or Class 4 part, to a safe place. 

  • evacuation timeBCA (NCC)

    means the time calculated from when the emergency starts for the occupants of the building to evacuate to a safe place. 

  • evaporative air coolerNATSPEC

    A device that cools air by the evaporation of water.

  • evaporative efficiencyNATSPEC

    When tested to AS 2913, the cooling performance of the equipment, representing the extent to which the available wet bulb depression will be achieved as the dry bulb temperature drops.

  • exhaust airStandards

    Air, other than return air, removed from an enclosure by mechanical means and discharged to atmosphere. 

  • exhaust air intakeStandards

    Any opening through which air is extracted from an enclosure by an air-handling system. 

  • exhaust dischargeStandards

    An outlet from an air-handling system discharging to atmosphere. 

  • exitBCA (NCC)

    means- a) any, or any combination of the following if the provide egress to a road or open space- i) an internal or external stairway ii) a ramp. iii) a fire-isolated passageway. iv) a doorway opening to a road or an open space. b) a horizontal exit or a fire isolated passageway leading to a horizontal exit. 

  • expansion jointNATSPEC

    A closing control joint with the joint surfaces separated by a compressible filler to allow axial movement due to thermal expansion or contraction with changes in temperature or creep. It may include unbound dowels to assist vertical deflection control.

  • expansion ratioNATSPEC

    The ratio of the maximum volume of the bitumen in its foamed state to the volume of the bitumen once the foaming is completely subsided.

  • expert judgementBCA (NCC)

    means the judgment of an expert who has the qualifications and experience to determine whether a Performance Solution or Deemed-to-Satisfy Solution complies with the Performance Requirements. 

  • exposed edgeStandards

    A glass edge that is not covered.NOTE: Glass with exposed edges has no protection from damage, and may cause injury to those who come in contact with it.

  • exposure limitStandards

    1.  For occupational exposure, values designated by NOHSC. 2. For community exposure, values based on standards and goals set by NHMRC and NEPC. NOTE: NOHSC (National Occupational Health and Safety Commission; NHMRC (National Health and Medical Reasearch Council); NEPC (National Environment Protection Council).

  • Exposure reduction coefficient (Ce)Standards

    Coefficient defining the balanced load on a flat horizontal roof of a cold building, as a fraction of the characteristic snow load on the ground.NOTE: The exposure coefficient includes the effect of snow removal from flat roofs by wind. This effect depends on the temperature and the corresponding wind at the site.

  • extended design domain (EDD)NATSPEC

    The design domain for the assessment of existing roads. EDD is a range of values below the lower bound of the NDD.

  • external wallBCA (NCC)

    means an outer wall of a building which is not a common wall. 

  • extra-low voltageNATSPEC

    Not exceeding 50 V a.c. or 120 V ripple-free d.c.


  • F-grade timberStandards

    A stress grade of timber for which the specific suite of characteristic values given in Table H2.1, Appendix H are applicable. NOTE: F-grades may be assigned to graded timber in accordance with the appropriate grading Standard, i.e., AS 2082, AS 2858, AS/NZS 1748 or AS 3519.

  • fabricBCA (NCC)

    means the basic building structural elements and components of a building including the roof, ceilings, walls and floors. 

  • fabric pestsNATSPEC

    Insects which have the ability to feed on keratin, a proteinaceous constituent of wool and other animal hair. This includes insect species such as clothes moths, tapestry moths, carpet beetles and other insect species which do not digest keratin but can damage fabrics by chewing through.

  • faceted glazingStandards

    Flat panes of glass installed vertically at an angle to each other, to form a faceted curve.

  • faceworkNATSPEC

    Masonry intended to be exposed in a wall.

  • facings and edgingsStandards

    The surface covering an all perimeter strips of the door leaf, including their methods of fixing. 

  • failure positionStandards

    The position the device reverts to upon loss of operating power or control. 

  • fan motor powerBCA (NCC)

    means the power delivered to a motor of a fan, including the power needed for any drive and impeller losses. 

  • farm buildingBCA (NCC)

    means a Class 7 or 8 building located on land primarily used for farming- a) that is- i) used in connection with farming; or ii) used primarily to store one or more farm vehicles; or iii) a combination of (i) and (ii); and b) in which the total number of persons accommodated at any time does not exceed one person per 200m2 of floor are or part of thereof, up to a maximum of 8 persons; and c) with a total floor area of not more than 3500m2. 

  • farm shedBCA (NCC)

    means a single storey Class 7 or 8 building located on land primarily used for farming- a) that is i) used in connection with farming; or ii) used primarily to store one or more farm vehicles; oriii) a combination of (i) and (ii); and b) occupied neither frequently nor for extended periods by people; and c) in which the total number of persons accommodated at any time does not exceed 2; and d) with a total floor area of more that 500m2 but not more than 2000m2. 

  • farm vehicleBCA (NCC)

    means a vehicle used in connection with farming. 

  • farmingBCA (NCC)

    means - a) cultivating, propagating and harvesting plants or fungi or their products or parts, including seeds, spores, bulbs or the like, but does not include forestry; or b) maintaining animals in a physical environment for the purposes of- i) breeding them; or ii) selling them; or iii) acquiring and selling their bodily produce such as milk, wool eggs or the like; or c) a combination of (a) and (b), but does not include forestry or maintaining animals for sport or recreational purposes. 

  • fastenersNATSPEC

    An alternative method to lacing wire used for binding operations.

  • fault current limitersNATSPEC

    Circuit opening devices designed or selected to limit the instantaneous fault current.

  • fbs-1 (fibre-bio-soluble) mineral woolNATSPEC

    Insulation composed of bio-soluble glass or rock fibres.

  • featureNATSPEC

    Any natural variation on or colour which affects timber appearance, including gum/resin veins, borer marks, checks and knots. The grade will determine the level of feature present.

  • fencingStandards

    A barrier compromising a fence and associated gate or gates. 

  • fibre battsNATSPEC

    Flexible insulation supplied as factory cut pieces and composed of mineral wool (glass and rock fibre) or polyester fibre.

  • fibre blanketsNATSPEC

    Flexible insulation supplied as factory cut rolls and composed of mineral wool (glass and rock fibre) or polyester fibre, and may be combined with reflective facings.

  • fibre cement sheet liningsNATSPEC

    Treated cellulose fibre in a matrix of cement and sand autoclaved sheet, sealed on one side.

  • fibreglassNATSPEC

    Glass-fibre reinforced plastic (GRP).

  • fillingNATSPEC

    Treatment to enhance the surface appearance by:Flood filling: To fill the pores of open-grained timber or minor cracks in parquetry.Stopping: To fill punched nail head cavities.

  • filter layersNATSPEC

    Used to prevent the loss of permeability in drainage layers from clogging by fine soil particles infiltrating from the subgrade (underlying soil).

  • finStandards

    A piece of glass positioned and fastened to provide lateral support.

  • fine aggregateNATSPEC

    A general term for aggregate that substantially passes the 4.75 mm.

  • finish coat (rendering and plastering)NATSPEC

    The final coat of a coating system.

  • finished ground levelStandards

    Ground level or other permanent stable surface. 

  • finishing treatment (plastering)NATSPEC

    The treatment applied to a finish coat which may include processes and results.

  • fire access routeNATSPEC

    A designated route established to separate bushfire hazard areas from developed areas and to provide access within and around the edge of the subdivision. It may be used during firefighting but may also be used for fire prevention.

  • fire alarm signalStandards

    A signal received to initiate fire mode and which may be of a general or a zone-specific nature. 

  • fire breakNATSPEC

    A gap in vegetation or other combustible material (or fuel) that acts as a barrier to slow or stop the progress of a bushfire. A fire break may also serve as a public road.

  • fire brigadeBCA (NCC)

    means a statutory authority constituted under an Act of Parliament having as one of its functions, the protection of life and property from fire and other emergencies. 

  • fire compartmentBCA (NCC)

    means- a) the total space of a building; or b) when referred to in - i) the Performance Requirements - any part of a building separated from the remainder by barriers to fire such as walls and/or floors having an appropriate resistance to the spread of fire with any openings adequately protected; or ii) the Deemed-to-Satisfy Provisions - any part of the building separated from the remainder by walls and/or floors each having an FRL not less than that required for a fire wall for that type of construction are protected in accordance with the Deemed-to-Satisfy Provisions of the relevant Part. 

  • fire compartment (standards)Standards

    As defined in the NCC. 

  • fire damperStandards

    A device that operates to restrict the passage of fire or products of combustion through a duct or opening for the passage of air. Commentary: During recent years, fire collars have been used to protect openings in riser shafts where ventilation ducts penetrate the fire-resistant shaft wall, in lieu of mechanical or intumescent fire dampers. typically, the ducts are PVC pipes not greater than 200 mm in diameter and are used as bathroom exhaust, laundry exhaust, fume cabinet exhaust or outdoor air supply. such arrangements are not acceptable under this Standard. 

  • fire detection control and indicating equipmentStandards

    As defined in AS 1670.1.NOTE: The FDCIE panel was formerly known as FIP.

  • fire hazardBCA (NCC)

    means the danger in terms of potential harm and degree of exposure arising from the start and the spread of fire and the smoke and gases that are thereby generated. 

  • fire hazard propertiesNATSPEC

    Terminology to BCA A2.4.

  • fire hazard properties (BCA)BCA (NCC)

    means the following properties of a material or assembly that indicate how they behave under specific fire test conditions: a) Average specific extinction area, critical radiant flux and Flammability Index, determined as defined in A1.1.b) Smoke-Developed Index, smoke development rate and Spread-of-Flame Index, determined in accordance with Specification A2.4.c) Group number and smoke growth rate index (SMOGRArc), determined in accordance with Specification C1.10. 

  • fire intensityBCA (NCC)

    means the rate release of calorific energy in watts, determined either theoretically or empirically, as applicable. 

  • fire isolated exitStandards

    A fire-isolated stairway, a fire-isolated ramp or a fire-isolated horizontal passageway, whether used individually or in combination, which provides egress from a storey or enclosed space to a road or open space. 

  • fire loadNATSPEC

    means the sum of the net calorific values of the combustible contents which can reasonably be expected to burn within a fire compartment, including furnishings, built-in and removable materials, and building elements. the calorific values must be determined at the ambient moisture content or humidity. (The unit of measurement is MJ.) 

  • fire modeStandards

    The required mode of operation intended to control smoke movement within the building. 

  • fire protective coveringsBCA (NCC)

    means- a) 13mm fire-protective grade plasterboard; or b) 12mm cellulose cement flat sheeting complying with AS/NZS 2908.2 or ISO 8336; or c) 12mm fibrous plaster reinforced wit 13mm x 13mm x 0.7mm galvanised steel wire mesh located not more than 6mm from the exposed face; ord) other material not less fire-protective than 13mm fire-protective grade plasterboard, fixed in accordance with the normal trade practice for a fire-protective covering. 

  • fire resistance for structural adequacyStandards

    An assessment of the ability of a structural timber member to fulfil, for a stated period of time, the required structural adequacy only, if exposed to the fire test methods specified in AS 1530.4.

  • fire resistance levelStandards

    The performance criteria for fire resistance, i.e., the grading periods (in minutes) for the criteria specified in BCA, as - a) structural adequacy;b) integrity; andc) insulation, and expressed in that order. 

  • fire resistance level (standards)Standards

    The nominal grading period, in minutes, that is determined by subjecting a specimen to the standard time temperature curve regime as set out in AS 1530.4, to specify- a) structural adequacy; b) integrity; and c) insulation, and expressed in that order. NOTES: 1. For example, a building element with an FRL of 120/60/30 will maintain, when tested in accordance with AS 1530.4- a) structural adequacy for a period of 12min; b) integrity for a period of 60 min; and c) insulation for a period of 30min. 2. The structural adequacy criterion is not applied to doorsets and the  FRL is expressed in terms of (-/YY/ZZ).3. The fire resistance test applies a fourth criterion, radiation to fire-resistant doorsets, dampers and glazing, but the radiation grading period is not included in the statement of FRL given on the door-tag. For details on the use of radiation criterion, see the NCC. 

  • fire resistance periodStandards

    The time, in minutes, for a member to reach the appropriate failure criterion, specified in AS 1530.4, if tested in accordance with that standard. 

  • fire resistance testStandards

    A method to determine the ability of an element of construction, component or structure to fulfil, for a stated period of time, the required structural adequacy, integrity, thermal insulation or other expected attribute, during exposure to the standard fire resistance test regime specified in AS 1530.4.

  • Fire Resistance Test (standards)Standards

    A method to determine the ability of an element of construction, component or structure to fulfil, for a stated period of time, the required structural adequacy, integrity, thermal insulation or other expected attribute, during exposure to the standard fire resistance test regime as specified in AS 1530.4.

  • fire resistant protective insulationStandards

    The permanent fixing of materials, to the fire-exposed surfaces of timber member, which can increase the fire resistance for structural adequacy by providing additional thermal insulation, as measured by AS 1530.4.

  • fire safety systemBCA (NCC)

    means one or any combination of the methods used in a building to - a) warn people of emergency; or b) provide for safe evacuation; or c) restrict the spread of fire; or d) extinguish a fire, and includes both active and passive systems. 

  • fire source featureBCA (NCC)

    means - a) the far boundary of a road, river, lake or the like adjoining the allotment; or b) a side or rear boundary of the allotment; or c) an external wall of another building on the allotment which is not a Class 10 building. 

  • fire wallBCA (NCC)

    means a wall with an appropriate resistance to the spread of fire that divides a storey or building into fire compartments. 

  • fire-affected zoneStandards

    A smoke control where fire or smoke has been detected. 

  • fire-affected zonesStandards

    A smoke control zone where fire or smoke has been detected. 

  • fire-isolatedStandards

    Separated by fire-resistant construction.

  • fire-isolated passagewayBCA (NCC)

    means a corridor, hallway or the like, of fire resisting construction, which provides egress to or from a fire-isolated stairway or fire-isolated ramp or to a road or open space. 

  • fire-isolated stairwayBCA (NCC)

    means a stairway within a fire-resisting shaft and includes the floor and roof or top enclosing structure. 

  • fire-protected timberNATSPEC

    means fire-resisting timber building elements that comply with Specification A1.1.

  • fire-resistance levelBCA (NCC)

    means the grading periods in minutes determined in accordance with Specification A2.3, for the following criteria-a) structural adequacy; and b) integrity; and c) insulation, and expressed in that order. Note: a dash means that there is no requirement for that criterion. For example, 90/-/- means there is no requirements for an FRL for integrity and insulation, and -/-/- means there is no requirements for and FRL. 

  • fire-resistant doorsetStandards

    A doorset, except when varied as specified in this Standard, that is identical in assembly, construction and installation with a specimen doorset that has been submitted to the standard fire resistance test, ad has fulfilled all the relevant test requirements. NOTE: Fire-resistant doorsets are referred to as 'fire doors' in NCC. 

  • fire-resistant roller shutterStandards

    Complete assembly, identical in construction and installation with a specimen that has been submitted to  the fire resistance test and has fulfilled all the relevant test requirements to achieve the nominated fire resistance level, typically compromising - a) a curtain; b) vertical guides between which the curtain can slide when being raised or lowered, together with associated fittings; c) a horizontal barrel, mounted above the opening, on which the curtain is rolled being raised or lowered, together with associated fittings; d) a fusible link to provide for automatic operation; and e) a governing device to control the speed of descent of the curtain immediately following actuation.  

  • fire-resistingBCA (NCC)

    applied to a building element, means having an FRL appropriate  for that element. 

  • Fire-resisting building elementNATSPEC

    Floors, roofs, floor/ceilings, roof/ceilings, walls and other separating elements of construction having a fire resistance level (FRL) determined in accordance with the fire resistance test (and as required in NCC).

  • fire-resisting constructionBCA (NCC)

    means one of the Types of construction referred to in Part C1. 

  • fire-resisting doorsetNATSPEC

    A doorset which retains its integrity, provides insulation and limits, if required, the transmittance of radiation in a fire.

  • Fire-stoppingNATSPEC

    The system (comprising the whole assembly including backing materials and sealants) or materials used to maintain fire resistance of the fire-stopping element at joints, or where services pass through the element.

  • first mode natural frequencyNATSPEC

    Frequency of free oscillation corresponding to the lowest harmonic of vibration of a structure.

  • first mode shapeNATSPEC

    Shape of a structure at its maximum amplitude under first mode natural vibration.

  • fitted floor construction - platform floor constructionStandards

    A technique whereby flooring is laid over the whole joist/floor area prior to the construction of the external and internal wall framing. the laid floor is then used a working platform. 

  • fixedStandards

    Permanently installed or configured structures used to gain access, including platforms from which work is performed. 

  • fixtures and fittingsStandards

    Any item or parts fitted to any part of the doorset, which may or may not be essential for the correct operation of the doorset. 

  • flakingNATSPEC

    The process of loosely folding a membrane back and forth upon itself in concertina-fashion to reduce stresses on the fibres of the membrane fabric by eliminating tight folds and creases.

  • flammability indexBCA (NCC)

    means the index number as determined by AS 1530.2.

  • flashoverBCA (NCC)

    in relation to fire hazard properties, means a heat release rate of 1MW. 

  • flexible componentsStandards

    Flexible components are those parts of a barrier or materials used in a barrier made with chain link wire mesh, perforated materials, fabric, brushwood and the like. 

  • flexible connectionStandards

    A section of flexible duct used at junctions between ductwork and items of plant that are subject to vibration or for seismic isolation. 

  • flexible guide postNATSPEC

    A guide post that when impacted by a vehicle, deflects and returns to the vertical position without maintenance intervention.

  • flexible pavementNATSPEC

    A pavement which obtains its load-spreading properties from intergranular pressure, mechanical interlock and cohesion between the particles of the pavement material.

  • flightBCA (NCC)

    means that part of a stairway that has a continuous series of risers, including risers of winders, not interrupted by a landing or floor. 

  • flood hazard areaBCA (NCC)

    means the site (whether or not mapped) encompassing land lower than the flood hazard level which has been determined by the appropriate authority. 

  • flood hazard levelBCA (NCC)

    means the flood level used to determine the height of floors in a building and represents the defined flood level plus the freeboard. 

  • floorStandards

    The surface of a platform, walkway or landing. 

  • floor areaBCA (NCC)

  • floor construction system - fitted floor constructionStandards

    A technique whereby flooring is laid over a system of parallel joints and fitted between the bottom wall plates of each room and hallway. The procedure is usually carried out after the roof covering and external wall cladding have been completed. 

  • flooring - continuously-supportedNATSPEC

    Flooring which is supported by, and directly fixed to, continuous structural supporting surfaces, including concrete slabs and sheet flooring subfloors.

  • flooring - engineeredNATSPEC

    Manufactured flooring with wearing and decorative surfaces of timber or plastic laminated to supporting layers of plywood or MDF usually with tongues and grooves along the lengths of the boards.

  • flooring - fittedNATSPEC

    Flooring fitted between the walls of each room i.e. not platform floors.

  • flooring - floatingNATSPEC

    Any manufactured flooring panel system not fixed to the subfloor.

  • flooring - hardNATSPEC

    Timber with a wearing surface not easily cut with an abrasive.

  • flooring - intermittently-supportedNATSPEC

    Flooring which is supported by, and spans across joists or battens.

  • flooring - mildNATSPEC

    Timber with a wearing surface easily cut with an abrasive.

  • flooring - sprung floorNATSPEC

    A floating floor engineered to absorb shocks, usually fixed on resilient pads.

  • flooring - strip flooringNATSPEC

    Flooring made from machined timber with tongues and grooves along the length of the strips.

  • flush door panelsNATSPEC

    Door panels with two plane faces which entirely cover and conceal its structure.

  • flush door panels with blockboard coreNATSPEC

    Door panels consisting of a core plate of timber strips laid edge to edge, and to which are bonded no less than two sheets of veneer on each face.

  • flux oilNATSPEC

    A petroleum distillate (e.g. diesel) added to bitumen to produce a long-term reduction in viscosity.

  • foamed bitumenNATSPEC

    The mixing of water with hot bitumen at 180 to 190⁰C and incorporating the foam in gravel pavements as a stabilent to increase pavement qualities.

  • footholdStandards

    A component of, or feature in, an NCZ that can be used by a young child as an aid to climbing a barrier. 

  • footpath (pathway)NATSPEC

    A public way reserved for the movement of pedestrians, motorised wheelchairs and personal mobility devices.

  • force coefficientNATSPEC

    Coefficient that, when multiplied by the incident wind pressure and a reference area, gives the force in a specific direction.

  • formal opinionStandards

    the written opinion, by a registered testing authority, prepared in accordance with Clause 4.2. Also referred to as 'assessment'. 

  • formationNATSPEC

    The surface of the finished earthworks, excluding cut or fill batters.

  • formation drainsNATSPEC

    Drainage of seepage, springs and wet areas within and adjacent to the road formations.

  • formed and gravelAUS-SPEC

    This road is designed to the appropriate geometric design standards with the required drainage. A layer of imported granular material is compacted to the required thickness to support estimated traffic. Resheeting and patrol grading maintenance is required on a regular basis.

  • formed roadAUS-SPEC

    This road is designed to the geometric design standards with the required drainage. These are earth roads made up of local materials with no imported gravel requiring periodic resheeting maintenance. Will require patrol grading maintenance including heavy patching from time to time

  • formworkNATSPEC

    Formwork: The surface, supports and framing used to define the shape of concrete until it is all self-supporting. Formwork types include:Jump formwork: Incrementally moved formwork.Lost formwork: Sacrificial formwork left in place.Slip formwork: Continuously slipped or moving formwork.Table forms: Prefabricated and re-usable formwork systems for slabs and beams.

  • foundation levelNATSPEC

    The level at the underside of the 50 mm thick mass concrete blinding layer, below the reinforced concrete footing.

  • frameStandards

    A structure manufactured from timber, metal, glass, or other durable material or combinations of materials, such as glass fins and structural sealant, supporting the full length of a glazed panel edge.

  • frame girthStandards

    The flat width of steel required to manufacture the finished folded profile. 

  • frameless glazingStandards

    See unframed glazing.

  • free roofStandards

    Roof (of any type) with no enclosing walls underneath (e.g. freestanding carport).

  • freeboardBCA (NCC)

    means the height above the defined flood level as determined by the appropriate authority, used to compensate for effects such as wave action and localized hydraulic behaviour. 

  • freestanding wallsNATSPEC

    Walls that are exposed to the wind on both sides, with no roof attached (e.g. fences).

  • fresh jointsNATSPEC

    A joint where the pavement material on both sides of the joint has been placed within 3 hours from the time of mixing the material placed before to one side of the joint.

  • frictional dragNATSPEC

    Wind force per unit area acting in a direction parallel to the surface in question.

  • FRL (fire resistance level)Standards

    As defined in the NCC.

  • full-scale setStandards

    The standard fire resistance test carried out on a doorset in accordance with AS 1530.4.

  • fully framed glazingStandards

    Panels that have all edges framed.

  • functional performance testNATSPEC

    Test of the dynamic function and operation of equipment and systems under various modes, using simulations, manual (direct observation) and monitoring methods. The systems are run through all the control system’s sequences of operation, and components are verified as responding as intended for the documented sequence of operations. Functional performance tests are performed after construction checklists are complete.

  • fusible linkStandards

    A device that operates automatically at a predetermined temperature, to initiate the closure of an automatic fire-resistant roller shutter. 


  • gabionNATSPEC

    Double-twisted wire mesh container, uniformly partitioned into internal cells, interconnected with other units and filled with rocks to form flexible, permeable, monolithic structures. Gabions may be used for landscaping, erosion control, noise attenuation walls, retaining structures, and facing panels for reinforced soil structures.

  • gable roofNATSPEC

    Ridged roof with two sloping surfaces and vertical triangular end walls.

  • gateStandards

    A portion of a barrier, other than a child-resistant doorset that is designed to provide access through the barrier. 

  • gate unitStandards

    An assembly compromising a gate, a hinge post, a latch post, a latching device, hinges, and a self-closing device. 

  • generalNATSPEC

    In these conditions of tendering, the word principal has the same meaning as owner and proprietor.

  • general contaminantsStandards

    Contaminants that are generated by occupants, the building or devices (e.g. body odours, volatile organic compounds, and the like) and found within most buildings. 

  • general exhaust ventilationStandards

    Ventilation of an enclosure by the extraction of air from that enclosure, thereby allowing contaminants to be diluted by supply air or make-up air, the mixture being collected at exhaust air intakes and discharged outside of the building. 

  • geotechnical site investigationNATSPEC

    The process of evaluating the geotechnical characteristics of the site in the context of existing or proposed construction.

  • geotextileNATSPEC

    A permeable synthetic fabric laid on soil, sand blinding, concrete or masonry substrates, serving to protect, separate, filter or drain.

  • geotextile filterNATSPEC

    A fabric manufactured from synthetic fibres of long chained polymer such as polypropylene, polyester or similar material and stabilised against deterioration by ultraviolet light. A geotextile filter can be either non-woven or knitted fabric.

  • geotextile reinforced sealAUS-SPEC

    An application of a bituminous binder into which both aggregate and geotextile are incorporated to provide a durable wearing surface. A layer of binder is applied first, followed by a layer of geotextile fabric, then a second coat of binder, followed by the aggregate.

  • girder trussStandards

    A roof truss that supports other trusses or structural members (e.g. beams).

  • give noticeNATSPEC

    Give notice, submit, advise, inform and similar expressions mean give notice (submit, advise, inform) in writing to the contract administrator.

  • glareStandards

    The discomfort or impairment of vision experienced when parts of the field of view ( e.g. lamps, luminaries) are excessively bright in relation to the general surroundings. NOTE: The degrees of discomfort or impairment of vision that can be anticipated in any given situation may be described or measured respectively as "discomfort glare" and "disability glare". 

  • glass biteNATSPEC

    The depth of glass that is secured inside the frame assembly (rebate).

  • glazingBCA (NCC)

    for the purpose of Section J, means a transparent or translucent element and it supporting frame located in the envelope, and includes a window other than a roof light. 

  • glazing (1288)Standards

    The securing of glass in prepared openings in windows, door panels, partitions, and the like.Glass or plastics glazing sheet material for installation into a building

  • glossNATSPEC

    The optical property of a surface, characterised by its ability to reflect light specularly.

  • gloss unitNATSPEC

    Numerical value for the amount of specular reflection relative to that of a standard surface under the same geometric conditions.

  • goingStandards

    The horizontal distance from the nosing of one stair tread to the nosing of the next stair tread above or below. 

  • grabrailStandards

    See Rail, grabrail.

  • gradientNATSPEC

    The longitudinal slope of a road or path, usually represented as a ratio of one metre rise to the horizontal distance (e.g. 1:50) or expressed as a percentage (e.g. 2%).

  • granolithic toppingNATSPEC

    A topping mix with the coarse aggregate restricted to between 2 and 3 mm.

  • granular materialNATSPEC

    Termite resistant particles tested to AS 3660.3 and placed to form a termite management system. This includes physical termite management system of mineral granules and chemical termite management systems made of impregnated materials.

  • granular materialsAUS-SPEC

    Granular materials with no significant capacity to resist tensile stresses.

  • grasscloth wallpapersNATSPEC

    Handcrafted natural fibre wallpaper made by applying grasses or vines onto a paper backing with glue.

  • grease removal derviceStandards

    A device that removes grease and lint from the airstream. 

  • green concreteNATSPEC

    Concrete which has recently set but has not achieved any design strength.

  • group numberBCA (NCC)

    means the number of one of 4 groups of materials used in the regulation of fire hazard properties and applied to materials used as a finish, surface, lining, or attachment to a wall or ceiling. 

  • GuardrailStandards

    The highest rail in guardrailing fixed parallel to a floor or platform. 

  • guardrailingStandards

    A system of rails or panels, or both, that provides edge protection at the edge of a floor or platform or walkway. 

  • guide postNATSPEC

    Post used to mark the edge of the road carriageway. They assist the road user by indicating the alignment of the road ahead, especially at horizontal and vertical curves, and in some cases, provide a gauge with which to assess available sight distance.


  • habitable roomBCA (NCC)

    means a room used for normal domestic activities, and - a) includes a bedroom, living room, lounge room, music room, television room, kitchen, dining room, sewing room, study, playroom, family room, home theatre and sun room; but b) excludes a bathroom, laundry, water closet, pantry, walk-in wardrobe, corridor, hallway, lobby, photographic darkroom, clothes-drying room, and other spaces of a specialized nature occupied neither frequently nor for extended periods. 

  • half-lifeNATSPEC

    The time taken for the volume of the foamed bitumen to settle to half of the maximum volume achieved.

  • handholdStandards

    A component of, or feature in, an NCZ that can be used by a young child as an aid to climbing a barrier.

  • handrailStandards

    See rail, handrail.

  • handrail (standards)Standards

    A rail that provides a handhold on a platform, walkway, stairway or step-type ladder. NOTE: A handrail may form part of a guardrail.

  • hardwareStandards

    A broad term used to group all items that are fitted or related to doorsets and includes, but is not limited to, hinges, pivots, sliding door track assemblies, locks, latches, nibs, panic exit devices, closers, pull handles, lever handles, sequence selectors, bolts, reed, switches, buffers, power transfers, hold-open devices, any part of an automatic closing device that is attached to the doorset, electric locking, and any seals (whether provided for the purpose of fire resistance or smoke control or for other purposes such as draught or acoustics) that form the assembly.  

  • hardwareStandards

    To AS 4145.1 Section 2.

  • hardwoodStandards

    A wood from trees classified botanically as Angiosperm.NOTES: 1. Although the term "hardwood" is popularly interpreted to indicate the relative hardness of the wood, this interpretation is misleading as the wood of many hard woods is relatively soft (e.g., balsa wood). 2. The structural difference between hardwoods and softwoods is that hardwoods have vessels or pores and softwoods do not; that is, the wood of softwoods does not include pores. 

  • hazardStandards

    Any area or fixed object in or immediately adjacent to a direction of travel, which may place people at risk of injury.

  • hazardStandards

    Any area or object within the environment that may place people at risk.

  • hazardStandards

    Any area or fixed object in or immediately adjacent to a path of travel, which may place people at risk of injury.

  • header unitNATSPEC

    Components which run perpendicular to the face of the wall, i.e. into the embankment.

  • headroomStandards

    The minimum vertical distance, clear of all obstacles such as beams or ducts, above the floor or the slope line of the stair tread nosing. 

  • health-care buildingBCA (NCC)

    means a building whose occupants or patients undergoing medical treatment generally need physical assistance to evacuate the building during an emergency and includes- a) a public or private hospital; or b) a nursing home or similar facility for sick or disabled persons needing full-time care; or c) a clinic, day surgery or procedure unit where the effects of the predominant treatment administered involve patients becoming non-ambulatory and requiring supervised medical care on the premise for some time after the treatment. 

  • heat exchanger efficiencyNATSPEC

    Has the same meaning as heat exchanger effectiveness.

  • heat-strengthened laminated safety glassStandards

    Laminated safety glass utilizing two or more panels of heat-strengthened glass in the make-up.

  • heated waterNATSPEC

    Water that has been intentionally heated. It includes hot water, warm water and boiling water.

  • heelStandards

    The major truss joint formed where the sloping top chord meets the bottom chord. when the junction is used for the set out of the truss shape, it is also known as the pitching point. 

  • heightStandards

    The distance measured above the finished floor or ground surface.

  • hepaNATSPEC

    High efficiency particulate air, using or containing a filter designed to remove 99.97% of airborne particles, measuring 0.3 μm or greater in diameter passing through it.

  • hf weldingNATSPEC

    The welding of polymer materials by heating them with high frequency electromagnetic waves.

  • high level interfaceNATSPEC

    Systems transfer information in a digital format using an open system interface.

  • high pressure decorative laminates (HPDL)NATSPEC

    Panels consisting of core layers impregnated with phenolic and/or aminoplastic resins and a surface layer(s) impregnated with aminoplastic resins (mainly melamine resins).Sheets consisting of a decorative face and layers of fibrous sheet material (e.g. paper) impregnated with thermosetting resins and bonded together under heat and pressure of at least 5 MPa.

  • high stress seal or reseal (HSS)NATSPEC

    A bituminous seal or reseal treatment which may be a single/single or double/double seal, but with a polymer modified binder (PMB) to improve seal performance in areas of high traffic loading and stress.

  • high voltageNATSPEC

    Exceeding low-voltage.

  • high-build low profile latex coatingNATSPEC

    A water based coating designed to be used over textured coatings to increase the exposure performance of the system.

  • hillNATSPEC

    Isolated three-dimensional topographic feature standing above the surrounding plains having slopes < 5%.

  • hip roofNATSPEC

    A roof with four sloping (pitched) surfaces, pyramidal in shape, and with level eaves all round. A hip roof on a rectangular plan has two triangular sloping roofs at the short sides (hip ends) and two trapezoidal sloping roofs at the long sides.

  • hoardingsNATSPEC

    Freestanding (rectangular) signboards, and the like, supported clear of the ground.

  • hold pointAUS-SPEC

    A mandatory verification position in the contract beyond which work cannot proceed without the designated authorisation.


    Hold point The activity cannot proceed without the approval of the contract administrator. Consider including this Optional text if applicable. Hold point: Contract administrator intervention of this sort should be minimised, to avoid blurring of responsibilities, to increase precision in documentation, to expedite the works, to avoid an adversarial position and to accord with principles of quality assurance and risk allocation. In quality assurance terms, approval is a hold point rather than a witness point - too many approvals may bog the project down.

  • hoodStandards

    A component part of a local exhaust system intended for collecting effluent. 

  • horizontal alignmentNATSPEC

    The bringing together of the straights and curves in the plan view of a carriageway. It is a series of tangents and curves that may or may not be connected by transition curves.

  • horizontal exitBCA (NCC)

    means a required doorway between 2 parts of a building separated from eachother by a fire wall. 

  • hot layerStandards

    A buoyant layer of hot smoky grass contained by a ceiling or roof above it, and characterized by a relatively clear smoke-free zone beneath it. 

  • hot-dip galvanizedNATSPEC

    Zinc coated to AS/NZS 4680 after fabrication with coating thickness and mass to AS/NZS 4680 Table 1.This applies to galvanizing after fabrication. Galvanized sheet metal and similar materials are covered by 0183 Metals and prefinishes.

  • house energy rating softwareBCA (NCC)

    means software accredited under the Nationwide House Energy Rating Scheme and is limited to assessing the potential thermal efficiency of the dwelling envelope. 

  • house only barrierStandards

    A barrier that restricts access from the house to the pool, using child-resistant doorsets and windows. 

  • house plus barrierStandards

    A barrier that restricts access from the house to the pool, using child-resistant doorsets and windows, and adjoining properties to the perimeter barrier. 

  • house signageNATSPEC

    Internal and external project specific signs.


  • if requiredNATSPEC

    A conditional specification term for work which may be shown in the documents or is a legislative requirement.

  • illuminanceBCA (NCC)

    means the luminous flux falling onto a unit area of surface. 

  • illuminance (Standards)Standards

    The luminous flux arriving at a surface, divided by the area of the illuminated surface. Unit: lux (1x). Symbol: E. NOTE: 1 1x = 1 1m/m2.

  • illuminated signsNATSPEC

    Signs consisting of cabinets enclosing a light source, illuminating translucent face panels bearing the specified signage.

  • illumination power density (W/m²)BCA (NCC)

    means the total of power that will be consumed by the lights in a space, including any lamps, ballasts, current regulators and control devices other than those that are plugged into sockets outlets for intermittent use such as floor standing lamps, desk lamps or work station lamps, divided by the area of the space. 

  • immediate supports (cladding)BCA (NCC)

    Those supporting members to which cladding is directly fixed (e.g. battens, purlins, girts, studs).

  • impact soundNATSPEC

    Sound caused by impacts on building structure. Typical sources include footsteps, dropped objects on horizontal surfaces and the slamming of doors.

  • imported topsoilNATSPEC

    Similar to naturally occurring local topsoil, suitable for the establishment and ongoing viability of the selected vegetation, free of weed propagules and of contaminants, and classified by texture to AS 4419 Appendix I, as follows:Fine: Clay loam, fine sandy clay loam, sandy clay loam, silty loam, loam.Medium: Sandy loam, fine sandy loam.Coarse: Sand, loamy sand.

  • imposed actionNATSPEC

    A variable action resulting from the intended use or occupancy of the structure.

  • inadequate foundation materialNATSPEC

    Material beneath or adjacent to the proposed drainage structures with insufficient strength to support the structure and loads on the structure, or material with characteristics that would adversely affect the performance or construction of the drainage structure.

  • incandescent lampNATSPEC

    Lamps covered in AS 4934.2 including both tungsten filament and tungsten halogen types.

  • inclined liftBCA (NCC)

    means a power-operated device for raising or lowering people within a carriage that has one or more rigid guides on an inclined plane. 

  • incoming busbarsNATSPEC

    Busbars connecting incoming terminals to line side terminals of main switches.

  • individual air-handling systemStandards

    An air-handling system that is only capable of recycling return air to the fire compartment from which it is drawn. 

  • indoor airStandards

    Air inside the enclosure under consideration. 

  • indoor poolStandards

    A pool that is fully enclosed within a residential building or by a separate building. 

  • indoor/outdoor poolStandards

    A pool that is partly enclosed by a building and partly an outdoor pool.

  • infillStandards

    Typically a solid or mesh panel that prevents a person or material from falling through guardrailing. 

  • infillStandards

    Typically a solid or mesh panel that prevents a person or material from falling through gaurdrailing. 

  • infill balustradesStandards

    Balustrades in which the supported glass resists an infill pressure and/or point load applied to the glass panel.

  • infiltration airStandards

    Air (other than supply air and make-up air) that enters an enclosure or an air-handling system in an uncontrolled manner. 

  • ingress protectionNATSPEC

    IP, IP code, IP rating and similar expression have the same meaning as IP Code in AS 60529.

  • initial sealNATSPEC

    An application of a sprayed seal to a prepared basecourse which has not been primed. It is intended to adhere to the base, whilst providing a temporary wearing course for traffic.

  • initial sealAUS-SPEC

    An application of a primerbinder with a cover aggregate to a prepared base. 

  • initial treatmentNATSPEC

    An application of a prime (prime coat) or initial seal to a prepared basecourse.

  • inspection and test planNATSPEC

    The document identifying the required inspections and tests of the works.

  • inspection and test plans (ITP)NATSPEC

    A series of formal inspection and test plans, prepared by the coating contractor to reflect the specific inspection and testing that will be carried out on the surface preparation, coating application and the record keeping tasks to be undertaken.

  • instructionNATSPEC

    A document that specifies the key steps and sequence in the manufacture/construction for an activity and what materials and equipment will be used to achieve the required standard.

  • insulating glass unit (IGU)Standards

    Two or more panels of glass spaced apart and factory sealed with dry air (hermetically) or specials gases int he unit cavity. Often abbreviated to IGU or referred to as the unit.

  • insulationBCA (NCC)

    in relation to an FRL, means the ability to maintain a temperature on the surface not exposed to the furnace below the limits specified in AS 1530.4.

  • integrated management manualNATSPEC

    A document setting out the general policies, procedures and practices of an organisation.

  • integrated management systemNATSPEC

    The organisational structure, responsibilities, procedures, processes and resources to make sure that the product or service meets requirements.

  • integrated TGSIsStandards

    A series of TGSIs in a defined pattern of the same colour and material as the underlying surface.

  • integrityBCA (NCC)

    in relation to an FRL, means the ability to resist the passage of flames and hot gases specified in AS 1530.4.

  • intermediate postsNATSPEC

    Fence posts positioned at regular, equally spaced intervals between corner and/or end posts, to provide support for the fencing material.

  • internal partitionStandards

    An interior dividing wall or such portion of an interior dividing wall that is not a door, side panel, shopfront or atrium wall.

  • internal wallBCA (NCC)

    excludes a common wall or a party wall.

  • intra-pavement drainsNATSPEC

    Drainage of pavement layers of a flexible pavement on steep grades and sag curves where water flows are likely to be more parallel than transverse to road alignment. The subbase material is a macadam crushed rock or open graded asphaltic concrete.

  • introduced outdoor airflowStandards

    Air introduced to an air-handling system via an outdoor air intake. 

  • investigative inspectionNATSPEC

    Any method of root inspection that involves the washing away of all or portions of the soil from the rootball to expose a section or all the roots.

  • isolation barrierStandards

    A fence that isolates all unrelated pool ancillary structures from the pool area. 


  • joinery doorNATSPEC

    A door leaf with either stiles and rails, or stiles, rails and muntins, framed together. A joinery door may also incorporate glazing bars.Louvred door: A joinery door with framed openings filled in with louvre blades.Panelled door: A joinery door with framed openings filled in with panels including glass.

  • joint groupStandards

    The classification assigned to a timber species or species group for the purpose of calculating joint capacity. As defined and applied in AS 1720.1.

  • joint group (standards)Standards

    The classification assigned to a timber species or species group for the purpose of calculating joint capacity. NOTES: 1. Unseasoned timber species or species groups are classified into six joint groups (i.e., J1 to J6). Seasoned timber species or species groups are classified into six joint groups (i.e., JD1 to JD6). 2. The joint group classifications for a range of timber species or species groups are given in Tables H2.3, H2.4, and H3.1, Appendix H for hardwoods and softwoods. 3. joint group is defined for the purpose of this Standard only; the classifications are not necessarily applicable for proprietary fasteners (e.g., multi-toothed nailplates). 

  • jointsNATSPEC


  • kerbStandards

    A side barrier to a trafficable surface, including walkways and ramps.

  • kerbStandards

    A side barrier to a trafficable or accessible pedestrian surface.

  • kerb rampStandards

    An inclined accessway with a length not greater than 1520 mm and a gradient not steeper than 1 in 8, located within a kerb.

  • kerbs and channels (gutters)NATSPEC

    Includes all forms of concrete channels (gutters), dish drains and mountable median and barrier kerbing.

  • kitchen exhaust hoodStandards

    A component part of a kitchen exhaust system, intended for collecting the heat, fumes and other aerosols arising from cooking appliances, where such installation is required by the NCC. 

  • kneeStandards

    The major truss joint formed where the sloping top chord meets the horizontal top chord of the truncated truss. 

  • known historyNATSPEC

    Supplier documentation, demonstrating and enabling verification that the product was grown by essentially the same processes and under essentially the same system of control.

  • kvsNATSPEC

    The flow rate of water in m3/h through a fully open control valve that creates a pressure drop of 1 bar across the valve.


  • lacing wireNATSPEC

    Wire used to assemble and interconnect empty units to close and secure rock-filled units or used as internal stiffeners.

  • ladder - rung-type ladderStandards

    A structure comprising a stile or stiles and rungs on which a person may stand om or step in, ascending or descending. 

  • ladder - step-type ladderStandards

    A structure comprising stiles and treads on which a person may stand on or step in, ascending or descending, and which also incorporates handrails. 

  • ladder cageStandards

    A fixed enclosure that encircles the climbing space of a ladder. 

  • ladder flightStandards

    The continuous part of a fixed ladder between- a) Arrival and departure levels, in the case of ladders without platforms;b) Arrival or departure levels and the nearest platform; orc) Successive rest platforms. 

  • lag distanceNATSPEC

    Horizontal distance downwind, required for the effects of a change in terrain roughness on wind speed to reach the height being investigated.

  • laminated glassStandards

    A composite material consisting of two or more sheets of glass permanently bonded together by a plastic interlayer material.

  • laminated safety glassStandards

    Laminated glass that satisfied the relevant requirements for a safety glazing material in accordance with AS/NZS 2208.

  • lamp power density (W/m²)BCA (NCC)

    means the total of the maximum power rating of the lamps in a space, other than those that are plugged into socket outlets for intermittent use such as floor standing lamps, desk lamps or work station lamps, divided by the area of the space. 

  • landformNATSPEC

    The type and shape of terrain, usually including topography, geological characteristics, coastlines, rivers and water bodies.

  • landingStandards

    A resting place on a path of travel.

  • landingStandards

    A flat or crowned surface with a gradient not steeper than 1 in 40, e.g. a rest area on a ramp, stairway or walkway.

  • landing (standards)Standards

    A level area that provides access to a stairway or ladder, or is located at an intermediate level in a system of stairways or ladders. 

  • large culvert unitNATSPEC

    Culvert unit with a span exceeding 1200 mm up to 4200 mm and a height from 1200 mm up to 4200 mm.

  • large treeNATSPEC

    A tree grown in a container not less than 20 L or ex-ground with a minimum rootball diameter of 400 mm.

  • latchStandards

    A self-latching mechanism that prevents the opening of a closed gate or door without activation of its release device. 

  • latch handleStandards

    The operating device (e.g. knob, lever) that effects the retraction of the latch bolt. 

  • latent heat gainBCA (NCC)

    means the heat gained by the vapourising of the liquid without change of temperature. 

  • lateral braceStandards

    An out-of-plane member connected to a chord or web of a truss and intended to resist out-of-plane buckling forces. NOTE: Also known as a web brace, lateral tie, lateral restraint, chord tie or binder. 

  • latex extensible wall coating (or membrane coating)NATSPEC

    A non-aggregate flexible watertight finish.

  • lattice towersNATSPEC

    Three-dimensional frameworks comprising three or more linear boundary members interconnected by linear bracing members joined at common points (nodes), enclosing an open area through which the wind may pass.

  • layNATSPEC

    The manner, direction and pitch in which the strands are laid around the centre of a rope, or in which the wires are laid around the central strand. Construction of steel rope is designated by two numbers. The first indicates the number of strands that make up the rope, the second number describes the number of wires that make up each strand.

  • leadlightStandards

    A panel of individual glass pieces within a framework of lead, copper, zinc or brass cames, made in the traditional manner of small panes.

  • leakage airStandards

    Air (other than exhaust air return air and relief air) that escapes from an air-handling system in an uncontrolled manner. 

  • legibility distanceNATSPEC

    The maximum distance that the various types of traffic control signs or devices can clearly be seen under normal operating conditions and where there is no restriction to the line of sight.

  • length of superelevation developmentNATSPEC

    The transition of crossfall from a normal roadway on straight alignment to that of a fully superelevated crossfall on a circular curve.

  • level of serviceNATSPEC

    A qualitative measure describing operational conditions within a traffic stream such as speed and travel time, freedom to manoeuvre, traffic interruptions, comfort, convenience and safety and their perception by motorists and/or passengers.

  • levels of gloss finishNATSPEC

    When the specular direction is 60 degrees, surfaces with the following specular gloss reading is defined as follows:Full gloss: Over 85 gloss units.Gloss: Over 50 and up to 85 gloss units.Semi-gloss (satin): Over 20 and up to 50 gloss units.Low gloss (low sheen): Over 5 and up to 20 gloss units.Flat finish (matt): Up to 5 gloss units.

  • liftStandards

    Force acting at 90° to the wind stream; see also drag.

  • light source efficacyBCA (NCC)

    means the luminous flux of a lamp or the total radiant flux in the visible spectrum weighted by the spectral response of the eye, divided by the electric power that will be consumed by the lamp but excluding ballast and control gear power losses. 

  • lightweight constructionBCA (NCC)

    means construction which incorporates or compromises- a) sheet or board material, plaster, render, sprayed application, or other material similarly susceptible to damage by impact, pressure or abrasion; or b) concrete and concrete products containing pumice, perlite, vermiculite, or other soft material similarly susceptible to damage by impact, pressure or abrasion; or c) masonry having a thickness less than 70mm. 

  • limit stateStandards

    any limiting condition beyond which the structure ceases to fulfil its intended function. 

  • limit statesNATSPEC

    States beyond which the structure no longer satisfies the design criteria.NOTE: Limit states separate desired states (compliance) from undesired states (non-compliance).

  • limit states, serviceabilityNATSPEC

    States that correspond to conditions beyond which specified service criteria for a structure or structural element are no longer met.NOTE:  The  criteria  are  based  on  the  intended  use  and  may  include  limits  on  deformation, vibratory response, degradation or other physical aspects.

  • limit states, ultimateNATSPEC

    States associated with collapse, or with other similar forms of structural failure.NOTE: This generally corresponds to the maximum load-carrying resistance of a structure or structural element but, in some cases, to the maximum applicable strain or deformation.

  • lining paper (wall liner)NATSPEC

    A thick, plain wallcovering, available in a variety of weights, installed under the decorative wallpaper as a preparatory or foundation layer to cover wood panelling, or smooth out rough, damaged or textured walls. They are generally applied horizontally over grooved panelling and vertically on concrete blockwork. They may also be installed horizontally instead of vertically to hide seams and be used instead of a primer/sealer.

  • lippageNATSPEC

    Height deviation between adjacent units.

  • liquid appliedNATSPEC

    A water-based formulation which cures to form an elastomeric membrane. Urethane modified acrylics have better resistance to ponding. Products include acrylics, modified polyurethanes (water-based), polyuria and modified cementitious systems.

  • loadNATSPEC

    A single truckload of concrete comprising one or more batches.

  • loadStandards

    The value of a force appropriate to an action.

  • load bearing construction (straw bale)NATSPEC

    Also known as Nebraska style where straw bale walls support the load from the roof and upper floor(s) without a structural frame.

  • loadbearingBCA (NCC)

    means intended to resist vertical forces additional o those due to its own weight. 

  • loadbearing - non-loadbearing wallStandards

    A wall that supports neither roof nor floor loads but which may support ceiling loads and act as a bracing wall. a non-loadbearing external wall may support ceiling and lateral wind loads. 

  • loadbearing wallStandards

    A wall that supports roof or floor loads, or both roof and floor loads. 

  • local airStandards

    Enclosure air that passes through a local air-cleaning unit and returns to the same enclosure. 

  • local exhaustStandards

    Extraction of objectionable or hazardous effluent close to the source and discharging to atmosphere.

  • local (government) authorityNATSPEC

    A body established for the purposes of local government by or under a law applying in a state or territory.

  • lock functionNATSPEC

    For the purposes of this worksection, the general definitions given in AS 4145.1 Appendix E apply.

  • longitudinal linemarkingNATSPEC

    All lines that are generally parallel to the traffic flow, such as centre, lane, edge, turn, continuity and transition lines and outline markings.

  • lotNATSPEC

    A lot consists of any part of the works which has been constructed/manufactured under a continuous operation of uniform conditions and is essentially homogeneous with respect to material and general appearance. The whole of the work included in a lot is of a uniform quality without obvious changes in attribute values.

  • lotAUS-SPEC

    Any part of the works that has been constructed/manufactured under a continuous operation of uniform conditions and is homogeneous with respect to material and general appearance.

  • louvres - continuousNATSPEC

    Louvres that run continuously past, and are supported by, concealed framing or brackets.

  • louvres - horizontalNATSPEC

    Louvres that span between frames stiles, mullions or vertical supports.

  • louvres - verticalNATSPEC

    Louvres that span between frame heads and sills, or horizontal supports.

  • low density soilNATSPEC

    Soil for use on an artificial base material, e.g. roof top garden or large landscape containers. Such soils will usually be blends of mineral and organic compounds, and will typically have:Bulk density: 0.3 to 0.6 Kg/L.Organic matter: 10% to 40% by mass.

  • low gradient flow diversion (drainage) techniqueNATSPEC

    A flow diversion drain, channel or bank with a gradient sufficiently low to maintain subcritical flow along its length.

  • low level interfaceNATSPEC

    Systems transfer information via terminals and voltage free contacts.

  • low voltageNATSPEC

    Exceeding extra-low voltage, but not exceeding 1000 V a.c. or 1500 V d.c.

  • low-rise platform liftBCA (NCC)

    means a power-operated device for raising or lowering people with limited mobility on a platform, that is controlled automatically or by the application of constant pressure to a control. 

  • low-rise, low-speed constant pressure liftBCA (NCC)

    means a power operated low-rise, low-speed device for raising or lowering people with limited mobility on a carriage that is controlled  by the application of  constant pressure to a control. 

  • LuminaireStandards

    Equipment that houses the lamp(s) and directs the light in desired directions. it includes items necessary for fixing, protecting and operating the lamp(s). 

  • luminanceStandards

    The physical quantity corresponding to the brightness of a surface ( e.g. a lamp, luminaire, sky or reflecting material) in a specified direction. It is the Luminous intensity of an area of the surface, divided by that area. Unit: candela per square metre (cd/m2). Symbol: L. 

  • luminance contrastBCA (NCC)

    means the light reflected from one surface or component, compared to the light reflected from another surface or component. 

  • luminance contrastStandards

    The amount of light reflected from one surface or component, compared to the amount of light reflected from the background or surrounding surfaces.

  • luminance factorStandards

    The ratio of luminance of a surface to that of a perfect reflector, identically illuminated.

  • luminous fluxStandards

    A measure of quantity of  light. For a lamp or luminaire, it normally refers to the total light emitted. Unit: lumen (lm) 

  • luminous intensityStandards

    The concentration of luminous flux emitted in a specified direction. Unit: candela (cd). Symbol: l. 

  • luxury vinyl tilesNATSPEC

    Vinyl tiles which uses photographic encapsulation to replicate natural floor finish such as stone and wood.


  • main circuit supply busbarsNATSPEC

    Busbars connecting incoming functional unit terminals, or incoming busbars where no main switches are included, to outgoing functional unit terminals or outgoing functional unit tee-offs.

  • maintenanceNATSPEC

    Work that is carried out to preserve an asset, to allow for its continued use and function over its designed service life.

  • major exhaust systemStandards

    An exhaust system (other than a car park exhaust system) installed as a stand-alone system or in conjunction with a recycle or supply system and having total aggregate opening area exceeding 0.1m2 from a fire compartment into a separate shaft or duct within a shaft. 

  • major supply systemStandards

    A supply system (other than a car park supply system) installed as a stand-alone system or in conjunction with recycle or exhaust systems and having an inlet total aggregation opening area exceeding 0.1m2 into a fire compartment from a separate shaft or duct within a shaft. 

  • major systemNATSPEC

    The network of planned and unplanned drainage routes providing safe, well-defined overland flow paths for rare and extreme storm runoff events. It includes roads, natural channels, streams, culverts, community retention/detention basins and other facilities.

  • make-up airStandards

    Replacement air for smoke exhaust systems introduced below the hot layer, usually at ambient temperature/density. 

  • make-up air (standards)Standards

    Air that enters an enclosure or an air-handling system in a controlled manner but not by direct mechanical means. 

  • mandrelNATSPEC

    A short length of smooth pipe of internal diameter 20 mm - 30 mm greater than the external diameter of the slotted pipe being enclosed by filter fabric.

  • mansard roofStandards

    A roof with two slopes on all four sides, the lower slope steeper than the upper slope.NOTE: A mansard roof with the upper slopes less than 10° may be assumed to be flat topped.

  • manufacturerStandards

    An organization or individual who manufactures any part of the doorset used in a fire-resistant doorset. 

  • manufacturer (standards)Standards

    An organization or individual who manufactures the fire-resistant roller shutter. 

  • manufacturers’ and suppliers’ recommendationsNATSPEC

    Recommendations, instructions, requirements, specifications (and similar expressions) provided in written or other form by the manufacturer relating to the suitability, use, installation, storage and/or handing of a product.

  • manufacturer’s recommendationsNATSPEC

    Recommendations, instructions, requirements, specifications (and similar expressions) provided in written or other form by the manufacturer and/or supplier relating to the suitability, use, installation, storage and/or handling of a product.

  • masonryNATSPEC

    A preformed component, intended for use in masonry construction, either with or without mortar joints.

  • masonry (standards)Standards

    Stone, brick, terracotta block, concrete block, or other similar building unit material, or a combination of thereof, assembled unit-by-unit to form a wall, pier, shaft, chimney or other part of a building. 

  • massive timberBCA (NCC)

    means an element not less than 75mm thick as measured in each direction formed from chemically bonded laminated timber and includes: a) cross laminated timber (CLT)b) laminated veneer lumber (LVL)c) Glued laminated timber (Glulam)

  • match (pattern match)NATSPEC

    The point where the design matches at the seams.

  • material design / formulationNATSPEC

    A statement outlining the specific material critical components which forms the basis for QA testing and verification, including any on site dilution or manufacturer recommendations as to use and handling of the product prior to application.

  • material r-valueNATSPEC

    The thermal resistance (m2.K/W) of a component calculated in conformance with AS/NZS 4859.1 clause Material R-Value does not include air space or surface resistances.

  • matv (Master Antenna Television)NATSPEC

    System that primarily provides access to terrestrial television signals but may also carry radio services. Terrestrial signals may be distributed at their original frequency or shifted to a more convenient frequency. In-house services may also be provided by modulating base band signals from an appropriate source.

  • maximum thicknessStandards

    The thickness of a panel of glass at the maximum thickness tolerance.

  • mayStandards

    Indicates an option. 

  • may (standards)Standards

    indicates the existence of an option. 

  • mechanical services switchboard (MSSB)Standards

    The mechanical services switchboard supplied by mains or emergency power, which may incorporate a motor control centre (MCC).

  • medical breathing airNATSPEC

    For the purposes of this worksection medical breathing air and medical air have the same meaning.

  • meeting stilesStandards

    The abutting vertical members in a pair of doors. NOTE: This excludes astragals. 

  • meltNATSPEC

    A public domain gating terminal.

  • memberStandards

    A single structural element, including truss chords and webs. 

  • membraneNATSPEC

    A thin and flexible sheet of fabric material.

  • membrane linerNATSPEC

    The waterproof barrier between the water and the substrate and as follows:Seamless membrane liners: Low VOC emitting, single component, self curing liquid polymers applied directly to concrete or masonry substrates as a seamless film.Sheet membrane liners: Ultra-violet resistant, flexible sheet membranes installed on concrete, masonry or stable soil substrates and with seams lapped and sealed.

  • membrane plateNATSPEC

    A metal plate that clamps the corner of a membrane to its support structure, or a pair of plates that clamp a membrane corner between them and are then attached by a hinged fitting to the support structure.

  • membranes (waterproof)NATSPEC

    Impervious barriers to liquid water which may be:Installed below floor finishes.Installed behind the wall sheeting or render and termed External.Installed to the face of the wall sheeting or render and termed Internal.Applied in liquid or gel form and air cured to form a seamless film.Applied in sheet form with joints lapped and sealed.

  • metal faced boardNATSPEC

    Sheet metal (usually stainless steel) adhesive fixed to moisture resistant particleboard.

  • metal oxide varistorsNATSPEC

    Semiconductors that protect electronic components and systems from transient voltage.

  • metallic-coatedNATSPEC

    Steel coated with zinc or aluminium-zinc alloy as follows:Metallic-coated steel sheet: To AS 1397. Metal thicknesses specified are base metal thicknesses.Ferrous open sections zinc coated an in-line process: To AS/NZS 4791.Ferrous hollow sections zinc coated by a continuous or specialised process: To AS/NZS 4792.AS 1397 covers a wide range of finishes, coating grades and materials. It is used throughout the building industry for cold-formed sections such as studs, ceiling sections and roofing products. Specifications to AS 1397 should preferably include the base metal thickness and coating designations e.g. 1.6 mm galvanized grade G2 steel with Z275 coating.AS/NZS 4791 and AS/NZS 4792 exclude electrogalvanized (zinc plated) steel.

  • MezzanineBCA (NCC)

    means an intermediate floor within a room. 

  • MGP grade timberStandards

    A stress grade of timber for which the specific suite of characteristics values given in Table H3.1, Appendix , are applicable. NOTE: MGP grades are assigned to seasoned softwood timber graded in accordance with AS/NZS 1748.

  • microsurfacingNATSPEC

    A laboratory designed mixture of polymer modified asphalt emulsion, aggregate, water, mineral filler, and other additives, which is capable of being spread in variably thick layers for rut-filling and correction courses, and for wearing course applications where good surface texture is required to be maintained throughout the service life. Microsurfacing is cured using a chemically controlled curing process.

  • mineral fillerNATSPEC

    A fine material, the majority of which passes a 75 µm sieve, derived from aggregate or other similar granular material.

  • minimum gap sight distanceNATSPEC

    Critical acceptance gap that drivers are prepared to accept when undertaking a crossing or turning manoeuvre at intersections.

  • minimum illuminance (at a point)Standards

    The maintained illuminance provided at any time on a horizontal plane and at floor level, at any of the grid points for which illuminane calculations or measurements are conducted to assess compliance with this standard. 

  • minimum thicknessStandards

    The thickness of a panel of glass at the minimum thickness tolerance.

  • minor exhaust systemStandards

    An exhaust system having a total aggregate opening area from a fire compartment not exceeding 0.1m2 into a separate shaft or duct within a shaft. 

  • minor roadNATSPEC

    All roads which become part of the public road system and are supplementary to arterial and sub-arterial roads. Minor roads may include local sub-arterial roads, collector roads, local roads, and access streets. The terminology of road hierarchy may be different in different states. Refer to the relevant State Road Authorities for more information https://www.australia.gov.au/information-and-services/transport-and-regional/roads-and-road-transport/authorities

  • minor supply systemStandards

    A system delivering air from a separate shaft or duct within a shaft via a total aggregate opening area into a fire compartment not exceeding 0.1m2. 

  • minor systemNATSPEC

    The gutter and pipe network capable of carrying and controlling flows from frequent runoff events. It includes kerb and channels, inlet structures, open drains and underground pipes and on-site detention facilities.

  • mirrorStandards

    A piece of glass silvered on one side.

  • mixNATSPEC

    The proportions of component materials in a quantity of concrete.

  • mixAUS-SPEC

    The proportions of component materials in a quantity of slurry seal or microsurfacing treatment mixture.Mix design: The designed proportion of component materials comprising the surfacing treatment mixture.Production mix: Mix produced in the plant and delivered to the site in a workable condition suitable for stockpiling, spreading and compaction.

  • mix designAUS-SPEC

    The designed portion of constituent materials comprising the type and source of components, target grading, binder content and volumetric properties of the mix.

  • mobile shelvingNATSPEC

    Shelving or storage unit fitted with wheeled traction system. Mobile shelving is also referred to as compactus shelving.

  • modified granular materialNATSPEC

    Granular materials to which small amounts of stabilising agent have been added to improve their performance without causing a significant increase in structural stiffness.

  • modified materialNATSPEC

    Granular materials to which small amounts of stabilising agent have been added to improve their performance (e.g. adjusting plasticity) without causing a significant increase in structural stiffness.

  • moisture content (timber)NATSPEC

    The percentage by mass of water present in the timber.

  • moment-resisting frameStandards

    Essentially complete space frame that supports the vertical and horizontal actions by both flexural and axial resistance of its members and connections.

  • moment-resisting frame, intermediateStandards

    Concrete or steel moment-resisting frame designed and detailed to achieve moderate structural ductility (see Table 6.5(A)).

  • moment-resisting frame, ordinaryStandards

    Moment-resisting frame with no particular earthquake detailing, specified in the relevant material standard (see Table 6.5(A)).

  • moment-resisting frame, specialNATSPEC

    Concrete or steel moment-resisting frame designed and detailed to achieve high structural ductility and where plastic deformation is planned under ultimate actions (see Table 6.2).

  • monoslope roofStandards

    Planar roof with a constant slope and without a ridge.

  • motor control centre (MCC)Standards

    The electrical part of the mechanical services installation that normally controls and monitors mechanical services. NOTE: The MCC may be incorporated in the mechanical services switchboard (MSSB). 

  • mullionStandards

    A vertical bar dividing sections of a panel over a doorset within the doorframe other than the door leaf. NOTE: see transom panel.

  • multiple compartment buildingStandards

    A building containing two or more fire or smoke compartments required to have fire- or smoke-resisting separation. NOTES: 1. A fire isolated exit, ramp or passageway is considered to be a separate fire or smoke compartment. 2. Also known as multi-compartment building. 


  • nailplateStandards

    A metal connector plate, with integral teeth, manufactured from structural quality steel protected with zinc coating, stainless steel or their equivalents and designated to transfer loads between different timber members at a joint. 

  • natural soilNATSPEC

    A soil that has been dug from the landscape and is presented for use with no more than minor amendment. This soil could be topsoil, subsoil or a mixture of them and have a bulk density greater than 0.6 Kg/L.

  • net continuous rated output (or prime rating)NATSPEC

    Net continuous electrical output available at alternator terminals, not including the electrical power consumed by the generating set's dependent and essential auxiliaries.

  • net short-time rated output (or stand-by rating)NATSPEC

    Net electrical output available from the generating set for 1 hour in every 12 hours at net continuous rated output, not including electrical power consumed by the generating set's dependent and essential auxiliaries.

  • networkAUS-SPEC

    Defined as:A connected system of roads and infrastructure that heavy vehicles can travel on. Can be restricted to a certain class(es) of heavy vehicles (NHVR).Set of roads which provide a means of road based travel within a region. In transport terms it is defined in terms of links and nodes.

  • network utility operatorNATSPEC

    The entity undertaking the piped distribution of drinking water or natural gas for supply or is the operator of a sewerage system or external stormwater drainage system.This definition is based on the wording in the Plumbing Code of Australia (PCA) but expanded to include natural gas. The Network Utility Operator is also commonly known by names like the supply authority, water board etc.

  • new pavementNATSPEC

    A combination of a base and surface course placed on a subgrade to support the traffic load and distribute it to the road bed for flexible pavements or rigid pavements.

  • no fines concreteNATSPEC

    Material consisting graded coarse aggregate, typically to a single AS sieve size, bound together by a mixture of cement and water to supply sufficient strength. The result is an open textured cellular concrete with many voids and increased permeability.

  • nominal sizeNATSPEC

    A size designation of an aggregate which gives an indication of the largest particle size present.

  • nominal thicknessStandards

    A numeric designation, used for reference purposes, that indicates the approximate thickness of glass.NOTE: Nominal thickness is used for description convenience only and not as an exact manufacture size.

  • nominated mixNATSPEC

    The designed mix submitted for approval.

  • non-aggregate textured latex coatingNATSPEC

    A latex coating selected for aesthetic purposes to provide decorative profiles according to the application technique used.

  • non-climableStandards

    A part of a barrier in which there are no handholds or footholds or other aids for climbing. 

  • non-climable zoneStandards

    A zone on a barrier and in the space adjacent to a barrier, running the full length of a barrier including a gate, that is intended to restrict climbing of the barrier by young children. 

  • non-combustibleBCA (NCC)

    means - a) applied to a material - not deemed combustible as determined by AS 530.1 - Combustibility Tests for Materials; and b) applied to construction or part of a building - constructed wholly of materials that are not deemed combustible. 

  • non-combustible (standards)Standards

    As defined in the NCC. 

  • non-conformanceNATSPEC

    The non-fulfilment of documented requirements.

  • non-conformance reportNATSPEC

    A mandatory (standard format) submission by the contractor that details the non-conforming work and the contractor’s proposed disposition of the non-conformance.

  • non-essential servicesStandards

    Non-safety services, as defined by AS/NZS 3000. 

  • non-fire-affected zone(s)Standards

    Smoke control zone(s) where fire or smoke has not been detected. NOTE: See Clause 1.4.23, fire-affected zone. 

  • non-illuminated exit signBCA (NCC)

    means an exit sign that complies with the requirements for an externally illuminated exit sign under AS 2293.3, except clause 3.4.4.

  • non-load bearing construction (straw bale)NATSPEC

    Straw bale walls supporting only their own weight, such as in infill panels, within some type of framed structure.

  • non-loadbearing walls - non-loadbearing wall, externalStandards

    A non-loadbearing external wall supports neither roof nor floor loads but may support ceiling loads and act as a bracing wall. A non-loadbearing external wall may support lateral wind loads (e.g., gable or skillion end wall). 

  • non-loadbearing walls - non-loadbearing wall, internalStandards

    A non-loadbearing internal wall supports neither roof nor floor loads but may  support ceiling loads and act as a bracing wall. 

  • non-rigid road safety barrier systemNATSPEC

    A road safety barrier system with elements designed to move substantially in a crash, and absorb energy from movement of the road safety barrier system and deformation of the vehicle.

  • normal design domain (NDD)NATSPEC

    The design domain for a new road that defines the normal limits for the values of parameters that have traditionally been selected for new roads.

  • nosingStandards

    The leading edge of a stair tread. 

  • notice of non-conformanceNATSPEC

    Formal instruction to the contractor of product non-conformance to documented requirements. It automatically creates a Hold Point and requires a non-conformance report (NCR) from the contractor.

  • notional charring rate (for design purposes)Standards

    The rate at which timber is assumed to be converted to char when exposed to fire. 

  • ntuAUS-SPEC

    A measure of water turbidity or the optical clarity of a liquid.


  • obstructed roofStandards

    Roof that is not able to shed its snow load through sliding and the action of wind.NOTE: Parapets, snow fences, steps in roofs, valleys abutting roofs and similar usually prevent snow being shed from a sloping roof, consequently the roof is considered to be obstructed. Obstruction may also be caused by snow that builds up above eaves that are low to the ground.

  • obstructionsStandards

    Natural or man-made objects that generate turbulent wind flow, ranging from single trees to forests and from isolated small structures to closely spaced multi-storey buildings.

  • obtainNATSPEC

    Obtain, seek and similar expressions mean obtain (seek) in writing from the contract administrator.

  • occupied zoneStandards

    The region within an occupied space between planes 75 mm and 1800 mm above the floor and more than 600 mm from the walls or fixed air-handling equipment. 

  • opacityNATSPEC

    The ability of a paint or textured and membrane coating to obliterate the colour difference of a substrate.

  • open drainsNATSPEC

    All drains other than pipe and box culverts and include catch drains, channels (gutters) and kerbs and channels (gutters).

  • open spaceBCA (NCC)

    means a space on the allotment, or a roof or similar part of a building adequately protected from fire, open to the sky and connected directly with public road. 

  • open spectator standBCA (NCC)

    means a tiered stand substantially open at the front. 

  • open systemNATSPEC

    A water distribution or circulation system that is not a closed system.

  • open-deck carparkBCA (NCC)

    means a carpark in which all parts of the parking storeys are cross ventilated by permanent unobstructed openings in not fewer than 2 opposite or approximately opposite sides, and -a) each side that provides ventilation is not less than 1/6 of the area of any other side; and b) the openings are not less than 1/2 pf the wall area of the side concerned. 

  • organic soilNATSPEC

    A general purpose soil (normally an amended natural soil or soil blend) that has:Bulk density: > 0.6 Kg/L.Organic matter: 15% to 25% by mass. Naturally occurring organic soil can be 95% organic by mass.

  • organic wasteNATSPEC

    Includes all food wastes, vegetative wastes from land clearing and pruning operations, biosolids produced from the treatment of liquid wastes, garden wastes and forestry waste (bark and saw dust) and paper and cardboard products.

  • orientationStandards

    A person's awareness of their position and relationship to significant objects in their environment.

  • other markingsNATSPEC

    All diagonal and chevron markings on the pavement including symbols, words, numerals and arrows, kerb markings and markings for parking.

  • other propertyBCA (NCC)

    means all or any of the following - a) any building on the same or an adjoining allotment; and b) any adjoining allotment; and c) a road. 

  • outdoor airBCA (NCC)

    means air outside the building

  • outdoor air (standards)Standards

    Air outside the building. 

  • outdoor air economy cycleBCA (NCC)

    is a mode of operation of an air-conditioning system that, when the outside air thermodynamic properties are favourable, increases the quantity of the outside air used to condition the space. 

  • outdoor air intakeStandards

    any opening through which outdoor air is admitted to an air-handling system of a building. 

  • outdoor poolStandards

    A pool that is not fully or partly enclosed by a building. 

  • outer separatorNATSPEC

    The portion of the road reserve separating a through carriageway from a service road.

  • outfallBCA (NCC)

    means that part of the disposal system receiving surface water from the drainage system and may include a natural water course, kerb and channel, or soakage system. 

  • outside of the barrierStandards

    That side of a barrier facing away from the pool area. 

  • overhangStandards

    The outward extension of one truss chord (usually the top chord) beyond the other truss chord (usually the bottom chord), measured horizontally. NOTES: 1) An external overhang refers to the part of the overhang outside of the outer wall. 2) Unless specifically noted otherwise, overhangs are considered external. 

  • overlay zoneNATSPEC

    The part of the trench backfill immediately over the utility service, for a maximum of 300 mm.

  • ownerNATSPEC

    Has the same meaning as principal.

  • oxidation of bitumenNATSPEC

    A binder which becomes hard and brittle as a result of chemical attack by oxygen in the presence of heat and sunlight.


  • P-delta effectStandards

    Additional induced structural forces that develop as a consequence of the gravity loads being displaced horizontally.

  • packaged air conditioningNATSPEC

    DX one-piece package or split system with total cooling capacity tested to AS/NZS 3823.1.1 or AS/NZS 3823.1.2, standard test condition T1:Room air conditioner: < 8 kW(r).Packaged air conditioner: ≥ 8 kW(r).

  • packaged air handling unitNATSPEC

    A proprietary AHU manufactured off site, factory assembled and type-tested.

  • paintAUS-SPEC

    In this worksection implies pavement marking paint.

  • paint or coating systemNATSPEC

    A product in liquid form, which when applied to a surface, forms a dry film having protective, decorative or other specific technical properties.

  • paneStandards

    A single piece of glass cut to size for glazing.

  • panelStandards

    An assembly containing one or more panes.NOTE: Panels may be fully framed, partly framed or fully unframed.

  • panel lengthStandards

    The distance measured along a chord between adjacent panel points (nodes). 

  • panel pointStandards

    Point of intersection of two or more truss members, excluding mid-panel splices. 

  • panel wallBCA (NCC)

    means a non-loadbearing external wall, in frame or similar construction, that is wholly supported at each storey. 

  • parquetNATSPEC

    Timber mosaic parquet panels or wood block parquet bonded to a subfloor either directly or over an underlay, as follows:Mosaic parquet panels: Pre-assembled timber finger modules held together to form tiles or panels.Wood block parquet: Rectangular blocks of timber with length a multiple of width (e.g. 260 x 65 mm) laid individually to produce a pattern.

  • partial inspection (of trees)NATSPEC

    A method of exposing a section of a root system to enable inspection of root development by washing the soil away in a wedge-shaped section from the stem to the extremity of the rootball. This soil can be gently replaced so the tree is not damaged.

  • particleboardNATSPEC

    Panel material manufactured under pressure and heat from particles of wood (wood flakes, chips, shavings, sawdust and similar) and/or lignocellulosic material in particle form (flax shives, hemp hurds, bagasse fragments, rice hulls, wheat straw and similar) with the addition of an adhesive.

  • particleboard flooringStandards

    Particleboard that is manufactured to provide the durability and stiffness specified in this Standard as required for flooring and other structural applications. 

  • particleboard flooring FStandards

    A term indicating that the panel features increased resistance to fungi attack (see AS/NZS 1860.1). 

  • particleboard flooring FRStandards

    A term indicating that the panel features increased resistance to fire (see AS/NZS 1860.1). 

  • Particleboard flooring H2Standards

    A term  indicating that the panel features increased resistance to  termite attack when used in dry, above ground applications (see AS/NZS 1860.1).

  • partitionStandards

    Permanent or relocatable internal dividing wall between floor spaces.

  • partition - fully demountableNATSPEC

    A partition system in which any component may be demounted without damage, using only small hand tools, and subsequently reassembled without cutting, trimming or refinishing.

  • partition - glazedNATSPEC

    A partition system consisting of a suite of exposed sections forming door and window frames, ceiling channels, sills, glazing and accessories; and generally intended for use in conjunction with framed and lined partition systems.

  • partition - semi demountableNATSPEC

    A partition system in which the major components are designed to be removed and reused but panels or linings, which are likely to be damage during removal, are not.

  • partly framed glazingStandards

    Panels that have one or more edges unframed.

  • parts and componentsStandards

    Elements that are -(a) attached to and supported by the structure but are not part of the seismic-force-resisting system; or(b) elements of the seismic-force-resisting system, which can be loaded by an earthquake in a direction not usually considered in the design of that element.

  • patch plate glass panel fixingsNATSPEC

    Glass panels linked by bolting to metal plates.

  • path of travelStandards

    A passageway, walkway, ramp, landing or other space used for circulation.

  • pathwayAUS-SPEC

    See footpath.

  • patient care areaBCA (NCC)

    means a part of a health-care building normally used for the treatment, care, accommodation, recreation, dining and holding of patients including a ward area and treatment area. 

  • patterned glassStandards

    Glass having a pattern impressed on one side or both sides.

  • pavementNATSPEC

    The portion of a carriageway placed above the subgrade for the support of, and to form a running surface for, vehicular traffic including subbase and base course.

  • pavement interface drainsNATSPEC

    Drain the interface between pavements with different structures and may be oriented transversely or longitudinally.

  • pavement markingNATSPEC

    All longitudinal linemarking, transverse lines, raised pavement markers and other markings placed on the road to control traffic movement or parking.

  • paversNATSPEC

    Units made from clay, stone, precast concrete, ceramic, terrazzo and/or other inorganic raw materials, generally over 20 mm thick, used as coverings for horizontal surfaces. Larger pavers are often referred to as flags.

  • paving unitNATSPEC

    A purpose-built continuous flow mixing unit capable of accurately metering each individual component material into a mixer which thoroughly blends these materials to form a homogeneous mixture and transfers the mix into a spreader box for application to the pavement surface.

  • pedestalNATSPEC

    The structure directly supporting the pavers, including head, base, column, any adjustment and any locking devices.

  • pedestrian push-button assemblyStandards

    An enclosure incorporating a push-button switch that is designed for use in conjunction with a signalized intersection or foot crossing for the purpose of registering an pedestrian demand.NOTES:It could also include, or have associated with it, facilities for the generation of audible and tactile signals and an arrow legend on the face of the button indicating the direction or directions to which it applies.For requirements for pedestrian lights and push-button assemblies, see AS 1742.14.Pedestrian push-button assemblies should be positioned within the zone of common reach (see AS 1728.2).

  • pedestrian-operated signalStandards

    Pedestrian-activated traffic signals operated through push-button assemblies.

  • PenetrationNATSPEC

    An aperture through a fire-resisting building element for the passage of a service or services.

  • people with ambulant disabilitiesStandards

    People who have a mobility disability but are able to walk.

  • performance audit (Process audit, technical procedure audit, methods audit)NATSPEC

    An evaluation of whether nominated methods and procedures are being adhered to in practice.

  • performance requirementBCA (NCC)

    means a requirement which states the level of performance which a Performance Solution or Deemed-to-Satisfy Solution must meet. 

  • performance solution (alternative solution)BCA (NCC)

    means a method of complying with the Performance Requirements other than by a Deemed-to-Satisfy Solution.  

  • perimeter barrierStandards

    Barriers primarily located along the property boundaries with no child-resistant doorsets or windows from the house to the pool. 

  • perimeter roadsNATSPEC

    Part of the asset protection zone. They provide a separation between the building and the bushfire hazard by acting as a wide, permanent and low maintenance fire break.

  • perimeter trackNATSPEC

    A track constructed and/or maintained expressly for fire management purposes.

  • periodic maintenanceNATSPEC

    Planned routine maintenance of plant and equipment (proactive), including fire safety measures and statutory requirements.

  • permanent actionNATSPEC

    Action that is likely to act continuously and for which variations in magnitude with tiem are small compared with the mean value.

  • permanent control measuresNATSPEC

    Measures/works implemented to control run-off water quality beyond the construction and maintenance stages.

  • permanent marksNATSPEC

    Survey control marks that are permanent by nature and are uniquely defined in the state control survey. Also known as State survey marks (SSM) or Bench marks (BM).

  • permanent structureStandards

    A barrier, or part of a barrier which cannot be removed without the use of tools. 

  • permeableStandards

    Surface with an aggregation of small openings, cracks, and the like, which allow air to pass through under the action of a pressure differential.

  • permeable baseNATSPEC

    A free-draining bound layer, capable of draining both surface water and preventing water accumulation from the subgrade below. The flow of water through this layer is retarded only by the cross slope and any obstructions.

  • permeable paversNATSPEC

    Segmental paving units designed and manufactured for PICP, to permit rapid infiltration of rainfall.

  • personal care servicesBCA (NCC)

    means any of the following: a) The provision of nursing care.b) Assistance or provision in- i) bathing, showering or personal hygiene; or ii) toileting or continence management; or iii) dressing or undressing; oriv) consuming foodc) the provision of direct physical assistance to a person with mobility problems. d) the management of medication.e) the provision of substantial rehabilitative or development assistance.  

  • pervious pipe systemNATSPEC

    Comprises drainage pipes perforated, slotted, porous pipes, or impervious pipes laid with open joints.

  • phreatic line or water tableAUS-SPEC

    The top flow line of a saturated soil mass below which seepage takes place, is called the Phreatic line. Hydrostatic pressure acts below the phreatic line whereas atmospheric pressure exists above the phreatic line. This line separates a saturated soil mass from an unsaturated soil mass. It is not an equipotential line, but a flow line.

  • pilot-fire testStandards

    A fire test of representative section of a doorset in a furnace, complying with AS 1530.4 but having the furnace opening not less than 1000 mm x 1000mm and minimum clear opening size of 800 mm x 800 mm. 

  • pipeNATSPEC

    Includes pipe and tube.

  • pipeStandards

    A hollow section mad as a production item. Notes: 1. Pipe may be round, oval, square or rectangular in section. 2. For the purpose of this standard, the word "pipe" is synonymous with "tube" or "structural hollow section'. 

  • pipe surroundNATSPEC

    Includes pipe overlay, pipe side support, side zone and haunch zone.

  • pipingBCA (NCC)

    for the purposes of section J, means an assembly of pipes, with or without valves or other fittings, connected together for the conveyance of liquids and gases. 

  • pitchStandards

    Angle of a truss chord relative to the horizontal, expressed in degrees. 

  • pitched roofStandards

    Bi-fold, bi-planar roof (two sloping surfaces) meeting at a ridge.

  • plan areaNATSPEC

    The Works area.

  • plan transitionNATSPEC

    The length over which widening and shift is developed from the ‘tangent-spiral’ point to the ‘spiral-curve’ point; i.e. the length between the tangent and the curve.

  • plant establishment periodNATSPEC

    The period between the date of practical completion and the end of the defects liability period.

  • plant roomStandards

    A room that contains any items of plant or machinery.

  • plantroomStandards

    A room within a building dedicated for the housing of plant or equipment. 

  • plasterNATSPEC

    A mixture of binders, aggregate and water which is applied to substrates in a plastic state and dries and cures to a hard surface which may subsequently be decorated:Cement plaster: Contains Portland cement as the principal binder.Gypsum plaster: Contains hydrated or anhydrous calcium sulfate as the principal binder.

  • plasteringNATSPEC

    The process of coating the framing or solid surfaces of a building with a plastic material which hardens and then may be decorated or remain self-finished.

  • plastering systemNATSPEC

    One or more coats of plaster and associated treatments comprising some or all of the following in sequence:Base coat 1 or 2.Bonding treatment.Finish coat.Finishing treatment.

  • platformStandards

    A designated surface to support a person working or resting or materials used by persons. 

  • platform flooringNATSPEC

    Flooring laid over the whole of the joisted floor structure prior to the erection of external and internal wall frames.

  • plenumStandards

    A chamber intended for the passage of air, which is remote from the air-handling plant, to which one or more ducts may be connected and which forms part of an air-handling system, excluding a ceiling void, used as a- a) return air path; or b) smoke exhaust path where the failure of the ceiling does not reduce the performance of the smoke exhaust system. 

  • plenum (standards)Standards

    An air compartment or chamber intended for the passage of air, to which one or more ducts may be connected and which forms part of an air-handling system. 

  • plenum boxNATSPEC

    A lower velocity (larger volume) duct element behind an air grille intended to allow equalisation of air flow over the air grille.

  • pliable building membraneNATSPEC

    To AS/NZS 4200.1 and equivalent to sarking-type materials as defined in the BCA.

  • plyStandards

    The number of trusses fixed together to form a single structural element. 

  • point fixed glazingNATSPEC

    May include the following:Bolt assembly: Glass panels separately supported by bolting to the structural substrate.Spider fitting assembly: Glass panels fixed to each other and to a structural support system with bolts and spider links that incorporate a ball joint to allow for independent movement in the glass panels.Entrapped laminated glass assembly: A spider fitting assembly for tempered laminated glass bolted within the inner glass pane only.Entrapped insulated safety glass assembly: An entrapped laminated glass assembly that accommodates a double glazed insulating unit.

  • pollution incidentNATSPEC

    An incident or set of circumstances during or as a consequence of which there is, or is likely to be, a leak, spill or other escape of a substance as a result of which pollution has occurred, is occurring or is likely to occur.

  • polymer modified asphalt (PMA)NATSPEC

    Asphalt made using polymer modified binder.

  • polymer modified binder (PMB)NATSPEC

    A binder, consisting of materials dispersed in bitumen, with enhanced binder performance for particular applications.

  • polyurethaneNATSPEC

    Water or solvent based formulations which moisture cure to form an elastic rubber membrane. They can be made more cheaply with bitumen at the expense of long term properties. 

  • pool areaStandards

    The area that contains the pool and is enclosed by a barrier. 

  • pool area (standards)Standards

    The area that surrounds the pool that is separated from the rest of the allotment by a safety barrier. NOTE: The pool area may be defined differently by regulating authorities. 

  • portable operator's terminalNATSPEC

    A device that is portable, not permanently connected and used for human communication with the system.

  • postStandards

    A structural component, other than infill, that is used to support a handrail or gaurdrailing. NOTE: The terms "stanchion" and "rectangular support" are synonymous with "post" and are used for similar types of products by different industries. 

  • post extensionNATSPEC

    An extension of the fence post above the normal height of chain-link fabric, which may be angled or vertical, to which barbed wire may be attached.

  • powder coatingNATSPEC

    The process of preparing, applying, fusing and curing a thermoset powder coating material to a substrate:Thermoset powder coating: A mixture of finely ground particles of pigment and resin sprayed on to a prepared substrate. Charged powder particles adhere to electrically grounded surfaces until heated and fused into a smooth coating in a curing oven.Polyester powder coating: Uses an enhanced polyester resin.Fluoropolymer powder coating: Uses PTFE (poly tetra fluoro ethylene) for aluminium substrates.

  • pozzolanNATSPEC

    A siliceous or alumino siliceous material, which in itself possesses little or no cementitious value but which in finely divided form may be mixed with lime or Portland cement to form a cementitious material.

  • practical completion or defects free completionNATSPEC

    The requirements for these stages of completion are defined in the relevant building contract for the project.

  • pre-commissioningNATSPEC

    Preparation of plant or equipment so that it is in a safe and proper condition and ready for commissioning and operation. It includes all aspects of plant operation such as safety, electrical, mechanical and instrumentation and testing of components.

  • precast concreteNATSPEC

    Concrete building elements, cast in moulds and cured away from the final structural position, and then transported, lifted and fixed into position.

  • prefabricated geocomposite drainNATSPEC

    A proprietary product typically consisting of a plastic core wrapped in geotextile material, functioning as a single or second stage filter. Also termed as geocomposite edge drain and strip filter drain. These drains can be installed in narrower trenches than traditional pipe drains.

  • prefilled gabionNATSPEC

    A gabion assembled and filled, then lifted and transported before installation.

  • preformed shower baseNATSPEC

    A preformed, prefinished vessel (including integral upstands) installed as the finished floor of a shower compartment, and provided with a connection point to a sanitary drainage system.

  • pressureStandards

    Air pressure referenced to ambient air pressure.NOTE: In this Standard, negative values are less than ambient (suction), positive values exceed ambient. Net pressures act normal to a surface in the direction specified.

  • pressure coefficientStandards

    Ratio of the pressure at the point on a surface, to the free-stream dynamic pressure of the incident wind.

  • pressure vesselBCA (NCC)

    means a vessel subject to internal or external pressure. it includes interconnected parts and components, valves, gauges and other fittings up to the first point of connection to connecting piping, and - a) includes fire heaters and gas cylinders; butb) excludes - i) any vessel that falls within the definition of a boiler; and ii) storage tanks and equipment tanks intended for storing liquids where the pressure at the top of the tank is not exceeding 1.4 kPa above or 0.06 kPa below atmospheric pressure; and iii) domestic-type hot water supply heaters and tanks; and iv) pressure vessels installed for the purposes of fire suppression or which serve a fire suppression system.  

  • preventive maintenanceNATSPEC

    Planned maintenance of plant, equipment and other systems or elements, including cyclical maintenance, fire safety measures and statutory requirements.

  • primary building elementBCA (NCC)

    means a member of a building designed specifically to take part of the loads specified in B1.2 and includes roof, ceiling, floor, stairway or ramp and wall framing members including bracing members designed for the specific purpose of acting as a brace to those members. 

  • primary structural elementStandards

    Members and joints whose failure could result in collapse of a significant portion of a structure. 

  • primary treatment sqidNATSPEC

    Removal of the majority of gross pollutants and coarse-medium grained sediments by screening or sedimentation, e.g. GPT’s, trash racks, sediment trap.

  • primeNATSPEC

    An application of a primer to a prepared base, without cover aggregate, to provide penetration of the surface, temporary waterproofing and to obtain a bond between the pavement and the subsequent seal or asphalt. It is a preliminary treatment to a more permanent bituminous surfacing.

  • primerAUS-SPEC

    A bituminous material of low viscosity and low surface tension used in priming.

  • primerNATSPEC

    An oil alkyd based or acrylic based coating used to improve bonding of wallcoverings to hard, glossy, slick, slippery or non-porous surfaces. They are formulated to have a uniform porosity for maximum bonding of wallcovering to the substrate and provide sufficient slip for positioning of the wallcovering during hanging.

  • primer, prime coatNATSPEC

    The first coat of a painting system that helps bind subsequent coats to the substrate and which may inhibit its deterioration.

  • primer/sealerNATSPEC

    An oil alkyd based or acrylic based coating which combines the functions of a sealer and a primer.

  • primerbinderNATSPEC

    A material, more viscous than a primer, and required to act both as a primer and binder, and used in initial sealing.

  • principalNATSPEC

    Principal has the same meaning as owner, client and proprietor and is the party to whom the contractor is legally bound to construct the works.

  • privacy lockStandards

    A room or compartment whose function is to provide a visual or acoustic barrier, and not provided to disconnect a sanitary compartment from another room or space through which persons pass to enter the sanitary compartment. 

  • private bushfire shelterBCA (NCC)

    mans a structure associated with, but not attached to, or part of a Class 1a dwelling that may, as a last resort, provide shelter for occupants from immediate life threatening effects of a bushfire.

  • private garageBCA (NCC)

    means - a) any garage associated with a Class 1 building; or b) any single storey of a building of another Class containing not more than 3 vehicle spaces, if there is only one such storey in the building; or c) any separate single storey garage associated with another building where such garage contains not more than 3 vehicle spaces. 

  • productNATSPEC

    The result of a set of interrelated or interacting activities which transforms inputs into outputs.

  • product audit (Conformance audit, Service audit)NATSPEC

    An assessment of the conformity of the product with the specified technical requirements.

  • production assessmentNATSPEC

    An assessment procedure for concrete defined by strength grade, carried out by the supplier and based on the statistical assessment of standard compressive strength tests on concrete, specified by compressive strength and produced by a specific supplying plant.

  • production filter mixNATSPEC

    A mix produced by a supplier using a stationary screening plant to meet the documented filter requirements.

  • production mixNATSPEC

    Mix produced in the plant and delivered to the site in a workable condition suitable for stockpiling, spreading and compaction.

  • professional engineerBCA (NCC)

    means a person who is - a) if legislation is applicable - a registered professional engineer in the relevant discipline who has appropriate experience and competence in the relevant field; or b) if legislation is not applicable- i) a Corporate Member of the Institution of Engineers, Australia; or ii) eligible to become a Corporate Member of the Institution of Engineers, Australia, and has appropriate experience and competence in the relevant field. 

  • professional engineerNATSPEC

    As defined by the NCC.In some states and territories, additional or alternative criteria may apply e.g. Registered Professional Engineer, Queensland (RPEQ).

  • professional engineerAUS-SPEC

    A person who is listed or eligible for listing on the National Professional Engineers Register (NPER) and has appropriate experience and competence in the relevant discipline at the relevant time.

  • professional engineer (standards)Standards

    A person who is - a) If  legislation is applicable, a registered professional engineer in the relevant discipline, who has appropriate experience and competence in the relevant field; or b) if legislation is not applicable - i) a Corporate Member of Engineers Australia or the Institution of Professional Engineers New Zealand; or ii) eligible to become a Corporate Member of Engineers Australia or the Institution of Professional Engineers New Zealand and has appropriate experience and competence in the relevant field. 

  • professional engineers (standards)Standards

    A person who is - a) If legislation is applicable, a registered professional engineer in the relevant dscipline, who has appropriate experience and competence in the relevant field; or b) if legislation is not applicable - i) a Corporate Member of Engineers Australia or the institution of professional Engineers New Zealand; or ii) Eligible to become a Corporate Member of Engineers Australia or the Institution of Professional Engineers New Zealand and has appropriate experience and competence in the relevant field. 

  • progressive inspectionsNATSPEC

    Inspections that are required progressively on a component during the course of the project.

  • project assessmentNATSPEC

    An assessment procedure for concrete defined by strength grade, specified at the customer’s option, which provides additional test data for the statistical assessment of concrete supplied to a specific project.

  • proof testingNATSPEC

    Application of test loads to a structure, sub-structure, member or connection, to ascertain the structural characteristics of that one item under test.

  • proof testing (standards)Standards

    Application of test loads to a structure or element to ascertain the structural characteristics of only that one unit under test.

  • property accessNATSPEC

    Access from a public road system to private land and habitable buildings for firefighting.

  • proprietaryNATSPEC

    Identifiable by naming the manufacturer, supplier, installer, trade name, brand name, catalogue or reference number.

  • proprietary assembliesNATSPEC

    Low voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies available as a catalogue item, consisting of the manufacturer's standard layout and equipment. Minor modifications are permissible to accommodate equipment and accessories, whilst retaining standard format.

  • proprietary luminairesNATSPEC

    Luminaires available as a catalogue item.

  • protected speciesNATSPEC

    Plants identified by Council or other relevant authorities as protected species.

  • protective underlay and overlayNATSPEC

    A layer of puncture resistant geotextile.

  • prototypeNATSPEC

    A full size mock-up of components, systems or elements to demonstrate or test construction methods, junctions and finishes, and to define the level of quality.

  • prototype testingNATSPEC

    Application of test loads to one or more samples of structures, sub-structures, members or connections to ascertain the structural characteristics of the population that the sample represents.

  • prototype testing (standards)Standards

    Application of test loads to a structure or element to ascertain the structural characteristics of structures or elements which are nominally identical to the unit or units tested. 

  • provideNATSPEC

    Provide and similar expressions mean supply and install and include development of the design beyond that documented.

  • public corridorBCA (NCC)

    means an enclosed corridor, hallway or the like which - a) serves as means of egress from 2 or more sole-occupancy units to a required exit from the storey concerned; or b) is required to be provided as a means of egress from any part of a storey to a required exit. 

  • public roadsNATSPEC

    Includes the perimeter road and internal road system of any urban or rural subdivision.

  • pump powerBCA (NCC)

    means the power delivered to a pump, including the power needed for any drivetrain. 

  • pvc backed floor coveringsNATSPEC

    Expanded PVC base with monofilament polyamide fibres.

  • PVC membraneNATSPEC

    Flexible plastic sheet membrane (vinyl).


  • qualified surveyorAUS-SPEC

    A surveyor who is eligible for membership of the Spatial Sciences Institute as a certified engineering surveyor.

  • quality assurance representativeAUS-SPEC

    Appointed by the principal for a specific project and responsible for the auditing, review and surveillance of procedures and documentation required by the contractor’s approved Quality plan.

  • quality checklistsAUS-SPEC

    Forms completed during the manufacture/construction process verifying key steps, and records required for the Quality register. Checklists apply to each identified lot of work.

  • quality design checklistsAUS-SPEC

    Forms completed during the design process verifying key steps, and records.

  • quality management representative (QMR)NATSPEC

    Also known as Project quality representative, appointed by the contractor for a specific project with the authority and responsibility for the implementation and operation of the Quality plan, so that QMS requirements are not subordinated to design and productivity.

  • quality management systemAUS-SPEC

    The organisational structure, responsibilities, procedures, processes and resources for implementing quality management.

  • quality management system requirementsAUS-SPEC

    The administrative activities affecting quality that will be implemented and controlled so that the product or a service meets documented quality requirements.

  • quality packageNATSPEC

    A designated part of the works, which may include the whole works, for which an individual quality system is required.

  • quality registerAUS-SPEC

    The files containing all quality control records including test results, completed check lists, certificates of compliance and consignment dockets for materials procured.


  • r-value (m².K/W)BCA (NCC)

    means the thermal resistance of a component calculated by dividing the its thickness by its thermal conductivity. 

  • rail, grabrailStandards

    A rail used to give a steadying or stabilizing assistance to a person engaged in a particular function.

  • rail, handrailStandards

    A rail used in circulation areas such as corridors, passageways, ramps and stairways to assist in continuous movement.

  • rainfall erosivityNATSPEC

    The R-factor is a measure of rainfall erosivity and is defined as the mean annual sum of individual storm erosion index values, EI30, where E is the total storm kinetic energy and I30 is the maximum 30-min rainfall intensity. It is measured as (MJmm/ha/hr). When factors other than rainfall are held constant, soil losses are directly proportional to the magnitude of rainfall erosivity. The R-factor represents the climatic influence on water-related soil erosion, and can be used to quantify broad-scale, climate-driven, soil erosion potential.

  • rampNATSPEC

    An inclined access way that has a constant gradient anywhere between 1:14 and 1:20.

  • rampStandards

    An inclined accessway with a gradient steeper than 1 in 20 but not steeper than 1 in 14.

  • rampStandards

    An inclined surface on a continuous accessible path of travel between two landings with a gradient steeper than 1 in 20 but not steeper than 1 in 14.

  • ramp, kerbStandards

    An inclined surface on a continuous accessible path of travel with a maximum rise of 190 mm, a length not greater than 1520 mm and gradient not steeper than 1 in 8, located within or attached to a kerb.

  • ramp, stepStandards

    An inclined surface on a continuous accessible path of travel with a maximum rise of 190 mm, length not greater than 1900 mm and a gradient not steeper than 1 in 10.

  • ramp, thresholdStandards

    An inclined surface on a continuous accessible path of travel with a maximum rise of 35 mm, length not greater than 280 mm and gradient not steeper than 1 in 8.

  • rated currentsNATSPEC

    Continuous uninterrupted current ratings within the assembly environment under in-service operating conditions.

  • rated short-circuit currentsNATSPEC

    Maximum prospective symmetrical root mean square (r.m.s.) current values at rated operational voltage, at each assembly incoming supply terminal.

  • reaction timeNATSPEC

    The time taken for a driver to perceive and react to a particular stimulus and take appropriate action. It is measured in seconds.

  • rebateStandards

    The part of a frame into which the edge of glass is installed.

  • reconstructionNATSPEC

    Treatments requiring full removal and replacement and/or improvement of the existing pavement structure including subbase, base course, and surface course.

  • record drawingsNATSPEC

    Record drawings has the same meaning as as-installed drawings, as-built drawings and work-as-executed drawings.Record drawing is the preferred term for post-construction drawings as they are usually based on information supplied by the contractor and others on completion of the work rather than the designer's observation and documentation of the actual construction. As the designer usually has a limited construction role, certification of Record drawings, if required, should be by the contractor.

  • record drawingsNATSPEC

    Record drawings has the same meaning as as-installed drawings, subsequently altered, as-built drawings and work-as-executed drawings.

  • recordsAUS-SPEC

    Documents and data, no longer subject to alteration, that provides evidence of activities performed.

  • recoverNATSPEC

    The disconnection and removal of an item in a manner to allow re-installation.

  • recovered/reclaimed materialsNATSPEC

    Material previously used in a building or project which is then re-used in another project. The material may be altered, re-sized, refinished, or adapted, but is not reprocessed in any way, and remains in its original form.

  • rectangular buildingStandards

    For the purposes of Section 5 of this Standard, rectangular buildings include buildings generally made up of rectangular shapes in plan.

  • recycle airStandards

    That portion of indoor air removed by mechanical means from enclosures as return air and returned as part of the supply air. 

  • Recycled materialsNATSPEC

    Materials manufactured from recycled material such as crushed concrete, bricks, terracotta tiles or glass or reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP).

  • redevelopment siteNATSPEC

    A site that had (or was originally zoned to have) a lower density development than is proposed.

  • redressingNATSPEC

    Dressing back the surface of the original face of the stone.

  • reference buildingBCA (NCC)

    means a hypothetical building that is used to calculate the maximum allowable annual energy load, or maximum allowable annual energy consumption for the proposed building. 

  • referenced documentsNATSPEC

    Standards and other documents whose requirements are included in this specification by reference.

  • reflectanceStandards

    The ratio of the total luminous flux reflected from a surface to the total luminous flux that arrives at the surface. it is usually expressed as a decimal in the range of 0 to 1, but may also be expressed as a percentage. Symbol: p.

  • reflective insulationBCA (NCC)

    means a building membrane with a reflective surface such as a reflective foil laminate, reflective barrier, foil batt or the like capable of reducing radiant heat flow. 

  • registerNATSPEC

    A supply air grille mounted in a wall or on the side of a duct.

  • registered testing authorityBCA (NCC)

    means - a) an organisation registered by the National Association of Testing Authorities (NATA) to test in the relevant field; or b) an organisation outside Australia registered by an authority recognised by NATA through a mutual recognition agreement; or c) an organisation recognised as being a Registered Testing Authority under legislation at the time the test was undertaken.  

  • registered testing authority (standards)Standards

    Registered testing authority as defined in NCC. 

  • registered testing authority standardsStandards

    A testing authority registered in accordance with the BCA for the purpose of determining the fire resistance of roller shutters or as capable of preparing formal opinions on fire-resistant roller shutters. 

  • regulatory authorityStandards

    A body having statutory powers to administer an Act of Parliament, or the regulations of such an Act, pertaining to any matter covered by this Standard. 

  • regulatory authority (standards)Standards

    The authority that is authorized by legal statute as having justification to approve the design and construction of a building, or any part of the building design and construction process. NOTE: In the context of this Standard, the regulatory authority may include local council building surveyors, private building surveyors or other persons nominated by the appropriate State or Territory Building Legislation as having the legal responsibility for approving the use of structural timber products. 

  • regulatory testing authority standardsStandards

    An authority administering Acts of Parliament or Regulations under such Acts. 

  • rehabilitationNATSPEC

    Resurfacing, stabilisation, restoration and rehabilitation work undertaken to restore serviceability and to extend the service life of an existing road. This may include partial recycling of the existing pavement, placement of additional surface materials, or other work required to return an existing pavement, including shoulders, to a condition of improved structural or functional adequacy.

  • rehabilitationAUS-SPEC

    Resurfacing, reconstruction heavy patching and stabilisation work undertaken to restore serviceability and to extend the service life of an existing road.

  • relative compactionNATSPEC

    The ratio between the field bulk density and the bulk density of the job mix when compacted in the laboratory.

  • relative compaction (of a core specimen)NATSPEC

    The ratio (expressed as a percentage) of the mass per unit volume core specimen to the average mass per unit volume of the standard cylinders.

  • relative level toleranceNATSPEC

    Maximum deviation from a 3 m straightedge laid on the surface.

  • reliabilityNATSPEC

    The reliability of the pavement design performance process is the probability that a pavement section designed using the process will perform satisfactorily over the traffic and environmental conditions for the design period (life), that it will outlast its design traffic before major rehabilitation is required.

  • reliabilityStandards

    Ability of a structure or structural element to fulfil the specified criteria, including the working life, for which it has been designed.Note: Reliability covers structural safety and serviceability, and can be expressed in terms of probability.

  • relief airStandards

    Air that flows from an enclosure in a controlled manner by other than direct mechanical means. 

  • render, renderingNATSPEC

    Plaster, plastering, usually single coat and usually cement:lime:sand.

  • renewable energyBCA (NCC)

    means energy that is derived from sources that are regenerated, replenished, or for all practical purposes cannot be depleted and the energy sources include, but are not limited to, solar, wind, hydroelectric, wave action and geothermal. 

  • repairNATSPEC

    Unplanned, corrective maintenance to building fabric, plant and equipment to restore the function, appearance, strength and longevity appropriate with the age and past service of the asset.

  • repairsNATSPEC

    Unplanned/corrective maintenance (reactive).

  • replace/replacementNATSPEC

    Replacement of components on a regular cycle on a like for like basis, e.g. repainting, replacement of air conditioning plant.

  • requiredStandards

    Required by Standard or building regulation. NOTE: building owners and managers, fire insurance underwriters and other bodies may have requirements of an enclosure that is recycled back to the air-handling system. 

  • requiredNATSPEC

    Required by the contract documents, the local council or statutory authorities.

  • required (BCA)BCA (NCC)

    means required to satisfy a Performance Requirement or a Deemed-to-Satisfy Provision of the BCA as appropriate. 

  • required (standards)Standards

    Required by Standard or building regulation. NOTE: Building owners and managers, fire insurance underwriters and other bodies may have requirements in excess of those required by this standard.

  • required standardsStandards

    Required by any government act, regulation by-law or statutory rule, or buy any regulatory authority. 

  • resealNATSPEC

    A sprayed seal applied to an existing sealed, or asphalt surface.

  • resident use areaBCA (NCC)

    means part of a Class 9c building normally used by residence, and - a) includes sole-occupancy units, lounges, dining areas, activity rooms and the like, but b) excludes offices, storage areas, commercial kitchens, commercial laundries, and other spaces not for the use of residents. 

  • residential aged care buildingBCA (NCC)

    means a building whose residents, due to their incapacity associated with the ageing process, are being provided with physical assistance in conducting their daily activities and to evacuate the building during an emergency. 

  • residual binderNATSPEC

    A binder that remains in services after any volatiles have evaporated.

  • residual bitumenNATSPEC

    Bituminous material obtained by processing the residue from the refining of naturally occurring crude petroleum.

  • residual effective outdoor airflowStandards

    A proportion of effective outdoor airflow that is in excess to the requirements of an enclosure that is recycled back to the air-handling system. 

  • resilient floor coverings classificationNATSPEC

    To EN ISO 10874. EN ISO 10874 classifies resilient floor coverings by level of use for domestic, commercial and industrial applications.

  • resin based seamless floor finishNATSPEC

    Any combination of a resin based flooring system that combines two part resins, with or without an aggregate, to provide a continuous floor coating without joints except those that may already exist in the substrate.

  • resistance to the incipient fireBCA (NCC)

    in relation to a ceiling membrane, means the ability of the membrane to insulate the space between the ceiling and the roof, or ceiling and floor above, so as to limit the temperature rise of materials in this space to a level which will not permit the rapid and general spread of fire throughout the space. 

  • resolutionNATSPEC

    The smallest difference between indications of a displaying device that can be meaningfully distinguished.

  • retempering of concreteNATSPEC

    Use of water or admixtures in the mixer to delay the setting of concrete.

  • retreatmentNATSPEC

    An application of a sprayed bituminous treatment on an existing bituminous surfacing.

  • return airStandards

    Air moved from an enclosure by mechanical means. NOTE: All of the return air may be expelled as spill air, or all or part of it may be recycled. 

  • Reynolds numberStandards

    The ratio of the inertial forces to the viscous forces in the airflow.

  • ridge (topographic feature)Standards

    Two-dimensional crest or chain of hills with sloping faces on either side of the crest.

  • rigid componentsStandards

    Rigid components of a barrier are those made  of steel, aluminium, wood, glass, acrylic, masonry and the like. 

  • rigid guide postNATSPEC

    A guide post which when impacted by a vehicle, fails by fracturing or remains intact and straight, but not vertical.

  • rigid pavementNATSPEC

    A pavement composed of concrete or having a concrete base course.

  • rigid pavementsAUS-SPEC

    A pavement composed of concrete or having a concrete base course.Seals:Double/double: Two applications of binder and two applications of aggregate.Single/single: A single application of binder and a single application of aggregate.

  • rigid road safety barrier systemNATSPEC

    A road safety barrier system where there is no observable dynamic deflection. The deformation is contained in the impacting vehicle.

  • rim boardStandards

    A member, at right angles to and fixed to the end of deep joists (including I-joists), that provides restraints to the joists. 

  • riseStandards

    The maximum vertical dimension of a truss (as measured), excluding overhangs, and typically from the underside of the bottom chord to the underside of the apex joint. 

  • rise in storeysBCA (NCC)

    means the greatest number of stories calculated in accordance with C1.2.

  • riserStandards

    The vertical distance from the top of one stair tread and the next stair tread above or below. 

  • road authorityNATSPEC

    As defined by the Roads Act in the state where the road is located.

  • road authorityNATSPEC

    An authority with legislated responsibility for the management and maintenance of roads.

  • road networkNATSPEC

    A framework for movement by other modes, including pedestrian, bicycle and bus and plays a vital role in supporting neighbourhoods and town centres.

  • road reserveNATSPEC

    The strip of public land between abutting property boundaries, specifically gazetted for the provision of public road and controlled by the definitions of the Roads Act (as per applicable State legislation). It includes the road carriageway, as well as footpaths, verges and landscape.

  • road safety barrier systemNATSPEC

    A physical barrier separating the work area and the travelled path, designed to resist penetration by an out of control vehicle and as far as reasonably practicable, to redirect out of control vehicles back into the travelled path.

  • rockNATSPEC

    Monolithic material with volume greater than 0.3 m3 which cannot be removed until broken up by rippers or percussion tools.

  • rockAUS-SPEC

    Monolithic material with volume greater than 0.5 m3 in sites which cannot be removed until broken up by explosives, rippers or percussion tools. For support purposes material hardness on the Mohr scale not less than 3 and not deteriorate on exposure to the atmosphere.

  • rock filled mattressNATSPEC

    Double-twisted wire mesh container, uniformly partitioned into internal cells, approximately 300 mm high, interconnected with other units and filled with rocks. Rocked filled mattresses may be used for landscaping, soil erosion control and for drainage (as kerb and channel gutters).

  • roller compacted concreteNATSPEC

    A relatively dry concrete mix with very low slump and compacted using smooth drum rollers.

  • roller grillesNATSPEC

    Rolling shutters with a curtain of articulated links, horizontal members spaced apart and connected by vertical links.

  • roofStandards

    For the purposes of this Standard, roof means the roof or other elevated surface of the building upon which snow may accumulate.

  • roof - coupled roofStandards

    Pitched roof construction with a roof slope not less than 10o , with ceiling joists and collar ties fixed to opposing common rafter pairs and a ridgeboard at the apex of the roof. A coupled roof system may include some area where it is not possible to fix ceiling joists or collar ties to all rafters; for example, hip ends or parts of a T - or L - shaped house. 

  • roof - non coupled roofStandards

    A pitched roof that is not coupled roof and includes cathedral roofs and roofs constructed using ridge and intermediate beams. 

  • roof - pitched roofStandards

    A roof where members are cut to suit, and which is erected on site. 

  • roof - trussed roofStandards

    An engineered roof frame system designed to carry the roof or roof  and ceiling, usually without the support of internal walls. 

  • roof lightBCA (NCC)

    for the purposes of Section J and Part F4, means a skylight, window or the like installed in a roof- a) to permit natural light to enter the room below; and b) at an angle between 0 and 70 degrees measured from the horizontal plane. 

  • roof slate or shingleNATSPEC

    A non-interlocking fibre cement, terracotta, timber or slate product used to form the field of the roof.

  • roof tileNATSPEC

    A moulded interlocking non-metallic product used to form the field of the roof.

  • roof trussStandards

    A truss designed to support roof loads and and any combination of floor and ceiling loads as or if required.  

  • room dividersNATSPEC

    Proprietary systems comprising overhead tracks and carriers supporting doors or panels which are linked, or can be linked, to provide complete partition-type enclosures within defined limits, and which may be opened by sliding and stacking to the sides of openings, inclusive of manufacturer's standard operating gear, hardware, and accessories necessary for satisfactory performance.Accordion doors: Double-walled dividers in which the walls comprise twin rows of paired folding door panels, or equivalent paired folding walls of flexible materials attached to pantograph frames, the pairs linked together at the centre and suspended from the points of linkage.Folding doors: Centre-hung door panels hinged together, stacking by sliding and pivoting.Operable walls: Partition panels independently suspended and stackable, with provision for linking together at the vertical edges and for preventing lateral movement at the bottom when closed.

  • room fan coil unit (FCU)NATSPEC

    A unit having a supply air flow not less than 400 L/s and consisting of casing housing coils and a direct drive fan designed for mounting exposed within a room. The casing may also house filters and other items. Includes manufacturer's variations within a range of this type of unit mounted concealed with or without connected ducts.

  • rope edgeNATSPEC

    An edge seam incorporating rope or chord reinforcement.

  • roughness lengthStandards

    Theoretical quantification of the turbulence-inducing nature of a particular type of terrain on airflow (wind).