• A17-grade timberStandards

    A stress grade of timber for which the specific suite of characteristic values given in Table H3.1, Appendix H, are applicable. NOTE: A17-grades are assigned to seasoned hardwood timber in accordance with grading Standards AS 2082. 

  • abnormal fire hazard (area of)Standards

    an area as defined in Appendix B

  • absolute level toleranceNATSPEC

    Maximum deviation from design levels.

  • absorbance indexStandards

    measured light attenuation characterizing the concentration of particulates in smoke or an aerosol

  • access for maintenanceNATSPEC

    Includes access for maintenance, inspection, measurement, operation, adjustment, repair, replacement and other maintenance related tasks.Access required for other purposes such as firefighting and people with a disability are not included in this term.

  • access hatchStandards

    A device normally closed but which can be opened to provide access through a platform, roof or other similar structure. NOTE: Also known as trapdoor.   

  • accessibleBCA (NCC)

    means having features to enable use by people with a disability.

  • accessibleStandards

    Describes all or port of a site, building or facility that complies with this Standard, and that can be approached, entered and used by people with disabilities.

  • accessible, readilyNATSPEC

    Readily accessible, easily accessible, easy access and similar terms mean capable of being reached quickly and without climbing over or removing obstructions, mounting upon a chair, or using a movable ladder, and in any case not more than 2.0 m above the ground, floor or platform.

  • accessory for slate or shingle and shake roofingNATSPEC

    A concrete or terracotta product used to finish the slate and shingle roof and may include apex, ridge and barge capping.

  • accessory for slate roofingAUS-SPEC

    A concrete or terracotta product used to finish the slate and shingle roof and may include apex, ridge and barge capping.

  • accesswayBCA (NCC)

    means a continuous accessible path of travel (as defined in AS 1428.1) to, into or within a building.

  • accreditationNATSPEC

    Certification by a statutory or approved authority of the facilities, capabilities, objectivity, competence and integrity of an organization or individual to provide a specified service and/or required operation.

  • Accredited Testing LaboratoryNATSPEC

    An organisation accredited by the National Association of Testing Authorities (NATA) to test in the relevant field

  • accuracyNATSPEC

    The closeness of the agreement between the result of a measurement and the true value of the particular quantity being measured.

  • acoustic insulationNATSPEC

    Materials or methods of construction to reduce the transmission of airborne and structure-borne sound through floors, walls and ceilings or other enclosing elements in buildings.

  • acoustic materialNATSPEC

    Building material with specific acoustic properties to achieve sound transmission loss, sound absorption, damping of resonance or resilience against impact noise.

  • acoustic underlayNATSPEC

    A resilient material laid between the structural floor and the flooring material to provide sound isolation.

  • actionStandards

    Set of concentrated or distributed forces acting on a structure (direct action), or deformation imposed on a structure or constrained within it (indirect action).Note: The term load is also often used to describe direct actions.

  • action effects (internal effects of actions, load effects)NATSPEC

    Internal forces and bending moments due to actions (stress resultants).

  • active leafStandards

    In a door with two leaves, the leaf that carries the latching or locking mechanism and typically has an operable handle.

  • activity centreNATSPEC

    Urban planning term for those places that are vibrant hubs where people shop work, meet, relax and often live.

  • added fillerNATSPEC

    Mineral matter, suitable for use in asphalt – at least 75% of which is finer than 75 µm and all of which is finer that 600 µm – which is added to the combined aggregate of an asphalt mix. Typical materials include hydrated lime, flyash, cement, cement works flue dust, ground limestone and rock dust other than that which occurs as a natural component of the combined aggregate.

  • adhesion (paint)NATSPEC

    Adhesion (paint): The sum total of forces of attachment between a dry film and its substrate.

  • adhesion agentNATSPEC

    A substance for promoting adhesion between binder and aggregates, normally in the presence of water.

  • adhesives - cementitious (C)NATSPEC

    Adhesive in which the binders are hydraulic, e.g. General purpose cement, with aggregates and organic additives.

  • adhesives - dispersion (D)NATSPEC

    Adhesives in which the binders are in the form of aqueous polymer dispersion with mineral fillers and organic additives.

  • adhesives - reaction resin (R)NATSPEC

    Adhesives in which in the binders are synthetic resins with mineral fillers and organic additives. The curing occurs by chemical reaction.

  • administrative definitionsNATSPEC

    Authority - A body having regulatory powers, in the area in which the structure is to be erected, to control the design and erection of the structureDrawings - The drawings forming part of the project documents setting out the work to be executedMay - Indicates the existence of an optionPrincipal - The purchaser or owner of the structure being constructed or his nominated representativeShall - Indicates that a statement is mandatoryShould -  Indicates a recommendationSpecification - The specification forming part of the project documents setting out the work to be executed

  • administrative definitionsStandards

    Approved - Except as otherwise stated, approved by the building authorityBuilding authority - Body having statutory powers to control the design and erection of buildings or structures are to be erectedDocuments - Drawings and specification that set out the work to be executedSupervision - Site control  of work directed towards obtaining compliance with the design and the provisions of this Standard 

  • advanced plants (species)NATSPEC

    Plant species containerised and established in 300 mm containers but less than 45 L containers.

  • aerodynamic shape factorStandards

    Factor to account for the effects of the geometry of the structure on surface pressure due to wind.

  • aerosolStandards

    airborne water particles less than 10 µm in diameter

  • aerosol densityStandards

    amount of particulates per volume as described operationally by one of two parameters:(a) Absorbance index(b) y (3.18)

  • aged care buildingBCA (NCC)

    means a Class 9c building for residential accommodation of aged persons who, due to varying degrees of incapacity associated with the ageing process, are provided with personal care services and 24 hour staff assistance to evacuate the building during an emergency. 

  • aggregate filled textured latex coatingNATSPEC

    An aggregate filled medium to high profile textured coating selected for aesthetic purposes to provide maximum relief from underlying surface irregularities according to the application technique used.

  • aggregates/sand/fillerNATSPEC

    Some spray applied preservation materials incorporate either the spreading of or inclusion of fillers/sands or aggregates. For the purposes of this worksection these materials are referred to as coarse graded materials and are defined as materials added to (either before spraying to form part of the material applied or after spraying as a dressing) of the application proposed.

  • air - exhaust airStandards

    Air, other than returned air, removed from an enclosure by mechanical means and discharged to atmosphere. 

  • air - outdoor airStandards

    Air outside the building. 

  • air - recycle airStandards

    that portion of air removed from enclosures as return air and returned as part of the supply air by mechanical means. 

  • air - relief airStandards

    That portion of return air that is not recycled, including air leakage through a facade or discharge through specific relief paths. 

  • air - return airStandards

    Air removed from an enclosure by mechanical means, all of which may be expelled by as relief air, or all or part of it may be recycled. 

  • air - smoke exhaust airStandards

    Air handled by the smoke exhaust system during operation in the smoke-control mode. NOTE: Also known as smoke-spill air. 

  • air - supply airStandards

    Air introduced into an enclosure by mechanical means. 

  • air damperStandards

    A motorized mechanical damper that opens or closes to control air as part of a smoke control system. 

  • air filterStandards

    a device for removing particulate material from air

  • air grilleNATSPEC

    An air grille of metal or other material fitted to the inlet or outlet end of an air duct or within walls, floors, ceilings or doors. It includes all types of diffusers, registers and other grilles.

  • air handling plantNATSPEC

    Proprietary and non-proprietary pre-assembled plant and prefabricated and site erected plant and plenums. Includes room fan coil units and air handling units.

  • air handling unit (AHU)NATSPEC

    A unit having a supply air flow not less than 400 L/s and consisting of casing housing a fan and coils. The casing may also house filters, dampers and other items. Includes larger sizes of units sometimes referred to as fan coil units.

  • air infiltrationStandards

    the flow of air through a window or door that aids in determining the acoustic and thermal performance.NOTE: products with a low airflow will perform better for noise and energy; therefore, they should provide a higher comfort level than those with a high flow rate

  • air intakeStandards

    any opening through which air is admitted to an air-handling system in a building

  • air outletStandards

    Any opening through which air is delivered to an enclosure by an air-handling system of a building. 

  • air-conditioningBCA (NCC)

    for the purposes of Section J, means a service that actively cools or heats the air within a space, but does not include a service that directly - a) cools or heats cold or hot rooms; or b) maintains specialised conditions for equipment or processes, where this is the main purpose of the service. 

  • air-handling plantStandards

    A component part of an air-handling system that includes equipment providing air movement, as well as equipment for the purpose of controlling the direction, rate of airflow, division of airflow or condition of air (i.e. concentration level of contaminants, temperature and humidity). 

  • air-handling systemStandards

    A system for the purpose of directing air in a positive and controlled manner to or from specific enclosures by means of air-handling plant, ducts, plenums, air-distribution devices or automatic controls. 

  • air-pressurization systemStandards

    An air-handling system designed to establish a pressure differential in accordance with this standard. 

  • airborne soundNATSPEC

    Sound radiated directly from a source, such as a loudspeaker or machine, into the surrounding air.

  • airflow rateStandards

    The volumetric flow rate of air derived from the mass flow rate by dividing it by the density, normalized to 1.2 kg/m2 (1.2g/L).NOTE: For buildings located at an altitude substantially differing from sea level, specified airflow rates should be adjusted.

  • airlockStandards

    A room or compartment provided to disconnect a sanitary compartment or other enclosure from another room or space in the building. 

  • alarm conditionStandards

    audible and visual signal

  • alarm initiating deviceStandards

    either an approved sprinkler alarm valve or a flow switch installed downstream of a check valve

  • alarm signalStandards

    an audible signal intended to indicate a fire condition

  • alarm signalling equipmentStandards

    equipment complying with AS 4428.6

  • alarm stateStandards

    the condition of a smoke alarm when it signals a fire condition

  • alarm valveStandards

    a non-return valve that allows the water to enter the installation and operate the alarms when the installation pressure falls below the water supply pressure

  • alarm-silence facilityStandards

    means of temporarily disabling or desensitizing a smoke alarm

  • allowable working timeNATSPEC

    Measured from the commencement of incorporating/mixing the first application of the supplementary stabilisation binder into the unstabilised pavement materials to the completion of trimming.

  • alpineStandards

    Regions where the maximum snow load is usually due to accumulation from a number of successive snowfalls.

  • alpine areaBCA (NCC)

    means land - a) likely to be subject to significant snowfalls; and b) in New South Wales, A.C.T. or Victoria more than 1200 m above the Australian Height Datum; and c) in Tasmania more than 900 m above the Australian Height Datum.

  • alterationBCA (NCC)

    in relation to a building, includes an addition or extension to a building. 

  • alternative solutionNATSPEC

    means a Performance Solution. 

  • aluminium joineryNATSPEC

    The collective term used for aluminium framed and glazed windows and doors.

  • ambient temperatureNATSPEC

    The air temperature at the time of mixing and placing of concrete.

  • ambient temperatureStandards

    the dry bulb temperature in still air, averaged over a period of 8 h

  • ambient waterNATSPEC

    Potable water at a temperature provided by the cold waterpiping system, without further heating or cooling.

  • ambulant people with disabilitiesStandards

    People who are able to walk but have mobility or manipulative impairments.

  • ameliorant materialAUS-SPEC

    Additives used to make or improve soil.

  • anchorAUS-SPEC

    Restraint used to transmit impact forces into the ground.

  • anchor trenchNATSPEC

    A trench excavated around the perimeter of a water feature in which the edges of the geotextile and sheet membrane liner are buried and that diverts surface water runoff.

  • ancillaryStandards

    a moulded non-metallic product used to finish the roof; includes apex, ridge, and barge tilesNOTE: see appendix C for illusion

  • ancillary for tile roofingNATSPEC

    A moulded non-metallic product used to finish the roof, includes apex, ridge, and barge tiles.

  • angle of approachStandards

    The angle between the centre-line of one path of travel and the centre-line of an adjoining path of travel.

  • angle of approachStandards

    The angle between the centre-line of one continuous accessible path of travel and the centre-line of an intersecting continuous accessible path of travel.

  • anionic bitumenNATSPEC

    A type of bituminous emulsion where dispersed particles comprise a bituminous binder and are negatively charged.

  • anionic bitumen emulsionNATSPEC

    A binder material in which the suspended particles are negatively charged.

  • annual energy consumptionNATSPEC

    means the theoretical amount of energy used annually by the building's services, excluding kitchen exhaust and the like. 

  • annual probability of exceedence of the actionNATSPEC

    The probability that a value will be exceeded in any one year.NOTE: This is the inverse of the so-called 'return period' better described as the average recurrence interval.


    A specification describing the official features of the SQL database language. Every variant of SQL relational databases implements a subset of ANSI SQL.

  • anti-burst reinforcementNATSPEC

    Reinforcement cage surrounding anchorages to control the tensile bursting stresses.

  • anti-ponding device/boardStandards

    a lining fixed along the eaves line from the top of the facia back up the rafter with a clearance of approximately 50 mm below the first batten, which prevents the sarking from ponding or sagging due to the accumulation of moistureNOTE: the anti-ponding device/board should be waterproof or water-resistant

  • apexStandards

    The truss joint formed where two sloping top chords of a truss intersect, generally at the highest point of the truss. 

  • applianceStandards

    a solid fuel burning unit intended for use in residential or commercial properties for the purpose of space heating, water heating or cooking

  • applicantStandards

    An entity (or entities) who seeks (seek) a particular test or assessment service in accordance with this Standard. 

  • application rateNATSPEC

    Application Rate: the specified or designed coverage of a specified application specified as litres per m2. 

  • approach sight distanceNATSPEC

    Relates to the ability of drivers to observe the roadway layout at an anticipated approach speed.

  • appropriate authorityNATSPEC

    means the relevant authority with the statutory responsibility to determine the particular matter. 


    approved Approved, reviewed, directed, rejected, endorsed and similar expressions mean approved (reviewed, directed, rejected, endorsed) in writing by the contract administrator.

  • approved and approvalStandards

    approved by, or the approval of, the regulatory authority concerned

  • arched compression elementStandards

    a circular or parabolic arch-shaped compression element having an inside radius-to-thickness ratio greater than 8, stiffened at both ends by edge stiffeners.

  • architectural one-off windowStandards

    a window designed to suit one specific installation in a buildingNOTE: the sections and components used to make the window should be unique to that istallation

  • areaStandards

    The area of the panel between sightlines after glazing, calculated using the sight size.

  • arrised edgeStandards

    The result of removing sharp edges.

  • articulated full masonryStandards

    full masonry construction incorporating articulation of external and internal walls

  • articulated masonry veneerStandards

    masonry veneer construction incorporating articulation of the masonry veneer

  • articulationStandards

    provision for movement in walls through incorporation of permanent control joints

  • as-built drawingsAUS-SPEC

    Copies of the design drawings with as-built changes (including repaired defects) marked up to scale with references to the relevant design change notices:Interim as-built drawings are the as-built drawings at the stage of closure of the lot package.Final as-built drawings are the as-built drawings incorporating the changes for all lot packages and are generally submitted before final completion of the project.

  • aspect ratioStandards

    The ratio of the longer side of a panel to its shorter side.

  • aspect ratioStandards

    Ratio of the average roof height of a building to the smallest horizontal dimension, or the ratio of the largest dimension of a structural member to its crosswind breadth.

  • asphaltNATSPEC

    Dense graded asphalt: A mixture of coarse aggregate, fine aggregate, filler and bitumen.Open graded asphalt: A bituminous mix using aggregate containing only small amounts of fine material, and providing a high percentage of air voids.

  • asphaltAUS-SPEC

    A mixture of bituminous binder and aggregate with or without mineral filler, produced hot in a mixing plant, which is delivered, spread and compacted while hot.

  • asphalt pavementNATSPEC

    A pavement, the predominant structural strength of which is provided by asphalt layers.

  • assemblage of elementsStandards

    a system of interconnected cold-formed steel elements that act together to resist earthquakes action in such a way that the strength and deformation capacity of the system is not adversely affected by the buckling or crippling of any one element of the assemblage

  • assembliesNATSPEC

    A named aggregation of BIM objects that form another object or functional unit.

  • assembly buildingBCA (NCC)

    means a building where people may assemble for - a) civic, theatrical, social, political, or religious purposes including a library, theatre, public hall or place of worship; or b) educational purposes in a school, early childcare centre, preschool, or the like ; orc) entertainment, recreational or sporting purposes including - i) a discotheque, nightclub or a bar area of a hotel or motel providing live entertainment or containing a dance floor; or ii)a cinema; or iii)a sports stadium, sporting or other club; or d) transit purposes including a bus station, railway station, airport or ferry terminal. 

  • assessment methodBCA (NCC)

    means a method that can be used for determining that a Performance Solution or Deemed-to-Satisfy Solution complies with the Performance Requirements.

  • assessment reportStandards

    A document that confirms the FRL and is prepared for the purpose of meeting the requirements of NCC, BCA Volume 1, Specification A2.3.NOTE: Also referred to as a 'formal opinion'.

  • assetAUS-SPEC

    A physical component of a road system or network. Typical assets include sections of pavements, bridges, culverts, traffic signals, signs, road furniture, road reserves, etc.

  • asset protection zone (APZ)/Defendable spaceNATSPEC

     An area surrounding a development managed to minimise fuel loads and reduce the bushfire hazards. It is also referred to as a fire protection zone. It aims to protect human life, property and highly valued public assets. It comprises an inner protection area (IPA) and outer protection area (OPA).

  • associative dimensioningNATSPEC

    A function of a BIM authoring system that automatically updates the value of a dimension when changes occur to the geometry of the object.

  • astragalStandards

    A member, or combination of members, applied to one or both doors of a pair at their meeting stiles to close the clearance gap for the purpose of providing a weather seal, minimizing the passage of light or sound between doors or retarding the passage of smoke and flame during a fire. 

  • atriumBCA (NCC)

    means a space within a building that connects 2 or more storeys, and - a) is wholly or substantially enclosed at the top by a floor or roof (including a glazed roof structure); and b) includes any adjacent part of the building not separated by an appropriate barrier to fire; but c) does not include a stairwell, rampwell or the space within a shaft.

  • Atrium (Standards)Standards

    As defined in Part G3 of the NCC.

  • atrium wellBCA (NCC)

    means a space in an atrium bounded by the perimeter of the openings in the floors or by the perimeter of the floors and the external walls. 

  • attendanceNATSPEC

    Attendance, provide attendance and similar expressions mean give assistance for examination and testing.

  • attenuationNATSPEC

    The reduction of noise or vibration, by whatever method necessary, usually expressed in decibels.

  • atticStandards

    one, or a combination of the following:(a) Attic (decorative) A low storey or decorative parapet above the main cornice of a classical building, originally designed to hide the roof slope(b) Attic (storage) The accessible space within a sloping roof of a house, often used for storage (c) Attic (habitable) A habitable upper storey or room(s), built entirely within the roof space of a building, with stair access from the floor below and usually lit by dormers or skylightsNOTE: in case of a multistorey dwelling, the ceiling means the ceiling of each storey of the building

  • attic trussStandards

    A roof truss supporting both roof and a habitable or non-habitable storage floor space contained within. 

  • authoritiesNATSPEC

    Any authority or agency covering statutory requirements relating to the project, including clearances for work in that particular area.

  • authoritiesAUS-SPEC

    Includes service agencies and Road Authorities.

  • autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC)NATSPEC

    material manufactured from binders such as cement and/or lime combined with fine siliceous based material, cell generating material and water.NOTE: the raw materials are mixed together and cast into molds where the mix is allowed to rise and set into cakes. After this part of the process, the cake is cut into components of the required sizes and cured with high-pressure steam in autoclaves.

  • automaticNATSPEC

    means designed to operate when activated by a heat , smoke or fire sensing device. 

  • automatic (standards)Standards

    The process of a system having the capability of starting or operating without user intervention. 

  • automatic inflowStandards

    automatic flow into a tank to partially make up, within a prescribed time, water drawn off under operational conditions

  • automatic smoke/heat release ventStandards

    a vent complying with AS 2427NOTE: the term 'vent' when used in this Standard is synonymous with 'automatic smoke/heat release vent'

  • automatic suppression systemStandards

    A system, when activated by the heat of a fire or its products of combustion, that will actively have an impact on the rate of growth of the fire and which may contain the size of the fire, reduce it or extinguish it. NOTE: Active systems include fire sprinklers, inert gas flooding and deluge and water spray systems. 

  • automatically controlled (water treatment)Standards

    dosage regulated by feedback control loop or timer

  • average ambient temperatureNATSPEC

    Average value of the daily maximum and minimum ambient temperatures over the defined period at a site.

  • average exceedance probabilityNATSPEC

    The probability that a given rainfall total accumulated over a given duration will be exceeded in any one year.

  • average recurrence intervalNATSPEC

    The average or expected value of the period between exceedances of a given discharge, it is generally expressed in years.

  • average recurrence interval (ARI)Standards

    the average or expected interval between events of a given rainfall intensity being exceededNOTE: the ARI is an average value based on statistical analysis. The actual time between exceedances will vary

  • average recurrence intervalAUS-SPEC

    The average or expected value of the period between exceedances of a given rainfall total accumulated over a given duration. It is implicit in this definition that the periods between exceedances are generally random.

  • average recurrence interval (BCA)BCA (NCC)

    applied to rainfall, means the expected average interval between exceedances for a 5 minute duration  rainfall intensity. 

  • average specific extinction areaBCA (NCC)

    means the average specific extinction area for smoke as determined by AS/NZS 3837.

  • awningNATSPEC

    Roof-like structure, usually of limited extent, projecting from a wall of a building.


  • backflow prevention deviceNATSPEC

    A device on an irrigation system that prevents water from re-entering the potable water lines once it flows into the irrigation pipes.

  • backing rodStandards

    a section of closed cell foam made from flexible plastics

  • backstageBCA (NCC)

    means a space associated with, and adjacent to, a stage in a class 9b building for scenery, props, equipment, dressing rooms, or the like. 

  • bad groundNATSPEC

    Ground unsuitable for the work, including fill liable to subsidence, ground containing cavities, faults or fissures, ground contaminated by harmful substances and ground which is, or becomes, soft, wet or unstable.

  • balanced constructionNATSPEC

    Flush door construction where the facings on one side of the core are nominally equal in thickness, grain direction, properties and arrangement to those on the other side of the core, such that uniformly distributed changes in moisture content will not cause warpage.

  • balustradeStandards

    A low wall forming a parapet to a stair, ramp, balcony, raised level, or a change in levels.

  • barrierStandards

    The assembly of components, natural or otherwise, that restrict access to the pool. The barrier includes items such as fences, posts and panels, gate units, gates and doorsets, constructed or natural walls retaining or otherwise; sides of buildings, and balustrades on a balcony, where they form part of the intended barrier. 

  • barrier heightStandards

    The height of the barrier perpendicular to the finished ground level. 

  • baseNATSPEC

    One or more layers of material, forming the uppermost structural element of a pavement and on which the surfacing may be placed.

  • base coatNATSPEC

    A plaster coat applied before the application of the finish coat.

  • base courseAUS-SPEC

    Directly onto the subgrade or subbase if applicable.

  • base, structuralStandards

    Level at which earthquake motions are considered to be imported to the structure, or the level at which the structure as a dynamic vibrator is supported (see Figure 1.5(C)).

  • base/based courseNATSPEC

    One or more layers of material forming the uppermost structural element of a pavement and on which the surfacing may be placed. It may be composed of fine crushed rock, natural gravel, broken stone, stabilised material, asphalt or Portland cement concrete.

  • baseline dataStandards

    Data derived from the approved design and commissioning, which serve as a basis for subsequent comparison with the data derived from inspection, test and survey. 

  • batchNATSPEC

    A quantity of concrete containing a fixed amount of ingredients and produced in a discrete operation.

  • batch and loadNATSPEC

    Varies according to mixer types as follows:Central batch mixers: For mixers discharging into a tipper truck, a load may comprise more than one batch.Mobile batch mixers: A batch is deemed to be a load, a load must not comprise more than one batch.Continuous mixers: A batch is a load produced in a single discrete operation.

  • batterAUS-SPEC

    The face of an embankment or cutting, produced as a result of earthmoving operations involving cutting and filling.

  • batterAUS-SPEC

    The uniform side slope of walls, banks, cuttings, etc. Usually expressed as a ratio of horizontal to vertical.The amount of such slope or rake, usually expressed as a ratio of horizontal to vertical, distinct from grade.To form a uniform side slope to a wall, bank, or cutting.

  • batteryStandards

    a unit consisting of ne or more cells connected in a series, parallel or series parallel arrangement to supply the voltage and current requirements of a connected load

  • battery-low conditionStandards

    combination of battery voltage and series resistance, which results in a fault warning

  • beadStandards

    A strip of wood, metal, sealant or other suitable material secured to the rebate to retain the glass. Also known as glazing bead or sealant bead.

  • bearing wall systemStandards

    Structural system in which loadbearing walls provide support for all or most of the vertical loads while shear walls or braced frames provide the horizontal earthquake resistance.

  • beddingNATSPEC

    Mixtures of materials which are applied to substrates in a plastic state and which dry, cure and adhere tiles to substrates:Adhesive bedding: Paving/tiling adhered by adhesives.Mortar bedding: Paving/tiling adhered in a cementitious mortar bed.

  • bendStandards

    portion adjacent to flat elements and having a maximum inside radius-to-thickness ratio of 8

  • bicycle path (cycleway)NATSPEC

    A path or path section intended for the exclusive use of cyclists, generally referred to as an exclusive bicycle path.

  • bifenthrinNATSPEC

    A synthetic, broad-spectrum pyrethroid insecticide that affects the nervous system of insects.Bifenthrin is registered by the Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority registrar, for use in conformance with the pesticides registrar’s approved label.

  • BIM authoring systemNATSPEC

    An application used for generating data for multiple uses that includes 3D geometric information. EXAMPLES: Autodesk® Revit®, Bentley® AECOsim®, Graphisoft® ArchiCAD®, Nemetschek® Vectorworks® and Tekla® Structures.

  • binderNATSPEC

    A bituminous material used for waterproofing the surface and holding an aggregate layer to the base.

  • biocideStandards

    a physical or chemical agent that kills bacteria and other microorganisms 

  • bioresistanceStandards

    resistance to degradation by biological attack

  • biteStandards

    The width of silicone used to bond the fin or frame member to the edge of the glass panel.

  • bitumenNATSPEC

    A viscous material from the distillation of crude oil comprising complex hydrocarbons, which is soluble in carbon disulphide, softens when it is heated, is waterproof and has good powers of adhesion. It is produced as a refined by-product of oil.APP Bitumen: Bitumen modified with Atactic (meaning non-crystalline or amorphous) polypropylene wax to form a plastomeric sheet. The membrane is reinforced with fibreglass or non-woven polyester (NWP).SBS bitumen: Bitumen modified with Styrene Butadiene Styrene, a thermoplastic rubber that undergoes a phase inversion at elevated temperature and converts to an elastomeric material. The membrane is reinforced with fibreglass or non-woven polyester (NWP).

  • bitumenStandards

    includes residual petroleum bitumen which may or may not have been processed, naturally occurring asphalt, derivatives of coal or a mixture thereof

  • bitumen emulsion stabilisingNATSPEC

    The mixing of bitumen emulsion into the upper pavement layer to increase pavement strength.

  • bleed off (or blowdown)Standards

    the removal of water from a system to limit the concentration of total dissolved solids and suspended soilds

  • blended granular materialAUS-SPEC

    Joining of two or more gravel materials in various designed % mix blends using ARRB spreadsheet model to achieve improved structural strength and improved plasticity whether smaller or larger as required.

  • blended granular materialsAUS-SPEC

    Joining of two or more gravel materials in various designed % mix blends to achieve improved structural strength and improved plasticity whether smaller or larger as required. The aim is to examine test results to determine the suitability of the new blend to comply with bitumen sealed base gravel specifications.

  • blended materialNATSPEC

    A material formed by the combination and mixing of materials obtained from different sources or rock types or recycled materials, in order to obtain a product with improved properties.

  • blockStandards

    A small piece of lead, rubber or other suitable material used to position the glass in the frame.

  • BMUStandards

    building maintenance unit

  • boilerBCA (NCC)

    means a vessel or an arrangement of vessels and interconnecting parts, wherein steam or other vapour is generated, or water or other liquid is heated at a pressure above that of the atmosphere, by the application of fire, the products of combustion, electrical power, or similar high temperature means, and - a) include superheaters, reheaters, economisers, boiler piping, supports, mountings, valves, gauges, fittings, controls, the boiler settings and directly associated equipment; butb) excludes a fully flooded or pressurised system where water or the other liquid is heated to a temperature lower than the normal atmospheric boiling temperature of the liquid. 

  • boiling waterNATSPEC

    Potable water at a temperature at or close to 100°C.

  • bond breakerNATSPEC

    A system preventing a membrane bonding to the substrate, bedding or lining.

  • bond breakerStandards

    a system that prevents the membrane bonding to the substrate, bedding or lining

  • bonding conductorNATSPEC

    Provides electrical connection between the lightning protection system and other metalwork and between various metal parts of a structure or between earthing systems.

  • bonding treatmentNATSPEC

    A treatment of a substrate which improves adhesion of a plaster system.

  • booking (book)NATSPEC

    The procedure of folding pasted surfaces together for easier handling, when applying paste onto wallcoverings.

  • boost chargeStandards

    a system of charging adopted to recover the battery in accordance with the duty requirements of the system, the voltage of the system under these circumstances being outside the normal operational limits of the system

  • boosterNATSPEC

    In-line pressure booster pumping station used to increase the hydraulic gradient.

  • bored cast in place tileStandards

    a pile, with or without a liner, formed by excavating or boring a hole in the ground and subsequently filling it with plain or reinforced concrete

  • bored pierStandards

    cast in place concrete cylindrical load support element

  • borrow areaNATSPEC

    An area or excavation from which soil, clay, sand, rock or gravel has been excavated for a specific purpose.

  • borrowed airStandards

    Air that is borrowed by a naturally ventilated enclosure and used to ventilate an adjoining enclosure.

  • bottom chordStandards

    A member forming the lower boundary of a truss and which generally supports a ceiling. 

  • bound granular materialsNATSPEC

    Granular or subgrade materials to which a binder has been added to improve structural stiffness.

  • bound materialNATSPEC

    A granular or subgrade material to which a binder has been added to improve structural stiffness.

  • boundary barrierStandards

    A dividing barrier between two adjoining properties. 

  • box gutterStandards

    graded channel, generally of rectangular shape, for the conveyance of rainwater, located within the building, which includes a gutter adjacent to a wall or parapet

  • braced frameStandards

    Two-dimensional structural system composed of an essentially vertical truss (or its equivalent) where the members are subject primarily to axial forces when resisting earthquake actions.

  • braced frame, concentricStandards

    Braced frame in which bracing members are connected at the column-beam joints (see Table 6.5(A)).

  • braced frame, eccentricStandards

    Braced frame where at least one end of each brace intersects a beam at a location away from the column-beam joint (see Table 6.2).

  • braced memberStandards

    member for which the transverse displacement of one end of the member relative to the other is effectively prevented 

  • braced stumpStandards

    stump that forms part of a bracing element that resists lateral loads through diagonal members attached between two or more stumps

  • bracing stumpStandards

    stump that, in addition to vertical loads, resists horizontal loads applied more than 150 mm above ground level

  • brailleStandards

    A system of touch reading for the blind, which employs raised dots that are evenly arranged in quadrangular letter spaces or cells.

  • branchNATSPEC

    A duct with no terminals connected to it.

  • breachingStandards

    the passing of termites through a hole or gap in a termite management system NOTE: examples of breaches include the removal of a section of treated soil from a chemical soil termite management system, or a perforation or disjunction in a physical management system

  • breathabilityNATSPEC

    The ability of certain plasters to allow the passage of moisture vapour (rather than water) and air through to the straw bales.

  • bridgingStandards

    termites gaining access to a structure by passing over a termite management system or inspection zoneNOTE: termites bridging a termite management system will often construct a shelter tube, which reveals their passage 

  • british pendulum number (BPN)Standards

    dimensionless unit of slip resistance when measured using the pendulum friction tester

  • buildingStandards

    any structure classified in the Building Code of Australia

  • building authority or other regulatory authorityStandards

    Body having statutory powers to control the design and erection of buildings or structures, including scaffolding, in the area in which the building or structure concerned is to be erected. 

  • Building ClassStandards

    The Class, as defined in the NCC.

  • building classificationStandards

    As defined in the NCC. 

  • building ownerStandards

    the owner of a building or the authorized representative of the owner

  • building solutionBCA (NCC)

    means a solution which complies with the Performance Requirements and is a - a) Performance Solution; orb) Deemed-to-Satisfy Solution; orc) combination of (a) and (b).

  • buildings - non-residentialStandards

    Buildings other than those defined in Clause, such as hotels, hostels, motels, shops, offices, schools, public assembly buildings, and factories, and those parts of residential buildings common to a group of dwellings such as common circulation areas in blocks of two or more flats.

  • buildings - residentialStandards

    Buildings and such portions of buildings used as separate dwelling houses and flats, but not incorporating common circulation areas in blocks of two or more flats.

  • built-in applianceStandards

    An appliance designed to be un contact with or built into a heat-sensitive structure within a buildingNOTE: an appliance with a through-wall, ceiling or other similar hot air outlet should be considered as a built-in appliance (see Clause 3.4) 

  • built-in components for reinforced AAC constructionNATSPEC

    metal items used for connecting Reinforced AAC to its supporting structure including, but not limited to, the following:(a) Anchors(b) Connectors(c) Shelf angles(d) Lintel bars(e) Bolts and fixings 

  • built-up air handling plantNATSPEC

    A custom made air handling unit, erected on-site on a building floor using standard panels and proprietary components.

  • bulk pierStandards

    cast in place concrete load support element excavated by backhoe or similar machinery

  • bulkingNATSPEC

    The increase in volume of a layer designated for stabilisation resulting from preliminary pulverisation and/or incorporation of secondary or primary stabilisation binder.

  • bushfireStandards

    an unplanned fire burning in vegetation; also referred to as wildfire

  • bushfire attackStandards

    attack by burning embers, radiant heat or flame generated by a bushfire, which might result in ignition and subsequent damage to or destruction of a building

  • bushfire attack level (BAL)Standards

    a means of measuring the severity of a building's potential exposure to ember attack, radiant heat and direct flame contact, using increments of radiant heat expressed in kilowatts per metre squared, and the basis for establishing the requirements for construction to improve the protection of building elements from attack by bushfire

  • bushfire attack levels (BAL)NATSPEC

    A method of measuring a site’s potential exposure to ember attack, radiant heat and direct flame contact as defined in AS 3959. It takes into consideration Fire danger index (FDI), the slope of the land, types of surrounding vegetation and the site’s proximity to any building.

  • bushfire prone areaStandards

    an area that is subject to, or likely to be subject to, bushfire attacks

  • bushfire prone areaAUS-SPEC

    An area declared as likely to be subject to bushfire attack by the local council or a state government.

  • bushfire shutterStandards

    a shutter that is constructed and fitted to the exterior of a building in accordance with Clause 3.7, to protect a window or a door from exposure to bushfire attack

  • bushfire-resisting timberStandards

    timber that is in solid, laminated or reconstituted form that meets the criteria specified in Appendix F

  • buswayStandards

    a wiring system comprising rigid conductors spaced apart, rigidly supported on insulating material within a duct, trunk or similar enclosure

  • butt joints (flooring)NATSPEC

    Floor units cross cut square with plain ends for joining over supports.


  • cableStandards

    a single core, or two or more cables cores laid up together, either with or without fillings, reinforcements, or protective coverings

  • cable coreStandards

    the conductor with its insulation but not including any mechanical protective covering

  • cable supportNATSPEC

    Cable tray, cable ladders and cable mesh cable support systems.

  • cable, mineral insulated metal sheathed (MIMS)Standards

    a cable having compressed powdered mineral insulation enclosed in metal sheathing. Such cable may be either single-core or multicore. Such cable may bare sheath or PVC served

  • camberStandards

    upward vertical displacement built into the truss at truss panel points to compensate for long-term deflection due to anticipated permanent actions. 

  • canStandards

    implies a capability or possibility and refers to the ability of the user of the Standard, or tp a possibility that is available or that might occur

  • canopyBCA (NCC)

    Roof adjacent to or attached to a building, generally not enclosed by walls.

  • cantileverStandards

    part of a truss that extends beyond its outermost support, exclusive of the overhang. 

  • capabilityNATSPEC

    The percentage of design water flow rate that the cooling tower is capable of cooling through the design temperature range at the design approach temperature with air entering at the design wet bulb temperature.

  • capacity design principlesStandards

    appropriate material Standard design and detailing provisions, which enable zones where post-elastic response is acceptable to be identified and detailed in a manner that ensures these zones are capable of accepting the inelastic demands placed upon themNOTE: all other zones are to be designed to ensure that all other undesirable inelastic response mechanisms are suppressed and detailed in a manner that the ultimate limits state horizontal deformations that they are expected to be subjected to, can be sustained without significant (e.g. greater than 20%) loss of load-carrying capacity after four complete cycles of loading. 

  • capacity factorStandards

    A factor applied to the characteristic capacity to obtain the design capacity. 

  • capacity reduction factorStandards

    a factor used to multiply the nominal capacity to obtain the design capacity

  • carparkBCA (NCC)

    means a building that is used for the parking of motor vehicles but is neither a private garage nor used for the servicing of vehicles, other than washing, cleaning or polishing. 

  • carpetStandards

    heavy fabric floor covering of wool, nylon or similar material, with or without underlay

  • carriagewayAUS-SPEC

    That portion of a road or bridge devoted particularly to the use of vehicles, that is between guide posts, kerbs, or barriers where these are provided, inclusive of shoulders and auxiliary lanes.

  • carriagewayStandards

    That portion of a road or bridge devoted particularly to the use of vehicles, inclusive of shoulders and auxiliary lanes. It is usually designated as that part of a public road (way) between kerbs.

  • carriageway concrete pavementsNATSPEC

    Reinforced concrete pavements. Does not include roller compacted concrete bases and subbases.

  • cased pileStandards

    a pile formed in the ground by installing a liner and partially or wholly filling it with plain or reinforced concrete after excavation

  • catchmentNATSPEC

    A topographically defined area drained by a stream where all outflow is directed to a single point.

  • catchment (area)NATSPEC

    A topographically defined area drained by a stream, river or reservoir of water (into a groundwater system).

  • catchment area of any pointNATSPEC

    The limits from where surface runoff will make its way, either by natural or man-made paths, to this point.

  • cationic bitumen emulsionNATSPEC

    A binder material in which the suspended particles are positively charged.

  • cationic emulsionNATSPEC

    A type of bituminous emulsion where the dispersed particles comprise of a bituminous binder and are positively charged.

  • cavity wallBCA (NCC)

    for the purposes of FV1, means a wall that incorporates a drained cavity. 

  • ceiling unitNATSPEC

    Tile, panel, plank, strip or open grid supported within a ceiling suspended system.

  • cellStandards

    the basic single unit consisting of case, electrolyte, positive and negative plates, and connecting terminals, used for storing electric energy by electrolytic processes

  • cellular core doorNATSPEC

    Timber hollow core doors with cellulose mesh grid or honeycomb core encased by timber rails and stiles.

  • cement matrix terrazzoNATSPEC

    Facing aggregate in a cement based matrix.

  • central air-handling systemStandards

    An air-handling system that is capable of recycling air from one or more fire compartments to another one or more fire compartments. 

  • central heating applianceStandards

    a heating appliance that is designed to be installed for space heating by means of transferring heat to the living area by ducted hot air, hot water, or other fluidNOTE: for the purposes of complying with New Zealand regulations, this also refers to a heating appliance that has a maximum heat output rate greater than 25 kW measured for a period of not less than 6 min under high burn rate conditions set out in Section 6 of AS/NZS 4012

  • centrally supplied (emergency lighting) systemStandards

    a system of emergency lighting in which a number of emergency luminaires, or exit signs, or both are supplied from a common power sourceWithin a building there may be more than one power source, each of which supplies the emergency luminaires and exit signs in particular

  • certificate of accreditationBCA (NCC)

    means a certificate issued by a state territory accreditation authority stating that the properties and performance of a building material or method of construction or design fulfill specific requirements of the BCA.

  • certificate of conformityBCA (NCC)

    means a certificate issued under the ABCB scheme for products and systems certification stating that the properties and performance of a building material or method of construction or design fulfill specific requirements of the BCA.

  • certificationNATSPEC

    A written assertion of facts.

  • certifierStandards

    A person or organisation acting on behalf of an authorized by the manufacturer who assumes the responsibility for approving the installation of a fire-resistant roller shutter in accordance with this Standard. 

  • chain link fencing fabricNATSPEC

    Diamond-pattern-woven fencing fabric manufactured from wire.

  • chair railStandards

    A fixed glazing bar, or rigid push-bar, that provides protection from human impact.

  • changeable letter systemsNATSPEC

    Sign systems consisting of display boards or holders into which removable individual letters, numbers, etc can be inserted .

  • changeable plate systemsNATSPEC

    Sign systems consisting of fixed plate holders to which removable interchangeable sign plates may be attached or inserted.

  • characteristic snow load on the ground (Sg)Standards

    Load at a site with accepted probability of not being exceeded during some reference period (years).NOTE: In meteorology the term 'weight of the ground snow cover' is also used.

  • characteristic surface movementStandards

    movement of the surface of a reactive site caused by moisture changes from characteristic dry to characteristic wet condition in the absence of a building and without consideration of load effects

  • characteristic valueNATSPEC

    1. for strength properties, the value of the material property that is exceeded by 95% of the material.2. for coefficients of expansion and contraction, the value that is exceeded by 5% of the material.

  • characteristics capacityStandards

    The product of characteristic value and geometric section property appropriate to the action effect. 

  • check-outNATSPEC

    Examination of accuracy and condition of materials and components.

  • checklistNATSPEC

    Form completed during the manufacture/construction process verifying key steps.

  • chemicalStandards

    a substance or substances, required to be registered by the pesticides register, for use in a termite management system in accordance with the pesticide register's approved label

  • chemical treated sheet materialNATSPEC

    A planar product impregnated with a termiticide tested in conformance with AS 3660.3 and registered with the pesticides registrar.

  • chemically treated sheetStandards

    a pesticide registrar registered sheet material sheet material treated with a chemical

  • child-resistant doorsetStandards

    A barrier installed in a residential building that comprises a door, door frame, self-closing device and latch. 

  • child-resistant doorset (standards)Standards

    A doorset that compromises a door, door frame, self-closing device and self-latching device, that is designed to provide an access way from the building to the swimming pool. 

  • child-resistant windowsStandards

    The opening part of a window that is protected din accordance with Clause 2.6.

  • chilled waterNATSPEC

    Potable water at a temperature between 6°C and 15°C.

  • chimney chase/facadeStandards

    heat-sensitive structure within a building for the purpose of built-in appliances installation, including flue system used

  • circuit intergrityStandards

    the ability of an electrical circuit to perform the function for which it has been designed

  • circulation spaceStandards

    Area within a building that is used for pedestrian travel, which is a passageway, corridor, hallway, stairway, lobby, atrium, enclosed walkway and mall, shop, area in a room that leads to another room, path of travel in car park and loading dock that leads to an exit or other path of travel to an exit. 

  • circulation spaceStandards

    Contains the net unobstructed area for a minimum height of 2000 mm above the finished floor or ground surface (unless otherwise specified in this Standard), which is that space surrounding built elements, landscape elements, and fixtures and fittings required for movement into and within buildings.

  • circulation spaceStandards

    A clear unobstructed area, to enable persons using mobility aids to manoeuvre.

  • clad frameStandards

    timber or metal frame construction with the exterior wall clad with timber or sheet material not sensitive to minor movements. Includes substructure masonry walls up to 1.5 m high

  • claddingNATSPEC

    Material that forms the external surface over the framing of a building or structure.

  • clamp plateNATSPEC

    A continuous metal plate bolted to a linear framing element that clamps a membrane in place.

  • class A firesStandards

    fires that involve carbonaceous solids

  • classified vegetationStandards

    vegetation hat has been classified with Clause 2.2.3

  • clayStandards

    fine-grained soil with plastic properties when wet. Includes gravelly, sandy or silty clays

  • clay segmental paversNATSPEC

    Manufactured from clay, shale or argillaceous materials which may be mixed with additives. Clay pavers may have square, bevelled (chamfered), rounded or rumbled edges. They are generally rectangular in shape, with the length twice the width, plus 2 mm.

  • cleanStandards

    that part of maintenance which has as its objective plant free from visable sludge, foam, slime (including alae and fungi), rust, scale, dirt, dust and any deposit or accumulation of impurities, or any other foreign material

  • clean waterNATSPEC

    Water conforming to one of the following:Water that enters the development site from an external source and has not been further contaminated by sediment within the site.Water originating from the site and does not require treatment to reach the required water quality level.Water that would not be further improved if it was to pass through the sediment trap for the site.

  • cleaningNATSPEC

    Removal of any deposit or accumulation of impurities, or any other foreign material and may include dispersion and removal of solids, physical scrubbing, draining and/or disinfection.

  • cleanoutNATSPEC

    A subsurface drainage inlet at the surface of the pavement, shoulder or surrounding ground surface. Also known as flushout riser and inspection point.

  • clear zoneNATSPEC

    The area adjacent to the traffic lane to be kept clear of obstructions that could be hazardous to errant vehicles. It consists of the verge area and is measured from the nearside edge of the left-hand traffic lane. For divided roads, it is also measured from the offside edge of the right-hand traffic lane to the edge of the pavement for opposing traffic.

  • clearanceStandards

    the shortest distance between specific parts, surfaces, or objects

  • clearancesNATSPEC

    A formal certificate, approval or condition issued by an authority to allow work to be carried out in a particular area.

  • clearingNATSPEC

    The removal of vegetation or other obstacles at or above ground before the commencement of earthwork, drainage, etc.

  • climate zoneBCA (NCC)

    means an area defined in Figure A1.1 and in Table A1.1 for specific locations, having energy efficiency provisions based on a range of similar climatic characteristics. 

  • clinchingStandards

    structural fastening of two or more flat elements by single-point embossing or piercing without using additional material

  • closed systemNATSPEC

    A water distribution or circulation system in which the water does not come into contact with air during circulation and to which, in normal operation, no water is added.

  • closing edgeStandards

    the edge(s) of the door that closes up against the surrounding structure or is approximately perpendicular to the main direction of motion. For a rolling curtain or shutter door, this is the lower edge of the door. For a rigid overhead door, this is the lower edge and the side edges. For a sectional overhead door, this is the lower edge of each panel

  • coarse aggregateNATSPEC

    A general term for aggregates substantially retained on a sieve of specified size, commonly 4.75 mm.

  • coating contractorNATSPEC

    The protective coatings application contractor conducting the on- or off-site coating application works.

  • coating manufacturerNATSPEC

    The supplier and/or manufacturer of the protective coating materials used.

  • coating system (floor sanding and finishing)NATSPEC

    Materials applied to enhance wear resistance and protect the flooring material.


    Construction Operation Buildings information exchange. A representation of a handover view of the IFC schema, typically seen as a spreadsheet. (ISO 15686-4)

  • coefficient of friction (COF)Standards

    the ratio of the tangential force required to move a body across a horizontal surface to the vertical load imposed on the surface by the body

  • coefficient of performanceStandards

    ratio of heating capacity to the effective power input to the device at any given set of rating conditionsNOTE: Where to COP is stated without an indication of units, it is understood that is it derived from watts/watts

  • cofferdamNATSPEC

    A structure, usually temporary, built to support the surrounding ground or to exclude water and soil sufficiently to permit work to proceed safely without excessive pumping.

  • coilStandards

    a heat exchanger made up of tubing formed into a compact shape by spiral or serpentine configuration, and usually incorporating surface fins

  • cold mix asphaltNATSPEC

    A mixture of bituminous binder and aggregates, with or without mineral filler, produced warm or cold in a mixing plant and delivered in a workable condition suitable for stockpiling and spreading and compaction. It is used in areas where it is impractical to do repair work using hot mix.

  • cold-formed steel structural membersStandards

    shapes that are manufactured by press-braking blanks sheared from sheets, cut length of coils or plates, or by roll forming cold- or hot-rolled coils or sheets; both forming operations being performed at ambient room temperature, that is, without manifest addition of heat as required for hot-forming

  • collapse-susceptible timberStandards

    Timber, for which the shrinkage values before and after reconditioning differ by more than 2%. NOTE: Information on shrinkage values can be obtained from the following references: a) KINGSTON, R.S.T. and RISDON C.J.E. Shrinkage and Density of Australian and other South-west Pacific Woods. Division of Forest Products Technological Paper No. 13. CSIRO, 1961. b) BUDGEN, B. Shrinkage and Density of some Australian and South-east Asian Timbers. Division of Building Research Technological Paper (Second Series) No. 38, CSIRO, 1981. 

  • collapsing soilStandards

    weakly cemented soil subject to large settlements under load as a result of degration by water on the cementing action

  • collarStandards

    a device to seal a sleeve to the substrate

  • combination of actionsBCA (NCC)

    Set of design values used to confirm that the limit states are not exceeded under simultaneous influence of different actions.

  • combined emergency luminaireStandards

    luminaire containing two or more lamps or light sources, at least one of which is energized from the emergency lighting supply and the other(s) from the normal lighting supply. The emergency lamp(s) in a combined emergency luminaire is (are) either maintained or non-maintained 

  • combined illuminated emergency exit signStandards

    definition as for 'combined emergency luminaire'

  • combined poolStandards

    A part indoor pool and a part outdoor pool. 

  • combined systemStandards

    an integrated system of fire sprinklers and fire hydrants using combined piping reticulation and water supplies designed to simultaneously supply sufficient water to meet the flow and pressure requirements of both sprinkler and hydrant systems

  • combustibleBCA (NCC)

    means - a) applied to a material - combustible as determined by AS 1530.1; and b) applied to construction or part of a building - constructed wholly or in part of combustible materials. 

  • combustible (standards)Standards

    As defined in the NCC.

  • commissioningNATSPEC

    Running of the plant and equipment to make sure there is flow through the pumping system, carrying out any necessary testing and making adjustments until it is ready and suitable for normal starting and running under service conditions.

  • common wallBCA (NCC)

    means a wall that is common to adjoining buildings.

  • commonly used materialStandards

    material with a service temperature greater than 100°CNOTE: refer to Appendix C

  • compactibility indexNATSPEC

    A comparative measurement used to determine the consistency and the workability of roller compacted concrete.

  • compartmentStandards

    a space that is enclosed by walls and a ceiling. The walls of the compartment enclosure may have openings to an adjoining space, provided there is a minimum depth of 200 mm from the ceiling to the top of the opening

  • competent personNATSPEC

    A person who has, through a combination of training, qualification and experience, acquired knowledge and skills enabling that person to correctly perform a specified task.

  • competent person (standards)Standards

    A person who has had appropriate training or practical experience (or both) to provide safe and satisfactory performance. 

  • completion/completion of repairs/completion of worksNATSPEC

    The maintenance contract provides requirements for when the works are deemed complete, including that the works have been completed in conformance with drawings, schedules and specifications.

  • componentStandards

    Hardware used in the manufacture and installation of roof trusses, including nailplates, bracing and other brackets and connections. 

  • component layers (of wallcoverings)NATSPEC

    Decorative (top) layer: Consists of ink and a protective polymer coating applied to the top of the intermediate layer. The design and/or texture is printed using various methods such as gravure, flexography, surface printing and screen-printing.Intermediate layer (or the ground): It provides the surface upon which the decorative layer is printed and the background colour.Substrate or backing: The part of the wallcovering that adheres to the wall substrate. The backing material includes woven and non-woven fabrics and lightweight paper products.

  • compressed fibre cement sheetsNATSPEC

    Factory prefinished double faced autoclaved high density fibre cement sheets with square stone cut edges ground smooth and arrised.

  • concealedStandards

    any damp-proof course or flashing that, when installed, is concealed within the structure and is not exposed directly to the weather

  • concrete class – normalNATSPEC

    Concrete that is specified primarily by a standard compressive strength grade up to 50 MPa and otherwise in conformance with AS 1379 clause 1.5.3.

  • concrete class – specialNATSPEC

    Concrete that is specified to have certain properties or characteristics different from, or additional to, those of normal-class concrete and otherwise in conformance with AS 1379 clause 1.5.4. If special-class concrete is documented for the project, document the relevant parameters in the Concrete properties schedule – performance.

  • concrete segmental paversNATSPEC

    Units of not more than 0.10 m2 in gross plan area, manufactured from concrete, with top and bottom faces parallel, with or without chamfered edges and identified by the following shape types:Shape Type A: Dentated chamfered units which key into each other on four sides, are capable of being laid in herringbone bond, and by plan geometry, when interlocked, resist the spread of joints parallel to both the longitudinal and transverse axes of the units.Shape Type B: Dentated units which key into each other on two sides, are not (usually) laid in herringbone bond, and by plan geometry, when keyed together, resist the spread of joints parallel to the longitudinal axes of the units and rely on dimensional accuracy and accuracy of laying to interlock on the other faces.Shape Type C: Units which do not key together rely on dimensional accuracy and accuracy of laying to develop interlock.Refer to CMAA PA02 for laying patterns examples.

  • concrete wall panelStandards

    precast (including tilt-up) or cast in place concrete wall designed to act as a unit and separated from adjust panels or walls by a control joint

  • conditioned spaceBCA (NCC)

    means a space within a building, including a ceiling or under-floor supply air plenum or return air plenum, where the environment is likely, by the intended use of the space, to have its temperature controlled bu air conditioning, but does not include - a) a non-habitable room of a Class 2 building or Class 4 part of a building in which a heater with a capacity of not more than 1.2 kW or 4.3 MJ/hour provides the air conditioning; or b) a space in a Class 6, 7, 8, or 9b building where the input energy to an air conditioning system is not more than 15W/m2 or 15J/s.m2 (54Kj/hour.m2); or c) a lift shaft.  

  • cone penetration test (CPT)Standards

    a test in accordance with AS 1289.6.5.1, to determine the penetration resistance of a soil

  • connecting strapNATSPEC

    A short conductor for the connection of structures to the lightning protection system.

  • connectionStandards

    Mechanical means that provide a load path for actions between structural elements, non-structural elements and structural and non-structural elements.

  • connectorsNATSPEC

    Bolts, nuts, screws, screwed rod, brackets, straps, and the like, used to fix reinforced AAC members to supporting elements in the structure. 

  • construction activity actionsBCA (NCC)

    means actions due to stacking of building materials or the use of equipment, including cranes and trucks, during construction or actions which may be induced by floor to floor propping.  

  • construction jointsNATSPEC

    All joints other than fresh joints or where adjoining concrete shows signs of setting.

  • construction recordsAUS-SPEC

    All lot records, non-conformance reports, design change notices, site instructions, photographs and interim as-built drawings applicable to a lot package.

  • consumableNATSPEC

    Materials or components intended to be replaced within the service life of the associated plant or equipment.

  • contamination of landNATSPEC

    The presence of a substance in, on or under the land which is designated hazardous material and/or is at a concentration above that which is normally found in that locality, such that there presents a risk of harm to human health or to the environment.

  • continuous accessible path of travelStandards

    An uninterrupted path of travel to or within a building, providing access to all required facilities.NOTE: For non-ambulatory people, this accessible path does not incorporate any step, stairway, turnstile, revolving door, escalator or other impediment which would prevent it from being safely negotiated by people with disabilities.

  • continuous accessible path of travelStandards

    An uninterrupted path of travel to, into or within a building providing access to all accessible facilities.

  • continuous flight auger pile (CFA)Standards

    a pile formed in the ground by drilling with a hollow flight auger that is subsequently and progressively withdrawn, with the cavity below the auger tip being gradually filled with concrete or cement grout injected under pressure

  • contour cultivationNATSPEC

    Cultivation to prepare the rehabilitation area on the contour. On steep slopes the land is terraced or benched.

  • contract administratorNATSPEC

    Has the same meaning as architect or superintendent and is the person appointed by the owner or principal under the contract.

  • contractorNATSPEC

    Has the same meaning as builder and is the person or organisation bound to carry out and complete the work under the contract.

  • control lineNATSPEC

    A line generally at or near the centreline of a road on which the design is based and from which measurements for setting out may

  • control systemAUS-SPEC

    A lighting control system comprising a combination of some or all of the following:Automatic sensing and control components.Computer interface for programming.Dimming systems.Manual overrides.Motion detection sensors (occupancy sensors).Timers.

  • control system (lighting)NATSPEC

    A lighting control system comprising a combination of some or all of the following:Automatic sensing and control components.Timers.Manual overrides.Programming using a computer interface.

  • controlled fillStandards

    fill that will be required to support structures or associated pavements, or for which engineering properties are to be controlled

  • cool roomNATSPEC

    A refrigerated space which is designed to maintain a temperature below 5°C and is used primarily for the storage of product.

  • cooling towerStandards

    a device for lowering the temperature of water by evaporative cooling in which atmospheric air is in contact with falling water, thereby exchanging heat. The term also includes those devices that incorporate a water-refrigerant or water-water heat exchanger

  • cooling water systemStandards

    a heat exchange system comprising a heat-generating plant, cooling tower and interconnecting water recirculating pipework and associated pumps, valves and controls

  • corewoodStandards

    Timber adjacent to or including the pith, that is, of density less than 80% that of the density of mature trees. NOTE: For plantation grown softwoods, corewood may be avoided by excluding all timber within a radius of 50mm from the centre of the pith that has a growth ring width greater than 6mm. 

  • corrective action requestNATSPEC

    A formal advice/instruction to the contractor requesting action to eliminate the cause of a detected nonconformity.

  • corrective maintenanceNATSPEC

    Maintenance initiated as a result of plant, equipment, systems, elements, before or after functional failure. This work can be planned or unplanned and includes repairs and replacement.

  • councilNATSPEC

    The Local Government Authority for the area where the work is carried out.

  • counterbalance systemStandards

    component or set of components that act against the force of gravity to reduce the effort required to operate the door

  • cove trussStandards

    A truss supported at a point on the overhang, rather than the usual support at the heel, beyond the point where the bottom chord (or end-web) meets the top chord. 

  • cowlStandards

    a device on top of a flue or chimney that is designed to prevent the ingress of wind and rain from entering

  • crash railStandards

    A rail, together with its fixings, capable of withstanding a load of 750 N/m length, acting in any direction without contact with the glazing material.

  • critical fall heightNATSPEC

    The maximum free height of fall for which a surface provides an acceptable level of impact attenuation.

  • critical heat fluxStandards

    heat flux at which the flame extinguishes (CHF) or the heat flux after the test period of 30 min (HF-30), whichever is the lower value (i.e. the flux corresponding with the furthest extent of spread of flame within 30 min)

  • critical heat flux at extinguishment (CHF)Standards

    incident heat flux (kW/m2) at the surface of a specimen at the point where the flame ceases to advance and may subsequently go out. The heat flux value reported is based on interpolations of measurements with a non-combustible calibration board

  • critical radiant fluxBCA (NCC)

    means the critical heat flux at extinguishment as determined by AS ISO 9239.1.

  • cross bank (whoa-boy)NATSPEC

    An earth hump constructed across a track so that runoff is effectively diverted from it. Cross banks are designed to handle larger flows than cross drains, using one of the following methods:Infall cross bank: Used to direct water off the track surface where it is inappropriate to direct water to the side of the road.Outfall cross bank: Used to remove water from table drains at outfall locations.

  • cross drainsNATSPEC

    Drains of various forms that hinder the flow of water down a track and divert it across the track’s surface. The capacity of the drain is defined by its cross-section. Cross drains are designed to handle smaller flows than cross banks but larger flows than can be controlled by crossfall drainage.

  • crossfallNATSPEC

    The slope of the surface of a carriageway measured normal to the design or road centreline.

  • crossfall drainageNATSPEC

    Drainage which occurs when the surface of a track has sufficient cross slope to cause water to flow across and off the surface, rather than along it. Stormwater drainage for unsealed tracks can be classified as follows:Crown: Where water sheds from both sides.Infall: Where water flows into the hillside.Outfall: Where flow is away from the hillside.

  • cubicleNATSPEC

    A small space or compartment partitioned off, often within a wet area.

  • culvertNATSPEC

    A pipe or similar structure used to direct water under the track.

  • curtain wallBCA (NCC)

    means a non-loadbearing external wall that is not a panel wall. 

  • cushion head boxNATSPEC

    A plenum box fitted above a diffuser.

  • custom-built assembliesNATSPEC

    Low voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies manufactured to order and incorporating either purpose built or proprietary components or either purpose built or proprietary bus-bar assemblies.

  • cutback bitumenNATSPEC

    Bitumen to which cutter oil (kerosene) has been added to achieve a temporary reduction in viscosity.

  • cutterNATSPEC

    A light petroleum distillate (e.g. kerosene) added to bitumen to temporarily reduce its viscosity (cutback bitumen).

  • cutter oilNATSPEC

    A light petroleum distillate (e.g. kerosene) added to bitumen to temporarily reduce its viscosity.

  • cycleStandards

    a door cycle consists of moving the door from a fully closed position to a fully open position, and back to the fully closed postion

  • cyclewayNATSPEC

    Portion of a road or footpath for the exclusive use of cyclists.


  • damp-proof courseStandards

    barrier of impervious material built into a wall or pier to prevent moisture movement to any part of the wall or pier

  • damperStandards

    An automatic operable device mounted in a duct, plenum or opening for the purposes of controlling air or smoke flow. 

  • date of completionNATSPEC

    The date when:All excavation, backfill and temporary restoration of the road opening is completed and safe for use by traffic.Permanent restoration is completed.

  • daylight sizeStandards

    The clear unsupported opening size that admits light.

  • deckingNATSPEC

    Intermittently-supported external flooring with drainage gaps between boards.

  • deckingStandards

    that part of the structure of verandas, decks, steps, ramps and landings that forms the trafficable surface of the structure

  • declared thermal conductivityNATSPEC

    expected value of thermal conductivity for a building material or product assessed from measured material thermal conductivity data at reference conditions of temperature and humidity, for a stated fraction and confidence level, and corresponding to an expected service lifetime under normal conditions. (UNIT: W/(m.K))

  • declared thermal resistanceStandards

    expected value of thermal resistance for a building material or product assessed from measured material thermal resistance data at reference conditions of temperature and humidity, for a stated fraction and confidence level, and corresponding to an expected service lifetime under normal conditions. (Unit: (m2 .K)/W)

  • decorated glassStandards

    Clear or patterned glass processed by craftsmen for decorative effect. Stained glass, leadlights and sandblasted, acid-etched, embossed and printed glass fall into this category. Decorative interlayers may also be incorporated in laminated glass.

  • decorative overlaid wood panelsNATSPEC

    Particleboard or fibreboard with a bonded decorative finishing surface such as thermosetting resin (low pressure melamine), PVC film, paper foils or wood veneer.

  • dedicated (parking) spaceStandards

    a parking space set aside exclusively for the parking of a single vehicle

  • deemed-to-satisfy provisionsBCA (NCC)

    means provisions which are deemed to satisfy the Performance Requirements. 

  • deemed-to-satisfy solutionBCA (NCC)

    means a method of satisfying the Deemed-to-Satisfy Provisions. 

  • defaultNATSPEC

    Specified value, product or installation method which is to be provided unless otherwise documented.

  • defectAUS-SPEC

    A work lot non-conformance which continues to exist.

  • defect registerAUS-SPEC

    A register of all defects maintained by the contractor. Recorded as either OPEN or CLOSED.

  • defined flood eventBCA (NCC)

    means the flood event selected for the management of flood hazard for the location of specific development as determined by the appropriate authority. 

  • defined flood levelBCA (NCC)

    means the flood level associated with a defined flood event relative to a specified datum. 

  • definitions specific to exit sign appearanceStandards

    Additional background and optional additional background - Additional background areas are those areas on the face of an exit sign that are not part f any pictorial element but are of the same colour as the background portion(s) of the pictorial element(s). Additional background forms part of a single element sign to ensure that the minimum size of a single element sign is consistent in proportion with dual element signs. Any areas of the face of a sign apart from the pictorial elements, additional background as defined above and allowable borders is designated as optional additional backgroundBorder - Any illuminated white area of the face of the sign outside both the elements and any additional green backgroundPictorial element - A combined symbol (i.e. arrow or figure in doorway) and contrasting background, forming a visual 'building block', one or more such building blocks being used with or without other elements to create an exit sign display

  • deflectionStandards

    the amount of relative displacement of the structural components in a window.NOTE: the amount of deflection is controlled for several reasons, such as the appearance of movement to the end user, the rigidity of joint and sealing of those joints, and the adequate support of glass to prevent premature failure

  • deign geotechnical strengthStandards

    the product of the design ultimate geotechnical strength and the geotechnical strength reduction factor

  • delineatorNATSPEC

    Small retroreflectors or panels of retroreflective sheeting attached to guide posts to provide a coherent pattern of delineation of carriageway edges as an aid to night driving.

  • demolitionNATSPEC

    The complete or partial dismantling of a building or structure, by pre-planned and controlled methods or procedures.

  • density ratio (soil)NATSPEC

    Percentage of the maximum density at optimum moisture content as determined by AS 1289.5.2.1.

  • depthStandards

    The distance measured along the direction of travel.

  • design actionStandards

    combination of the nominal loads and other actions multiplied by the appropriate load factors

  • design action effectNATSPEC

    The effect computed from the design values of the actions or design loads.

  • design action effect or design load effectStandards

    The action or load effect computed from the design actions or design loads. 

  • design action or design loadStandards

    The combination of the nominal actions or loads and the load factors, as specified in AS/NZS 1170.0.

  • design areaStandards

    an area containing the maximum number of sprinklers likely to operate when involved in a fire. The size of the area varies in relation to the hazard class storage configuration

  • design bearing capacityStandards

    the maximum bearing pressure that can be sustained by the foundation from the proposed fitting system under service loads over the design range of soil moisture conditions

  • design capacityNATSPEC

    The product of the capacity reduction factor and the nominal capacity.

  • design capacity (standards)Standards

    The product of the capacity factor, modification factors and characteristics capacity of a structural element. 

  • design characteristic value/characteristic value for designStandards

    A specific design property suitable for use in the calculation of design capacity of a structural element. NOTE: This definition may differ from the meaning given or applied in other contexts. 

  • design densityStandards

    the minimum density of discharge of water in millimetres per minute (mm/min) for which a sprinkler installation is designed. It is determined by the discharge of the group of sprinklers in the design area, in litres per minutes (L/min), divided by the area covered by that group in square metres (m2 ). Also known as 'Design density of discharge'.

  • design documentsNATSPEC

    drawings and specifications that set out the work to be executed.

  • design lifeNATSPEC

    The period of time for which it is assumed, in the design, that an asset will be able to perform its intended purpose with only anticipated maintenance but no major repair or replacement being necessary.

  • design lifeStandards

    Period over which a structure or structural element is required to perform its function without repair. 

  • design parametersNATSPEC

    Information used as the basis for design. It includes design requirements, performance criteria, performance parameters and similar terms.

  • design pressureStandards

    the pressure, at a defined reference point used in the system design, necessary to maintain the required flow and pressure at the most hydraulically disadvantaged number of the fire hydrants that are required to operate simultaneously

  • design resistance effectStandards

    The resistance effect computed from the loads and design capacities contributing towards the stability limit state resistance. 

  • design review - commissioningNATSPEC

    A review of the design documents to determine conformance with the OPR, including coordination between systems and assemblies being commissioned, features and access for testing, commissioning and maintenance, and other reviews required by the commissioning plan.

  • design serviceability loadStandards

    the load on a pile corresponding to the serviceability limit state

  • design situationNATSPEC

    Set of conditions for which the design is required to demonstrate that relevant limit states are not exceeded.

  • design structural strengthStandards

    the product of the design ultimate structural strength and the structural strength reduction factor

  • design ultimate geotechnical strengthStandards

    an estimate of the ultimate geotechnical strength assessed using calculations in accordance with Section 4 of this standard

  • design ultimate structural srengthStandards

    the limit state at which static equilibrium is lost, or at which structural elements fail.NOTE: the design ultimate structural strength may be assessed using calculations in accordance with Section 5 of this Standard

  • design wind speedNATSPEC

    Wind speed for use in design, adjusted for annual probability of exceedence, wind direction, geographic position, surrounding environment and height.

  • design working lifeNATSPEC

    Assumed period for which a structure or a structural element is to be used for its intended purpose without major repair being necessary.

  • designated bushfire prone areaBCA (NCC)

    means land which has been designated under a power of legislation as being subject, or likely to be subject, to bushfires. 

  • designated site entry point (DSEP)Standards

    an entry point to a building that provides firefighters with information as to the location of the fire alarm

  • designerNATSPEC

    The professional responsible for the design of a portion of the project.

  • destructive inspection (of trees)NATSPEC

    The washing away of all soil from a rootball to allow inspection of rootball development.

  • detention centreBCA (NCC)

    means a building in which persons are securely detained by means of the built structure including a prison, remand centre, juvenile detention centre, holding cells or psychiatric detention centre. 

  • diaphragmStandards

    Structural system (usually horizontal) that acts to transmit earthquake actions to the seismic-force-resisting system.

  • diffuserNATSPEC

    A supply air grille mounted in a ceiling or on the underside of a duct through which air is supplied and distributed within a room or interior space of a building.

  • dilapidation recordNATSPEC

    The photographic or video and written record of the condition of the portion of the existing building retained, adjacent buildings, and other relevant structures or facilities, before the start of demolition work.

  • dincel wallNATSPEC

    Polymer based permanent formwork system for concrete walling for external and internal walls, retaining walls, storage tanks and other specialist uses.

  • direct fix cladding wallBCA (NCC)

    for the purposes of FV1, means a wall with cladding attached directly to the wall framing without the use of a drained cavity. 

  • direct strength methodStandards

    an alternative design method that provides predictions of member resistance without the use of effective widths

  • direction of travelStandards

    The path a person travels along, which may be a footpath, passageway, walkway, ramp, stairs, landing or similar.

  • directional indicatorStandards

    An indicator used to indicate direction of travel through a space or to an object or service.

  • directional pattern (elongated pattern)Standards

    A pattern that indicates the direction of travel to be taken.

  • discrepancyNATSPEC

    A difference between contract information about the site and conditions encountered on the site, including but not limited to discrepancies concerning the following:The nature or quantity of the material to be excavated or placed.Existing site level.Services or other obstruction beneath the site surface.

  • discrete tactile ground surfarce indicatorsStandards

    Tactile ground surface indicators that are individually installed, which provide the same luminance for the sloping sides and upper surface of the truncated cone.

  • dismantleNATSPEC

    The reduction of an item to its components in a manner to allow re-assembly.

  • displacement spaceStandards

    the open cavity that is accessible below the walking surface of a pedestrian surface, which is designed to allow sub-surface drainage and entrapment of spillages, thereby helping to retain the anti-slip properties of the walking surface

  • dispositionNATSPEC

    Action taken to resolve non-conformance (Lot specific).

  • distance of flame spreadNATSPEC

    furthest extent of travel of a sustained flame along the length of the test specimen within a given time

  • distance pieceStandards

    Small blocks of resilient, non-absorbent material (such as extruded rubber) used to prevent the displacement of glazing compound or sealant by external loading. They are positioned opposite each other between the glass and rebate, and glass and bead.

  • distortional bucklingStandards

    a mode of buckling involving change in cross-sectional shape, excluding local buckling

  • documentNATSPEC

    Record of information in written or graphical form.

  • documentedNATSPEC

    Documented, as documented and similar terms mean contained in the contract documents.

  • domestic structureStandards

    Single dwelling or one or more attached dwellings (single occupancy units) complying with Class 1a or 1b as defined in the Building Code of Australia.

  • dominant openingNATSPEC

    Opening in the external surface of an enclosed building, which directly influences the average internal pressure in response to external pressures at that particular opening.NOTE: Dominant openings need not be large.

  • doorStandards

    A hinged, sliding, or otherwise supported openable barrier providing entrance to and exit from a building, corridor, or room. Doors may be framed or unframed.

  • doorStandards

    a sash of a size suitable for use as access through walls

  • door frameNATSPEC

    Includes jamb linings.

  • door frameStandards

    the frame surrounding and supporting a door where the frame consists of two stiles, a head and sometimes a transom and a sill, and is machined or made from solid stock or with a planted doorstep

  • door leaf of similar constructionStandards

    A door leaf having the same core materials and form of construction and capable of achieving a fire resistance level (FRL) the equivalent of the tested assembly. 

  • doorsetNATSPEC

    An assembly comprising a door or doors and supporting frame, guides and tracks including the hardware and accessories necessary for operation.Fire-resisting doorset: A doorset which retains its integrity, provides insulation and limits, if required, the transmittance of radiation in a fire.Smoke-doorset: A doorset which restricts the passage of smoke.

  • doorsetStandards

    A complete assembly compromising - a) the door leaf or leaves including any glazing and other inbuilt features. b) the doorframe; if any, with its fixings to the wall and, for a sliding doorset, with all guides and their respective fixings to the lintel, wall or sill; c) any fixed panel and its associated transom or mullion (including the methods of fixing) that is contained within the doorframe; d) all hardware; and e) fixtures and fittings attached to the door leaf or doorframe. 

  • doorset certifierStandards

  • doorstopStandards

    The part of a doorframe against which the door leaf stops. 

  • double detail jointNATSPEC

    A joint formed by turning up and bonding the horizontal membrane to a vertical substrate and adding an overflashing of membrane material bonded to the vertical substrate and folded over and bonded to the horizontal membrane. In certain situations the double detail can be achieved by bonding an angle profile of membrane material to the junction prior to laying the membrane.

  • double glazingStandards

    Glazing that incorporates two panels, separated with an airspace, for the purpose of sound insulation or thermal insulation, or both.

  • double-acting doorsetStandards

    A doorset whose leaf is equally capable of opening in either direction, usually having no stop in its frame, and may be single-leaf or multi-leaf. 

  • double-twisted wire meshNATSPEC

    Non-ravelling mesh made by twisting continuous pairs of wires through three one-half (180°) turns to form hexagonal shaped openings.

  • double/double seal (D/D)NATSPEC

    A seal consisting of two successive applications of binder each followed by an application of aggregate.

  • doubly-symmetric sectionStandards

    a section symmetric about two orthogonal axes through its centroid

  • downdraftNATSPEC

    Vertical air motion originating in a thunderstorm, resulting in severe horizontal winds at ground level.

  • downstreamStandards

    in the direction of airflow, away from a nominated reference point. 

  • dragNATSPEC

    Force acting in the direction of the wind stream; see also lift.

  • drainage blanketsNATSPEC

    A drain comprising a blanket of free-draining material. Typically used where a pavement intercepts a subterranean water source with substantial flows or the nature of the water-bearing strata is such that interception by formation or pavement drain is not possible. It is generally considered to be a structural component of the pavement system.

  • drainage cellStandards

    a durable material used to overlay the membrane to protect it from physical damage and allow the transfer of moisture to relieve hydrostatic pressure.NOTE: timber and timber-based products are not acceptable for use as drainage cells.

  • drainage flangeStandards

    a flange connected to a waste pipe, at the point at which it passes through the floor substrate, to prevent leakage and enable tile bed drainage into the waste pipe

  • drainage riserStandards

    a waste pipe between the floor waste and the drainage system

  • drainage structuresNATSPEC

    Devices to control stormwater flowing into and through a stormwater drainage system including culverts, inlet and outlet structures, junction boxes, gully pits, drop structures, headwalls, wingwalls, energy dissipaters and ancillary hardware such as grates, frames and step irons as well as subsurface drainage pipes at pits, headwalls and wingwalls.

  • drainage typesNATSPEC

    Subsoil drains: Drainage below the ground surface which collects subsurface water throughout its length of ground water or seepage from the subgrade and/or the subbase in cuttings and fill areas.Formation drains: Drainage systems designed to intercept water before it reaches the road/pavement structure. They are generally deeper than pavement drains and are usually remote from the pavement structure. Also known as cut-off drains.Pavement drains: Drainage systems designed to remove water from the subgrade and pavement materials.

  • driplineNATSPEC

    The most outer reach of a tree’s branches.

  • driven performed pileStandards

    a prefabricated pile installed in the ground by driving

  • dry process fibreboard (MDF)NATSPEC

    Panel material with a nominal thickness of 1.5 mm or greater, manufactured from lignocellulosic fibres (derived from wood or other materials) with application of heat and/or pressure, the bond of which is derived from a synthetic adhesive added to the fibres and the panels are manufactured with a forming moisture content of less than 20%.

  • dual drainageNATSPEC

    The major/minor approach to street drainage.

  • ductStandards

    A component part of an air-handling system, intended for the passage of air from one part of an air-handling system to another. 

  • duct (standards)Standards

    A component part of an air-handling system that is intended for the passage of air from one part of an air-handling system to another (see also definition of "plenum"). 

  • ducted air-conditionerStandards

    encased assembly or assemblies designed primarily to provide ducted delivery of conditioned air to an enclosed space, room or zone (conditioned space)NOTE: it can be either single package or split-system and comprises a source of refrigeration for cooling and dehumidification. It can also include means for heating other than a heat pump, as well as means for circulating, cleaning, humidifying, ventilating or exhausting air. Such equipment can be provided in more than one assembly; the separated assemblies (split systems) of which are intended to be used together

  • ducted heat pumpStandards

    encased assembly or assemblies designed primarily to provide ducted delivery of conditioned air to an enclosed space, room or zone (conditioned space), including prime source or refrigeration for heatingNOTE: it can be constructed to remove heat from the conditioned space and discharge it to a heat sink if cooling and dehumidification are desired from the same equipment. It can also include means for circulating, cleaning, humidifying, ventilating or exhausting air. Such equipment can be provided in more than one assembly; the separated assemblies (split-systems) of which are intended to be used together

  • ductility (of a structure)Standards

    Ability of a structure to sustain its load-carrying capacity and dissipate energy when responding to cyclic displacements in the inelastic range during an earthquake.

  • ductworkStandards

    the network of ducts (including plenums), which forms part of the air-handling system of a building

  • durabilityStandards

    ability of a structure or structural element to maintain adequate performance for a given time under expected actions and environmental influences

  • duration of loadingStandards

    period during which a member, a structural element or a complete structure is subject to a specified load level. NOTES: 1. For the purposes of interpretation in the use of load-duration factors in this Standard Clause strength and stiffness properties of timber under load are time dependent. 

  • dynamic coefficient of frictionStandards

    the coefficient of friction required to maintain movement at a constant speed

  • dynamic response factorNATSPEC

    Factor to account for the effects of fluctuating forces and resonant response on wind-sensitive structures.


  • early age strengthNATSPEC

    A mean compressive strength at 7 days exceeding the values shown in AS 1379 Table 1.2.

  • early age strengthNATSPEC

    a mean compressive strength at 7 days exceeding the values shown in AS 1379 Table 1.2.

  • early childhood centreBCA (NCC)

    means any premises or part thereof providing or intending to provide a centre-based education and care service within the meaning of the Education and Care Services national Law Act 2010 (Vic), the Education and Care Services National Regulations and centre-based services that are licensed or approved under State Territory children's services law, but excludes education and care primarily provided to school aged children in outside school hours settings. 

  • earth wall constructionStandards

    unfired earth bricks or blocks and unfired rammed earth wall construction

  • earth windrowNATSPEC

    A soil ridge built along the track edge during construction or maintenance. Where used to direct runoff to a stable outlet, it is known as a windrow drain.

  • earthing boss (terminal lug)NATSPEC

    A metal boss specially designed and welded to process plant, storage tanks, or steelwork to which earthing conductors are attached by means of removable studs or nuts and bolts.

  • earthquake actionsStandards

    Intertia-induced actions arising from the response to earthquake of the structure.

  • eccentricityNATSPEC

    The distance from the centroid of a surface, to the point of application of the resultant force derived from the net wind pressure.

  • economic lifeNATSPEC

    The period of time from the acquisition of an asset to the time when the asset, while still physically capable of fulfilling its function and with only anticipated maintenance, ceases to be the lowest cost alternative for satisfying that function.

  • economy cycleStandards

    The automatic operation of an air-handling system whereby outdoor air is used to provide cooling when ambient conditions are suitable. 

  • edge beamStandards

    beam at the edge of a slab on the ground or stiffened raft

  • edge blocksStandards

    Rubber blocks that prevent glass from moving sideways in the glazing rebate from thermal effects or vibration.

  • edge bondingNATSPEC

    The tendency of some coating systems to glue the edges of strip flooring and parquetry panels which prevents an even distribution of movement gaps.

  • edge clearanceStandards

    The space between the edge of the glass and frame rebate.

  • edge coverStandards

    The distance between the edge of the glass and the sightline.

  • edge drainsNATSPEC

    Drainage of rigid pavements from the interface between the base and subbase.

  • edge footingStandards

    footing at the edge of a footing slab

  • edge of roofStandards

    the area of a roof bounded by the eaves, ridge, hips and barge , extending towards the centre of the roof for a distance equal to 0.1 multiplied by the minimum plan dimension of the building, measured from eaves to eaves, or barge to barge. For roofs in a domestic application, a 1200 mm wide band bounded by the eaves, ridge, hips and barge extending towards the centre of the roof, is deemed to satisfy this requirement

  • edge workingStandards

    The process of removing sharp edges from the surface and/or cut edge of glass by grinding, smoothing, bevelling and/or polishing.NOTE: For different edge finish requirements for specific applications, see AS/NZS 4668.

  • effective aerodynamic areaStandards

    The area of an equivalent aerodynamically perfect orifice, and equals the penetration area required by the natural ventilation device, multiplied by the discharge coefficient determined under test. NOTE: For determining effective aerodynamic area, see AS/NZS 4740.

  • effective depth of charringStandards

    the calculated depth to which the timber is considered as being charred. 

  • effective design width (or effective width)Standards

    where the flat width of an element is reduced for design purposes

  • effective heat of combustionStandards

    the measured heat release divided by the mass loss for a specified time period

  • effective heightBCA (NCC)

    means the vertical distance between the floor of the lowest storey included in the calculation of rise in storeys and the floor of the topmost storey (excluding the topmost storey if it contains only heating, ventilating, lift or other equipmenet, water tanks or similar service units).

  • effective outdoor airflowStandards

    The sum of introduced outdoor air, residual effective outdoor air recycled from the enclosure(s), air-cleaning device effective outdoor air and transferred effective outdoor air. 

  • effective pipe lengthNATSPEC

    The centre-line length dimension specified by the manufacturer and subject to permissible tolerances.

  • effective power inputStandards

    average electrical power input to the equipment, obtained from:- the power input for operation of the compressor(s)- the power input to electric heating devices used only for defrosting- the power input to all control and safety devices of the equipment, and- the power input for operation of all fans, whether provided with the equipment or notNOTE: effective power input is expressed in units of watts

  • effective residual sectionStandards

    The timber section remaining after removal of the calculated effective depth of charring from all fire-exposed surfaces. The effective residual section is considered to retain the same mechanical properties it possessed before exposure to the standard fire. 

  • effective slopeStandards

    the slope under that classified vegetation which most influences the bushfire attack

  • effective surfaceNATSPEC

    A wall, roof or internal surface of a building that contributes significantly to load effects on major structural elements.

  • efficiency indexNATSPEC

    The effectiveness of a curing compound in retaining moisture, assessed as a percentage of water retained in the test specimens relative to the uncoated specimens.

  • elapsed delivery timeNATSPEC

    Time between the wetting of the concrete mix and the discharge of the concrete mix at the site.

  • electric passenger liftBCA (NCC)

    means a power-operated lift for raising or lowering people in a car in which the motion of the car is obtained from an electric motor mechanically coupled to the hoisting mechanism. 

  • electricity distributorNATSPEC

    Any person or organisation that provides electricity from an electricity distribution system to one or more electrical installations. Includes distributor, supply authority, network operator, local network service provider, electricity retailer or electricity entity, as may be appropriate in the relevant jurisdiction.

  • electricity network substationBCA (NCC)

    means a building in which high voltage supply is converted or transformed and which is controlled by a licensed network service provider designated under a power of legislation. 

  • electrohydraulic passenger liftBCA (NCC)

    means a power-operated lift for raising or lowering people in a car in which the motion of the car is obtained from the action of the liquid under pressure acting on a piston or ram, the pressure being generated by a pump driven by an individual electric motor. 

  • element of a wiring systemStandards

    a part or component of the wiring system

  • elementsStandards

    simple shapes into which a cold-formed structural member is considered divided and may consist of the following shapes:(a) flat elements - appearing in cross-section as rectangles(b) bends - appearing in cross-section as sectors or circular rings, having the inside radius-to-thickness ratio less than or equal to eight(c) arched elements - circular or parabolic elements having the inside radius-to-thickness ratio greater than eight

  • elevated buildingNATSPEC

    Building with a clear, unwalled space underneath the first floor level with a height from ground to underside of the first floor of one-third or more of the total height of the building.

  • embedded generatorNATSPEC

    Electricity generator connected to the local electrical distribution network.

  • embedment materialNATSPEC

    Includes bedding, haunch support and overlay material.

  • ember attackStandards

    attack by smouldering or flaming windborne debris that is capable of entering or accumulating around a building, and that may ignite the building or other combustible materials and debris

  • ember guardStandards

    a cover inserted in or over an opening or cavity to prevent the entry of burning embers

  • emergency access wayNATSPEC

    Access used to connect roads and provide alternative access and egress during emergencies where the traffic flow design does not allow two-way access.

  • emergency repairsNATSPEC

    Repairs to restore the normal operating state or safety of the plant or systems.

  • emitterNATSPEC

    A device used to control the rate at which water is applied to a specific area.

  • enclosed buildingNATSPEC

    Building that has a roof and full perimeter walls (nominally sealed) from floor to roof level.

  • enclosed wiring systemStandards

    a wiring system protected by means of an enclosure against fire conditions and mechanical damage

  • enclosureStandards

    An individual room, space or part thereof. 

  • enclosureStandards

    a part providing protection against fire conditions and mechanical damage and against contact with live parts

  • enclosure (standards)Standards

    An individual room, space or part thereof. 

  • encroachmentStandards

    The intrusion of a building component, fixture or fitment into a continuous accessible path of travel or circulation space.

  • End of testStandards

    As defined in AS ISO 9705-2003, ISO 5660-1 and AS/NZS 3837, as appropriate to the test conducted.

  • end terminalsNATSPEC

    Device that protect vehicle occupants from injury in an impact with the end of the safety barrier. Can be either leading or departure end treatment.

  • end-bearing pileStandards

    a pile where the major component of the resistance of the pile is contributed by the force developed at the base of the pile 

  • end-matched joints (flooring and decking)NATSPEC

    Floor boards tongue and grooved at the ends to allow jointing between supports.

  • energy efficiency ratioStandards

    ratio of the total cooling capacity to the effective power input to the device at any given set of rating conditionsNOTE: where the EER is stated without an indication  of units, it is understood that it is derived from watts/watts

  • engineering principlesStandards

    principles of geotechnical and structural engineering as applicable for the purposes of this Standard NOTE: this means engineering principles that are commonly accepted by qualified engineers

  • envelopeBCA (NCC)

    the purposes of section J, means the parts of the building's fabric that separate a conditioned space or habitable room from - a) the exterior of the building; or b) a non-conditioned space including - i) the floor of a rooftop plant room, lift-machine or the like; and ii) the floor above a carpark or warehouse; and iii) the common wall with a carpark, warehouse or the like. 

  • environmentNATSPEC

    The physical factors of the surroundings of human beings including the land, waters, atmosphere, climate, sound, odours, tastes, the biological factors of animals and plants and the social factor of aesthetics. Environment, as defined in the Environment Protection Act 1970 Victoria. The New South Wales Protection of the Environment Administration Act 1991 defines the environment as the components of the earth including land, air and water, any layer of the atmosphere, organic or inorganic matter and any living organism and human-made or modified structures and areas. See www.environment.gov.au for a more detailed definition under section 528 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (Commonwealth).

  • environmental auditsNATSPEC

    A review of environment management practices, in particular the evaluation of a site for environmental liability.

  • environmental impact assessmentNATSPEC

    A method for predicting environmental impacts of a proposed development including minimising identified impacts.

  • environmental management plan (EMP)NATSPEC

    A project or site specific plan describing the management of the environmental issues and considerations for the activity being undertaken. This applies to the design, construction and operation of the buildings, external works and infrastructure.

  • equipment plenumStandards

    An air chamber, integrated with air-handling plant, intended for the collection and passage of air, to which one or more ducting systems may be connected to form part of an air-handling installation within a building. 

  • equivalentBCA (NCC)

    means equivalent to the level of health, safety and amenity provided by the Deemed-to-Satisfy Provisions.

  • erosionNATSPEC

    The wearing away of land by the action of rainfall, running water, wind, moving ice or gravitational creep. Soil detachment (erosion) occurs when the erosive forces exceed the soil’s resistance, causing the soil particles to move.

  • erosion classes in relation to soil typesNATSPEC

     Class A: Low soil erodibility. Brown and red soils derived from finer sediments and metasediments.Class B: High soil erodibility. Red soils on fine granites, fine sandstones and basalt.Class C: Very high soil erodibility. Grey and yellow soils derived from granites, sediment and metasediment, especially coarse grained types.Class D: Extreme soil erodibility. Unconsolidated sediment. This is unsuitable for perimeter tracks.From the NSW Gov Tracks.

  • erosion control measuresNATSPEC

    Measures to prevent or reduce soil movement from wind, rain or flowing water from a construction site resulting from both natural processes and human activity.

  • errorNATSPEC

    The measured value minus the true value of the particular quantity being measured.

  • Errors and omissionsNATSPEC

    For the design prepared by the contractor, errors and omissions have the same meaning as defects.

  • escarpmentNATSPEC

    Two-dimensional, steeply sloping, face between nominally level lower and upper plains where the plains have average slopes of not greater than 5%.

  • essential electric powerNATSPEC

    For the purposes of this worksection and within the meaning of the term in AS 2896, essential electric power has the same meaning as vital in AS/NZS 3009.

  • essential latching componentsStandards

    The latching components that are critical for latching the doorset, which include- a) the latch bolt; b) the strike; and c) the bolt-retaining plate. 

  • essential servicesStandards

    Safety services, as defined in AS/NZS 3000.

  • evacuation routeBCA (NCC)

    means the continuous path of travel (including exits, public corridors and the like) from any part of a building, including within a sole-occupancy unit in a Class 2 or 3 building or Class 4 part, to a safe place. 

  • evacuation timeBCA (NCC)

    means the time calculated from when the emergency starts for the occupants of the building to evacuate to a safe place. 

  • evaporative air coolerNATSPEC

    A device that cools air by the evaporation of water.

  • evaporative air-cooling equipmentStandards

    a device that effects a reduction of the dry bulb temperature of air by evaporating water into air

  • evaporative condenserStandards

    a heat exchanger in which refrigerant is cooled by a combination of air movement and water spraying

  • evaporative efficiencyNATSPEC

    When tested to AS 2913, the cooling performance of the equipment, representing the extent to which the available wet bulb depression will be achieved as the dry bulb temperature drops.

  • exhaust airStandards

    Air, other than return air, removed from an enclosure by mechanical means and discharged to atmosphere. 

  • exhaust air intakeStandards

    Any opening through which air is extracted from an enclosure by an air-handling system. 

  • exhaust air outletStandards

    an outlet from an air-handling system, discharging air to atmosphere

  • exhaust dischargeStandards

    An outlet from an air-handling system discharging to atmosphere. 

  • exitBCA (NCC)

    means- a) any, or any combination of the following if the provide egress to a road or open space- i) an internal or external stairway ii) a ramp. iii) a fire-isolated passageway. iv) a doorway opening to a road or an open space. b) a horizontal exit or a fire isolated passageway leading to a horizontal exit. 

  • exit signsStandards

    Internally illuminated exit sign - a sign consisting of white symbols on a green background, both being lightemitting or light transmittingDual function internally illuminated exit sign - this type of exit sign is also referred to as a 'dual function exit sign' for the purposes of this series. A sign consisting of white symbols on a green background, both being light emitting or light transmitting, or a sign consisting of light emitting or light transmitting green symbols on an opaque background either having an emergency classification assigned in accordance Appendix CLow illuminance area internally illuminated exit sign - referred to as a 'low illuminance area exit sign'. A sign consisting of light emitting or light transmitting green symbols on an opaque backgroundExternally illuminated exit sign - A sign consisting of white symbols on a green background, illuminated by an incident source comprising an emergency luminate located in front of the plane of the sign face

  • expansion jointNATSPEC

    A closing control joint with the joint surfaces separated by a compressible filler to allow axial movement due to thermal expansion or contraction with changes in temperature or creep. It may include unbound dowels to assist vertical deflection control.

  • expansion ratioNATSPEC

    The ratio of the maximum volume of the bitumen in its foamed state to the volume of the bitumen once the foaming is completely subsided.

  • expert judgementBCA (NCC)

    means the judgment of an expert who has the qualifications and experience to determine whether a Performance Solution or Deemed-to-Satisfy Solution complies with the Performance Requirements. 

  • exposedStandards

    any damp-proof course or flashing that, when installed, is continuously open to the weather

  • exposed edgeStandards

    A glass edge that is not covered.NOTE: Glass with exposed edges has no protection from damage, and may cause injury to those who come in contact with it.

  • exposed siteStandards

    a site where one or more of the following AS 4055 site conditions are met:(a) terrain category TC2 or less(b) topographic class T3 or greater(c) no shieldingNOTE: any site other than defined above is considered non-exposed

  • exposure limitStandards

    1.  For occupational exposure, values designated by NOHSC. 2. For community exposure, values based on standards and goals set by NHMRC and NEPC. NOTE: NOHSC (National Occupational Health and Safety Commission; NHMRC (National Health and Medical Reasearch Council); NEPC (National Environment Protection Council).

  • Exposure reduction coefficient (Ce)Standards

    Coefficient defining the balanced load on a flat horizontal roof of a cold building, as a fraction of the characteristic snow load on the ground.NOTE: The exposure coefficient includes the effect of snow removal from flat roofs by wind. This effect depends on the temperature and the corresponding wind at the site.

  • extended design domain (EDD)NATSPEC

    The design domain for the assessment of existing roads. EDD is a range of values below the lower bound of the NDD.

  • extensionStandards

    additional construction abutting an existing building

  • extension springStandards

    a spring designed to operate in a counterbalance system to provide a lifting force by the stretching or pulling of the spring developing tension to counterbalance a load applied to it 

  • external stormwater drainage networkStandards

    a system that collects and conveys storm water from individual propertiesNOTE: the network includes easement or inter-allotment drains, and street and trunk drainage systems

  • external wallBCA (NCC)

    means an outer wall of a building which is not a common wall. 

  • external waterproofing membrane systemsStandards

    a combination of membrane-associated products used in membrane installation, such as primers, mechanical fasteners, waste outlets and flashings that form a waterproof barrier

  • extra-low voltageNATSPEC

    Not exceeding 50 V a.c. or 120 V ripple-free d.c.


  • F-grade timberStandards

    A stress grade of timber for which the specific suite of characteristic values given in Table H2.1, Appendix H are applicable. NOTE: F-grades may be assigned to graded timber in accordance with the appropriate grading Standard, i.e., AS 2082, AS 2858, AS/NZS 1748 or AS 3519.

  • fabricBCA (NCC)

    means the basic building structural elements and components of a building including the roof, ceilings, walls and floors. 

  • fabric pestsNATSPEC

    Insects which have the ability to feed on keratin, a proteinaceous constituent of wool and other animal hair. This includes insect species such as clothes moths, tapestry moths, carpet beetles and other insect species which do not digest keratin but can damage fabrics by chewing through.

  • faceted glazingStandards

    Flat panes of glass installed vertically at an angle to each other, to form a faceted curve.

  • faceworkNATSPEC

    Masonry intended to be exposed in a wall.

  • facings and edgingsStandards

    The surface covering an all perimeter strips of the door leaf, including their methods of fixing. 

  • failure positionStandards

    The position the device reverts to upon loss of operating power or control. 

  • false chimneyStandards

    building structure made to surround a flue systemNOTE: false chimneychimney, also known as chimney chimney chasechase, may be made of non-combustible or combustible structres. False chimneys may be constructed for freestanding, masonry insert or built-in appliance installtion

  • fan motor powerBCA (NCC)

    means the power delivered to a motor of a fan, including the power needed for any drive and impeller losses. 

  • farm buildingBCA (NCC)

    means a Class 7 or 8 building located on land primarily used for farming- a) that is- i) used in connection with farming; or ii) used primarily to store one or more farm vehicles; or iii) a combination of (i) and (ii); and b) in which the total number of persons accommodated at any time does not exceed one person per 200m2 of floor are or part of thereof, up to a maximum of 8 persons; and c) with a total floor area of not more than 3500m2. 

  • farm shedBCA (NCC)

    means a single storey Class 7 or 8 building located on land primarily used for farming- a) that is i) used in connection with farming; or ii) used primarily to store one or more farm vehicles; oriii) a combination of (i) and (ii); and b) occupied neither frequently nor for extended periods by people; and c) in which the total number of persons accommodated at any time does not exceed 2; and d) with a total floor area of more that 500m2 but not more than 2000m2. 

  • farm vehicleBCA (NCC)

    means a vehicle used in connection with farming. 

  • farmingBCA (NCC)

    means - a) cultivating, propagating and harvesting plants or fungi or their products or parts, including seeds, spores, bulbs or the like, but does not include forestry; or b) maintaining animals in a physical environment for the purposes of- i) breeding them; or ii) selling them; or iii) acquiring and selling their bodily produce such as milk, wool eggs or the like; or c) a combination of (a) and (b), but does not include forestry or maintaining animals for sport or recreational purposes. 

  • fastenersNATSPEC

    An alternative method to lacing wire used for binding operations.

  • fault conditionStandards

    the existence of an actual or incipient condition that may prevent an alarm condition

  • fault current limitersNATSPEC

    Circuit opening devices designed or selected to limit the instantaneous fault current.

  • fault signalStandards

    an audible, or audible and visual, signal intended to indicate a fault condition

  • fault warningStandards

    audible signal indicating fault condition

  • fbs-1 (fibre-bio-soluble) mineral woolNATSPEC

    Insulation composed of bio-soluble glass or rock fibres.

  • featureNATSPEC

    Any natural variation on or colour which affects timber appearance, including gum/resin veins, borer marks, checks and knots. The grade will determine the level of feature present.

  • feed widthStandards

    width of coiled or flat steel used in the production of a cold-formed product

  • fencingStandards

    A barrier compromising a fence and associated gate or gates. 

  • fenestrationStandards

    the arrangement of windows and other openings on the external walls of buildings, especially the facade

  • fibre battsNATSPEC

    Flexible insulation supplied as factory cut pieces and composed of mineral wool (glass and rock fibre) or polyester fibre.

  • fibre blanketsNATSPEC

    Flexible insulation supplied as factory cut rolls and composed of mineral wool (glass and rock fibre) or polyester fibre, and may be combined with reflective facings.

  • fibre cement sheet liningsNATSPEC

    Treated cellulose fibre in a matrix of cement and sand autoclaved sheet, sealed on one side.

  • fibreglassNATSPEC

    Glass-fibre reinforced plastic (GRP).

  • fieldNATSPEC

    A data field is a place where data is stored. Commonly used to refer to a column in a database or a field in a data entry form or web form. It is generally the smallest component under which data is captured. This standard applies the concept of fields to the components of a name (property/file/view) which stores a specific piece of information.

  • fill depthStandards

    for a slab, depth measured from the underside of the footing to the natural surface level. For a strip or pad footing system, depth measured from the finished ground level to the natural surface level

  • filletStandards

    a triangular or curved profile used at internal intersections to assist the membrane to accommodate the transition from horizontal to vertical surfaces

  • fillingNATSPEC

    Treatment to enhance the surface appearance by:Flood filling: To fill the pores of open-grained timber or minor cracks in parquetry.Stopping: To fill punched nail head cavities.

  • filter layersNATSPEC

    Used to prevent the loss of permeability in drainage layers from clogging by fine soil particles infiltrating from the subgrade (underlying soil).

  • finStandards

    A piece of glass positioned and fastened to provide lateral support.

  • fine aggregateNATSPEC

    A general term for aggregate that substantially passes the 4.75 mm.

  • finish coat (rendering and plastering)NATSPEC

    The final coat of a coating system.

  • finished ground levelStandards

    Ground level or other permanent stable surface. 

  • finishing treatment (plastering)NATSPEC

    The treatment applied to a finish coat which may include processes and results.

  • fire access routeNATSPEC

    A designated route established to separate bushfire hazard areas from developed areas and to provide access within and around the edge of the subdivision. It may be used during firefighting but may also be used for fire prevention.

  • fire alarm signalStandards

    A signal received to initiate fire mode and which may be of a general or a zone-specific nature. 

  • fire and draught stopStandards

  • fire breakNATSPEC

    A gap in vegetation or other combustible material (or fuel) that acts as a barrier to slow or stop the progress of a bushfire. A fire break may also serve as a public road.

  • fire brigadeBCA (NCC)

    means a statutory authority constituted under an Act of Parliament having as one of its functions, the protection of life and property from fire and other emergencies. 

  • fire brigade booster assemblyStandards

    a connecting device enabling the fire brigade to pressurize or pump water into a fire hydrant system

  • fire brigade pumping applianceStandards

    a fire brigade emergency vehicle that has an inbuilt pump to which firefighting hose may be connected

  • fire compartmentBCA (NCC)

    means- a) the total space of a building; or b) when referred to in - i) the Performance Requirements - any part of a building separated from the remainder by barriers to fire such as walls and/or floors having an appropriate resistance to the spread of fire with any openings adequately protected; or ii) the Deemed-to-Satisfy Provisions - any part of the building separated from the remainder by walls and/or floors each having an FRL not less than that required for a fire wall for that type of construction are protected in accordance with the Deemed-to-Satisfy Provisions of the relevant Part. 

  • fire compartment (standards)Standards

    As defined in the NCC. 

  • fire damperStandards

    A device that operates to restrict the passage of fire or products of combustion through a duct or opening for the passage of air. Commentary: During recent years, fire collars have been used to protect openings in riser shafts where ventilation ducts penetrate the fire-resistant shaft wall, in lieu of mechanical or intumescent fire dampers. typically, the ducts are PVC pipes not greater than 200 mm in diameter and are used as bathroom exhaust, laundry exhaust, fume cabinet exhaust or outdoor air supply. such arrangements are not acceptable under this Standard. 

  • fire danger index (FDI)Standards

    the chance of a fire starting, its rate of spread, its intensity and the difficulty of its suppression, according to various combinations of air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and both the long- and short-term drought effectsNOTES:1. FDI in this Standard refers to the Forest Fire Danger Index calculated by the MacArthur, Mk 5 Forest Fire Danger Meter using the equations published by Noble, I.R, Bary, G.A.V, and Gill, A.M, 1980 (Ref. 6, Appendix B)2. Grassland Fire Danger Index values are calculated by the McArthur Mk 4 Grassland Fire Danger Meter using equations published by Purton, C.M, 1982 (ref. 17 and Commentary CB2, Appendix B)

  • fire detection control and indicating equipmentStandards

    As defined in AS 1670.1.NOTE: The FDCIE panel was formerly known as FIP.

  • fire hazardBCA (NCC)

    means the danger in terms of potential harm and degree of exposure arising from the start and the spread of fire and the smoke and gases that are thereby generated. 

  • fire hazard propertiesNATSPEC

    Terminology to BCA A2.4.

  • fire hazard properties (BCA)BCA (NCC)

    means the following properties of a material or assembly that indicate how they behave under specific fire test conditions: a) Average specific extinction area, critical radiant flux and Flammability Index, determined as defined in A1.1.b) Smoke-Developed Index, smoke development rate and Spread-of-Flame Index, determined in accordance with Specification A2.4.c) Group number and smoke growth rate index (SMOGRArc), determined in accordance with Specification C1.10. 

  • fire hydrantStandards

    an assembly installed on a branch from a water pipeline, which provides a valved outlet to permit a supply of water to be taken from the pipeline for firefightingNOTES:    1 Fire hydrants utilized by firefighters are feed fire hydrants and attack fire hydrants    2 Fire hydrants may be above-ground, with outlets suitable for connection for fire hose; or in-ground, with a connection suitable for attachment of a fire brigade standpipe to which fire hose may be connected

  • fire hydrant systemStandards

    an assembly of pipes and other components that is dedicated for firefighting to permit the fire brigade to access a controlled supply of water

  • fire hydrant, attackStandards

    a fire hydrant that is connected to a system incorporating a fire hydrant booster and used for direct attachment of a firefighting hose line to achieve an effective firefighting hose streamNOTE: Attack fire hydrants are intended for use by fire brigade to attack a fire or prevent fire spread to adjoining property. They are not intended to supply a fire brigade pumping appliance

  • fire hydrant, externalStandards

    a fire hydrant installed outside a building or structure

  • fire hydrant, feedStandards

    a fire hydrant used to supply water to a fire brigade pumping appliance

  • fire intensityBCA (NCC)

    means the rate release of calorific energy in watts, determined either theoretically or empirically, as applicable. 

  • fire isolated exitStandards

    A fire-isolated stairway, a fire-isolated ramp or a fire-isolated horizontal passageway, whether used individually or in combination, which provides egress from a storey or enclosed space to a road or open space. 

  • fire loadNATSPEC

    means the sum of the net calorific values of the combustible contents which can reasonably be expected to burn within a fire compartment, including furnishings, built-in and removable materials, and building elements. the calorific values must be determined at the ambient moisture content or humidity. (The unit of measurement is MJ.) 

  • fire mainStandards

    piping, valves, and fittings providing water supply from water sources to any sprinkler stop valve and any fire hydrant valve complying with AS 2419.2

  • fire modeStandards

    The required mode of operation intended to control smoke movement within the building. 

  • fire protective coveringsBCA (NCC)

    means- a) 13mm fire-protective grade plasterboard; or b) 12mm cellulose cement flat sheeting complying with AS/NZS 2908.2 or ISO 8336; or c) 12mm fibrous plaster reinforced wit 13mm x 13mm x 0.7mm galvanised steel wire mesh located not more than 6mm from the exposed face; ord) other material not less fire-protective than 13mm fire-protective grade plasterboard, fixed in accordance with the normal trade practice for a fire-protective covering. 

  • fire resistance for structural adequacyStandards

    An assessment of the ability of a structural timber member to fulfil, for a stated period of time, the required structural adequacy only, if exposed to the fire test methods specified in AS 1530.4.

  • fire resistance levelStandards

    The performance criteria for fire resistance, i.e., the grading periods (in minutes) for the criteria specified in BCA, as - a) structural adequacy;b) integrity; andc) insulation, and expressed in that order. 

  • fire resistance level (standards)Standards

    The nominal grading period, in minutes, that is determined by subjecting a specimen to the standard time temperature curve regime as set out in AS 1530.4, to specify- a) structural adequacy; b) integrity; and c) insulation, and expressed in that order. NOTES: 1. For example, a building element with an FRL of 120/60/30 will maintain, when tested in accordance with AS 1530.4- a) structural adequacy for a period of 12min; b) integrity for a period of 60 min; and c) insulation for a period of 30min. 2. The structural adequacy criterion is not applied to doorsets and the  FRL is expressed in terms of (-/YY/ZZ).3. The fire resistance test applies a fourth criterion, radiation to fire-resistant doorsets, dampers and glazing, but the radiation grading period is not included in the statement of FRL given on the door-tag. For details on the use of radiation criterion, see the NCC. 

  • fire resistance periodStandards

    The time, in minutes, for a member to reach the appropriate failure criterion, specified in AS 1530.4, if tested in accordance with that standard. 

  • fire resistance testStandards

    A method to determine the ability of an element of construction, component or structure to fulfil, for a stated period of time, the required structural adequacy, integrity, thermal insulation or other expected attribute, during exposure to the standard fire resistance test regime specified in AS 1530.4.

  • Fire Resistance Test (standards)Standards

    A method to determine the ability of an element of construction, component or structure to fulfil, for a stated period of time, the required structural adequacy, integrity, thermal insulation or other expected attribute, during exposure to the standard fire resistance test regime as specified in AS 1530.4.

  • fire resistant protective insulationStandards

    The permanent fixing of materials, to the fire-exposed surfaces of timber member, which can increase the fire resistance for structural adequacy by providing additional thermal insulation, as measured by AS 1530.4.

  • fire resistence level (FRL)Standards

    the grading periods, in minutes, determined in accordance with Specification A2.3 of the Building Code of Australia, for -(a) structural adequacy;(b) integrity; and(c) insulation;and expressed in that orderNOTE: a dash means that there is no requirement for that criterion. For example, 90/-/- means there is no requirement for an FRL for integrity and insulation

  • fire safety systemBCA (NCC)

    means one or any combination of the methods used in a building to - a) warn people of emergency; or b) provide for safe evacuation; or c) restrict the spread of fire; or d) extinguish a fire, and includes both active and passive systems. 

  • fire source featureBCA (NCC)

    means - a) the far boundary of a road, river, lake or the like adjoining the allotment; or b) a side or rear boundary of the allotment; or c) an external wall of another building on the allotment which is not a Class 10 building. 

  • fire wallBCA (NCC)

    means a wall with an appropriate resistance to the spread of fire that divides a storey or building into fire compartments. 

  • fire-affected zoneStandards

    A smoke control where fire or smoke has been detected. 

  • fire-affected zonesStandards

    A smoke control zone where fire or smoke has been detected. 

  • fire-isolatedStandards

    Separated by fire-resistant construction.

  • fire-isolated passagewayBCA (NCC)

    means a corridor, hallway or the like, of fire resisting construction, which provides egress to or from a fire-isolated stairway or fire-isolated ramp or to a road or open space. 

  • fire-isolated stairwayBCA (NCC)

    means a stairway within a fire-resisting shaft and includes the floor and roof or top enclosing structure. 

  • fire-protected timberNATSPEC

    means fire-resisting timber building elements that comply with Specification A1.1.

  • fire-resistance levelBCA (NCC)

    means the grading periods in minutes determined in accordance with Specification A2.3, for the following criteria-a) structural adequacy; and b) integrity; and c) insulation, and expressed in that order. Note: a dash means that there is no requirement for that criterion. For example, 90/-/- means there is no requirements for an FRL for integrity and insulation, and -/-/- means there is no requirements for and FRL. 

  • fire-resistant doorsetStandards

    A doorset, except when varied as specified in this Standard, that is identical in assembly, construction and installation with a specimen doorset that has been submitted to the standard fire resistance test, ad has fulfilled all the relevant test requirements. NOTE: Fire-resistant doorsets are referred to as 'fire doors' in NCC. 

  • fire-resistant roller shutterStandards

    Complete assembly, identical in construction and installation with a specimen that has been submitted to  the fire resistance test and has fulfilled all the relevant test requirements to achieve the nominated fire resistance level, typically compromising - a) a curtain; b) vertical guides between which the curtain can slide when being raised or lowered, together with associated fittings; c) a horizontal barrel, mounted above the opening, on which the curtain is rolled being raised or lowered, together with associated fittings; d) a fusible link to provide for automatic operation; and e) a governing device to control the speed of descent of the curtain immediately following actuation.  

  • fire-resistingBCA (NCC)

    applied to a building element, means having an FRL appropriate  for that element. 

  • Fire-resisting building elementNATSPEC

    Floors, roofs, floor/ceilings, roof/ceilings, walls and other separating elements of construction having a fire resistance level (FRL) determined in accordance with the fire resistance test (and as required in NCC).

  • fire-resisting constructionBCA (NCC)

    means one of the Types of construction referred to in Part C1. 

  • fire-resisting doorsetNATSPEC

    A doorset which retains its integrity, provides insulation and limits, if required, the transmittance of radiation in a fire.

  • Fire-stoppingNATSPEC

    The system (comprising the whole assembly including backing materials and sealants) or materials used to maintain fire resistance of the fire-stopping element at joints, or where services pass through the element.

  • fireboxStandards

    that part of the appliance in which combustion is designed to take place

  • firebricksStandards

    bricks made from heat-resistant material (such as refractory ceramic material) to withstand exposure to high temperatures

  • fireplace insert applianceStandards

    an appliance designed to be installed in -(a) a fireplace; or(b) a flued masonry enclosure

  • first mode natural frequencyNATSPEC

    Frequency of free oscillation corresponding to the lowest harmonic of vibration of a structure.

  • first mode shapeNATSPEC

    Shape of a structure at its maximum amplitude under first mode natural vibration.

  • fitmentStandards

    tie, ligature or stirrup reinforcement

  • fitted floor construction - platform floor constructionStandards

    A technique whereby flooring is laid over the whole joist/floor area prior to the construction of the external and internal wall framing. the laid floor is then used a working platform. 

  • fixedStandards

    Permanently installed or configured structures used to gain access, including platforms from which work is performed. 

  • fixingStandards

    any item that is used to secure members of a window assembly to each other, secure an item of hardware to a window member or secure a completed window assembly into the building structure

  • fixingsStandards

    devices such as screws, bolts and anchors used to fix supports to a building or other structure

  • fixtures and fittingsStandards

    Any item or parts fitted to any part of the doorset, which may or may not be essential for the correct operation of the doorset. 

  • flakingNATSPEC

    The process of loosely folding a membrane back and forth upon itself in concertina-fashion to reduce stresses on the fibres of the membrane fabric by eliminating tight folds and creases.

  • flammability indexBCA (NCC)

    means the index number as determined by AS 1530.2.

  • flashingStandards

    an impervious membrane installed in such a manner as to prevent ingress of water into the buildingNOTE: flashing includes a waterproof strip barrier around an opening in a wall, at a roof junction or at a roof penetration to prevent the ingress of water to the inner parts of a building. In some instances the flashing can act as a damp-proof course

  • flashingStandards

    a strip or sleeve of impervious material dressed, fitted or built in, or a liquid-applied product, to provide a barrier to moisture movement, divert the travel of moisture, or cover a joint where water would otherwise penetrate

  • flashing, perimeterStandards

    a flashing used at the floor-wall junction

  • flashing, verticalStandards

    a flashing used at wall junctions within shower areas

  • flashoverBCA (NCC)

    in relation to fire hazard properties, means a heat release rate of 1MW. 

  • flexible componentsStandards

    Flexible components are those parts of a barrier or materials used in a barrier made with chain link wire mesh, perforated materials, fabric, brushwood and the like. 

  • flexible connectionStandards

    A section of flexible duct used at junctions between ductwork and items of plant that are subject to vibration or for seismic isolation. 

  • flexible guide postNATSPEC

    A guide post that when impacted by a vehicle, deflects and returns to the vertical position without maintenance intervention.

  • flexible pavementNATSPEC

    A pavement which obtains its load-spreading properties from intergranular pressure, mechanical interlock and cohesion between the particles of the pavement material.

  • flexible pointing materialStandards

    type of an adhesive mechanical fastener

  • flexural-torsional buckingStandards

    a mode of buckling in which compression members can bend and twist simultaneously without change of cross-sectional shape

  • flightBCA (NCC)

    means that part of a stairway that has a continuous series of risers, including risers of winders, not interrupted by a landing or floor. 

  • flood hazard areaBCA (NCC)

    means the site (whether or not mapped) encompassing land lower than the flood hazard level which has been determined by the appropriate authority. 

  • flood hazard levelBCA (NCC)

    means the flood level used to determine the height of floors in a building and represents the defined flood level plus the freeboard. 

  • floorStandards

    The surface of a platform, walkway or landing. 

  • floor areaBCA (NCC)

  • floor construction system - fitted floor constructionStandards

    A technique whereby flooring is laid over a system of parallel joints and fitted between the bottom wall plates of each room and hallway. The procedure is usually carried out after the roof covering and external wall cladding have been completed. 

  • floor protectorStandards

    a construction designed to protect heat-sensitive floors or floor surfaces under and in front of the appliance from heat generated by the appliance, spilt ash, or embers

  • floor wasteStandards

    a grated inlet within a graded floor intended to drain the floor surface

  • flooringStandards

    upper layer(s) of a floor, comprising any surface finish with or without an attached backing and with any accompanying underlay, interlay and/or adhesive

  • flooring - continuously-supportedNATSPEC

    Flooring which is supported by, and directly fixed to, continuous structural supporting surfaces, including concrete slabs and sheet flooring subfloors.

  • flooring - engineeredNATSPEC

    Manufactured flooring with wearing and decorative surfaces of timber or plastic laminated to supporting layers of plywood or MDF usually with tongues and grooves along the lengths of the boards.

  • flooring - fittedNATSPEC

    Flooring fitted between the walls of each room i.e. not platform floors.

  • flooring - floatingNATSPEC

    Any manufactured flooring panel system not fixed to the subfloor.

  • flooring - hardNATSPEC

    Timber with a wearing surface not easily cut with an abrasive.

  • flooring - intermittently-supportedNATSPEC

    Flooring which is supported by, and spans across joists or battens.

  • flooring - mildNATSPEC

    Timber with a wearing surface easily cut with an abrasive.

  • flooring - sprung floorNATSPEC

    A floating floor engineered to absorb shocks, usually fixed on resilient pads.

  • flooring - strip flooringNATSPEC

    Flooring made from machined timber with tongues and grooves along the length of the strips.

  • flueStandards

    a passage for conveying products of combustion from within an appliance to the outside atmosphere

  • flue damperStandards

    a device fitted into a flue pipe that can be adjusted to reduce the flow of gas through the pipe

  • flue guardStandards

    a device for preventing accidental contact with a flue pipe in a room or to maintain required clearances from the flue-pipe casting inside a cupboard, attic, or another living space other than the room within which the appliance is installed

  • flue pipeStandards

    a pipe that creates a flue

  • flue systemStandards

    a series of interconnecting flue pipes and flue-pipe castings that form a safe passage(flue) for conveying products of combustion from within an appliance to the outside of a building or structure 

  • flue-mounted shieldStandards

    a device, attached to the flue, that forms a barrier limiting the radiant or convective heat transfer

  • flue-pipe castingStandards

    one or more layers of pipe which that surround a flue pipe

  • flush door panelsNATSPEC

    Door panels with two plane faces which entirely cover and conceal its structure.

  • flush door panels with blockboard coreNATSPEC

    Door panels consisting of a core plate of timber strips laid edge to edge, and to which are bonded no less than two sheets of veneer on each face.

  • flux oilNATSPEC

    A petroleum distillate (e.g. diesel) added to bitumen to produce a long-term reduction in viscosity.

  • flux profileNATSPEC

    curve relating heat flux on the specimen plane to distance from the zero point The zero point of the heat flux profile is specified as the inner edge of the hottest side of the specimen holder.

  • foamed bitumenNATSPEC

    The mixing of atomised water with hot bitumen at 180 to 190⁰C with a foaming agent for use for use in stabilising granular materials.

  • footholdStandards

    A component of, or feature in, an NCZ that can be used by a young child as an aid to climbing a barrier. 

  • footingStandards

    a part of a structure in direct contact with transmitting load to the supporting foundation

  • footing slabStandards

    concrete floor supported on the ground with a separately poured edge strip footing

  • footing systemStandards

    general term used to slabs, footings, piers and pile systems that transfer load from the substructure to the foundation

  • footpath (pathway)NATSPEC

    A public way reserved for the movement of pedestrians, motorised wheelchairs and personal mobility devices.

  • force coefficientNATSPEC

    Coefficient that, when multiplied by the incident wind pressure and a reference area, gives the force in a specific direction.

  • formal opinionStandards

    the written opinion, by a registered testing authority, prepared in accordance with Clause 4.2. Also referred to as 'assessment'. 

  • formationNATSPEC

    The surface of the finished earthworks, excluding cut or fill batters.

  • formation drainsNATSPEC

    Drainage of seepage, springs and wet areas within and adjacent to the road formations.

  • formed and gravelAUS-SPEC

    This road is designed to the appropriate geometric design standards with the required drainage. A layer of imported granular material is compacted to the required thickness to support estimated traffic. Resheeting and patrol grading maintenance is required on a regular basis.

  • formed roadAUS-SPEC

    This road is designed to the geometric design standards with the required drainage. These are earth roads made up of local materials with no imported gravel requiring periodic resheeting maintenance. Will require patrol grading maintenance including heavy patching from time to time

  • formworkNATSPEC

    Formwork: The surface, supports and framing used to define the shape of concrete until it is all self-supporting. Formwork types include:Jump formwork: Incrementally moved formwork.Lost formwork: Sacrificial formwork left in place.Slip formwork: Continuously slipped or moving formwork.Table forms: Prefabricated and re-usable formwork systems for slabs and beams.

  • foundationStandards

    the soil, subsoil or rock, whether built-up or natural, upon which a structure is supported NOTE: the term 'foundation' is commonly used to mean both the footing and the ground supporting the footing

  • foundation (2870)Standards

    ground that supports the footing system

  • foundation levelNATSPEC

    The level at the underside of the 50 mm thick mass concrete blinding layer, below the reinforced concrete footing.

  • frameStandards

    A structure manufactured from timber, metal, glass, or other durable material or combinations of materials, such as glass fins and structural sealant, supporting the full length of a glazed panel edge.

  • frame girthStandards

    The flat width of steel required to manufacture the finished folded profile. 

  • framed double-leaf masonryStandards

    construction with masonry double-leaf external wall and framed internal walls

  • frameless (panels)Standards

    without framed edges

  • frameless glazingStandards

    See unframed glazing.

  • framing membersStandards

    the elements, such as mullions and transoms that support façade panels

  • free roofStandards

    Roof (of any type) with no enclosing walls underneath (e.g. freestanding carport).

  • freeboardBCA (NCC)

    means the height above the defined flood level as determined by the appropriate authority, used to compensate for effects such as wave action and localized hydraulic behaviour. 

  • freestanding applianceStandards

    an appliance designed to be installed as a solid fuel burning appliance in all areas except in a concrete or masonry fireplace, or recessed into a building structure or fitting

  • freestanding wallsNATSPEC

    Walls that are exposed to the wind on both sides, with no roof attached (e.g. fences).

  • fresh jointsNATSPEC

    A joint where the pavement material on both sides of the joint has been placed within 3 hours from the time of mixing the material placed before to one side of the joint.

  • frictionStandards

    an intrinsic property of the two interfacing, interacting surfaces resulting from their micro- and macro-roughness, inter- and intra-molecular forces of attraction and repulsion, and their visco-elastic properties

  • friction pileStandards

    a pile where the major component of the resistance of the pile is contributed by the force developed along the shaft of the pile

  • frictional dragNATSPEC

    Wind force per unit area acting in a direction parallel to the surface in question.

  • FRL (fire resistance level)Standards

    As defined in the NCC.

  • fuel chamberStandards

    that part of the appliance designed to contain the fuel

  • full masonryStandards

    construction with masonry double-leaf external walls and masonry single-leaf interal walls without full articulation

  • full-load operationStandards

    operation with the equipment and controls configured for the maximum continuous duty refrigeration capacity specified by the manufacturer and allowed by the unit controlsNOTE: unless otherwise regulated by the automatic controls of the equipment, all indoor units and compressors are functioning during full-load operations

  • full-scale setStandards

    The standard fire resistance test carried out on a doorset in accordance with AS 1530.4.

  • fully framed glazingStandards

    Panels that have all edges framed.

  • functional performance testNATSPEC

    Test of the dynamic function and operation of equipment and systems under various modes, using simulations, manual (direct observation) and monitoring methods. The systems are run through all the control system’s sequences of operation, and components are verified as responding as intended for the documented sequence of operations. Functional performance tests are performed after construction checklists are complete.

  • fusible linkStandards

    A device that operates automatically at a predetermined temperature, to initiate the closure of an automatic fire-resistant roller shutter. 


  • gabionNATSPEC

    Double-twisted wire mesh container, uniformly partitioned into internal cells, interconnected with other units and filled with rocks to form flexible, permeable, monolithic structures. Gabions may be used for landscaping, erosion control, noise attenuation walls, retaining structures, and facing panels for reinforced soil structures.

  • gable roofNATSPEC

    Ridged roof with two sloping surfaces and vertical triangular end walls.

  • garage doors and other large access doorsStandards

  • gateStandards

    A portion of a barrier, other than a child-resistant doorset that is designed to provide access through the barrier. 

  • gate unitStandards

    An assembly compromising a gate, a hinge post, a latch post, a latching device, hinges, and a self-closing device. 

  • generalNATSPEC

    In these conditions of tendering, the word principal has the same meaning as owner and proprietor.

  • general contaminantsStandards

    Contaminants that are generated by occupants, the building or devices (e.g. body odours, volatile organic compounds, and the like) and found within most buildings. 

  • general exhaust ventilationStandards

    Ventilation of an enclosure by the extraction of air from that enclosure, thereby allowing contaminants to be diluted by supply air or make-up air, the mixture being collected at exhaust air intakes and discharged outside of the building. 

  • generic objectNATSPEC

    A generic representation of the common features and properties of a physical element, intended for use in the early stages of design or when the object is not resolved into a product.

  • geotechnical site investigationNATSPEC

    The process of evaluating the geotechnical characteristics of the site in the context of existing or proposed construction.

  • geotextileNATSPEC

    A permeable synthetic fabric laid on soil, sand blinding, concrete or masonry substrates, serving to protect, separate, filter or drain.

  • geotextile filterNATSPEC

    A fabric manufactured from synthetic fibres of long chained polymer such as polypropylene, polyester or similar material and stabilised against deterioration by ultraviolet light. A geotextile filter can be either non-woven or knitted fabric.

  • geotextile reinforced sealAUS-SPEC

    An application of a bituminous binder into which both aggregate and geotextile are incorporated to provide a durable wearing surface. A layer of binder is applied first, followed by a layer of geotextile fabric, then a second coat of binder, followed by the aggregate.

  • gilgaiStandards

    soil surface feature associated with relative clay sites, characterized by regularly spaced and sized depressions on virgin landsNOTE: gilgais are formed by extreme, reactive soil movements. Soil profiles may vary markedly across sites with gilgais

  • girder trussStandards

    A roof truss that supports other trusses or structural members (e.g. beams).

  • give noticeNATSPEC

    Give notice, submit, advise, inform and similar expressions mean give notice (submit, advise, inform) in writing to the contract administrator.

  • glareStandards

    The discomfort or impairment of vision experienced when parts of the field of view ( e.g. lamps, luminaries) are excessively bright in relation to the general surroundings. NOTE: The degrees of discomfort or impairment of vision that can be anticipated in any given situation may be described or measured respectively as "discomfort glare" and "disability glare". 

  • glassStandards

    a hard, brittle, amorphous substance produced by fusion and usually consisting of mutually dissolved silica or silicates that also contain soda and lime, and may be transparent, translucent or opaque

  • glass biteNATSPEC

    The depth of glass that is secured inside the frame assembly (rebate).

  • glazingBCA (NCC)

    for the purpose of Section J, means a transparent or translucent element and it supporting frame located in the envelope, and includes a window other than a roof light. 

  • glazing (1288)Standards

    The securing of glass in prepared openings in windows, door panels, partitions, and the like.Glass or plastics glazing sheet material for installation into a building

  • glazingStandards

    one of the following:(a) the securing of glass in prepared openings in windows, door panels, partitions and the like(b) glass or plastics glazing sheet material for installation into a building

  • glazing barStandards

    a member that is added to a standard window construction to change the appearance of the windowNOTE: the glass is individually glazed. The bar may also be clipped or stuck onto both faces of the glass. Also known as colonial bars or federation bars

  • glazing gasketStandards

    plastic or synthetic rubber members, used between the glass and the frame or the glass and the bead

  • glossNATSPEC

    The optical property of a surface, characterised by its ability to reflect light specularly.

  • gloss unitNATSPEC

    Numerical value for the amount of specular reflection relative to that of a standard surface under the same geometric conditions.

  • goingStandards

    The horizontal distance from the nosing of one stair tread to the nosing of the next stair tread above or below. 

  • grabrailStandards

    See Rail, grabrail.

  • gradientNATSPEC

    The longitudinal slope of a road or path, usually represented as a ratio of one metre rise to the horizontal distance (e.g. 1:50) or expressed as a percentage (e.g. 2%).

  • granolithic toppingNATSPEC

    A topping mix with the coarse aggregate restricted to between 2 and 3 mm.

  • granular materialNATSPEC

    Termite resistant particles tested to AS 3660.3 and placed to form a termite management system. This includes physical termite management system of mineral granules and chemical termite management systems made of impregnated materials.

  • granular materialsAUS-SPEC

    Granular materials with no significant capacity to resist tensile stresses.

  • grasscloth wallpapersNATSPEC

    Handcrafted natural fibre wallpaper made by applying grasses or vines onto a paper backing with glue.

  • grease removal derviceStandards

    A device that removes grease and lint from the airstream. 

  • green concreteNATSPEC

    Concrete which has recently set but has not achieved any design strength.

  • ground anchorStandards

    a tendon anchored into the ground by bond and used to provide a reaction for test loading piles

  • group numberBCA (NCC)

    means the number of one of 4 groups of materials used in the regulation of fire hazard properties and applied to materials used as a finish, surface, lining, or attachment to a wall or ceiling. 

  • GuardrailStandards

    The highest rail in guardrailing fixed parallel to a floor or platform. 

  • guardrailingStandards

    A system of rails or panels, or both, that provides edge protection at the edge of a floor or platform or walkway. 

  • guide postNATSPEC

    Post used to mark the edge of the road carriageway. They assist the road user by indicating the alignment of the road ahead, especially at horizontal and vertical curves, and in some cases, provide a gauge with which to assess available sight distance.

  • guiding systemStandards

    any component or mechanism (other than the counterbalance) that constrains the trajectory of the door during travel and locates the door when it is stationary


  • habitable roomBCA (NCC)

    means a room used for normal domestic activities, and - a) includes a bedroom, living room, lounge room, music room, television room, kitchen, dining room, sewing room, study, playroom, family room, home theatre and sun room; but b) excludes a bathroom, laundry, water closet, pantry, walk-in wardrobe, corridor, hallway, lobby, photographic darkroom, clothes-drying room, and other spaces of a specialized nature occupied neither frequently nor for extended periods. 

  • half-lifeNATSPEC

    The time taken for the volume of the foamed bitumen to settle to half of the maximum volume achieved.

  • handholdStandards

    A component of, or feature in, an NCZ that can be used by a young child as an aid to climbing a barrier.

  • handrailStandards

    See rail, handrail.

  • handrail (standards)Standards

    A rail that provides a handhold on a platform, walkway, stairway or step-type ladder. NOTE: A handrail may form part of a guardrail.

  • hard-codedNATSPEC

    A field that is coded into a software user interface where the user has no ability to change the field name.

  • hardstandStandards

    an identifiable and clearly marked trafficable all-weather pavement providing access and capable of supporting a fire brigade pumping appliance during firefighting operationsNOTE: examples of pavements are bituminous concrete, aggregate, concrete or similar surfaces

  • hardwareStandards

    A broad term used to group all items that are fitted or related to doorsets and includes, but is not limited to, hinges, pivots, sliding door track assemblies, locks, latches, nibs, panic exit devices, closers, pull handles, lever handles, sequence selectors, bolts, reed, switches, buffers, power transfers, hold-open devices, any part of an automatic closing device that is attached to the doorset, electric locking, and any seals (whether provided for the purpose of fire resistance or smoke control or for other purposes such as draught or acoustics) that form the assembly.  

  • hardwareStandards

    To AS 4145.1 Section 2.

  • hardware (2047)Standards

    equipment used in the opening, operating, closing, locking and stopping of windows

  • hardwoodStandards

    A wood from trees classified botanically as Angiosperm.NOTES: 1. Although the term "hardwood" is popularly interpreted to indicate the relative hardness of the wood, this interpretation is misleading as the wood of many hard woods is relatively soft (e.g., balsa wood). 2. The structural difference between hardwoods and softwoods is that hardwoods have vessels or pores and softwoods do not; that is, the wood of softwoods does not include pores. 

  • hazardStandards

    Any area or fixed object in or immediately adjacent to a direction of travel, which may place people at risk of injury.

  • hazardStandards

    Any area or object within the environment that may place people at risk.

  • hazardStandards

    Any area or fixed object in or immediately adjacent to a path of travel, which may place people at risk of injury.

  • hazard classesStandards

  • headStandards

    the top horizontal framing member of a window assembly

  • header unitNATSPEC

    Components which run perpendicular to the face of the wall, i.e. into the embankment.

  • headroomStandards

    The minimum vertical distance, clear of all obstacles such as beams or ducts, above the floor or the slope line of the stair tread nosing. 

  • health-care buildingBCA (NCC)

    means a building whose occupants or patients undergoing medical treatment generally need physical assistance to evacuate the building during an emergency and includes- a) a public or private hospital; or b) a nursing home or similar facility for sick or disabled persons needing full-time care; or c) a clinic, day surgery or procedure unit where the effects of the predominant treatment administered involve patients becoming non-ambulatory and requiring supervised medical care on the premise for some time after the treatment. 

  • hearthStandards

    the floor area underneath the firebox of an appliance or fireplace

  • heat exchanger efficiencyNATSPEC

    Has the same meaning as heat exchanger effectiveness.

  • heat flux (kW/m²)Standards

    incident heat power per unit area; this includes both radiant heat flux and convective heat flux

  • heat flux at X min (HF-X)Standards

    heat flux (kW/m2) received by the specimen at the most distant spread of flame position observed during the first X minutes of the test

  • heat shieldStandards

    a device that forms a barrier that limits the radiant or convective heat transfer

  • heat-resistant materialStandards

    a material with an allowable service temperature of 600°C or greater

  • heat-sensitive materialStandards

    a material with an allowable service temperature of less than 150℃

  • heat-strengthened laminated safety glassStandards

    Laminated safety glass utilizing two or more panels of heat-strengthened glass in the make-up.

  • heat-tolerant materialStandards

    a material with an allowable service temperature greater than 150℃ but less than 600℃

  • heated waterNATSPEC

    Water that has been intentionally heated. It includes hot water, warm water and boiling water.

  • heating capacityStandards

    amount of heat that the equipment can add to the conditioned space (but not including supplementary heat) in a defined interval of timeNOTE: heating capacity is expressed in units of watts

  • heating fluxStandards

    the incident flux imposed externally from the heater on the specimen at the initiation of the testNOTE: the specimen, once ignited, is also heated by its own flame

  • heelStandards

    The major truss joint formed where the sloping top chord meets the bottom chord. when the junction is used for the set out of the truss shape, it is also known as the pitching point. 

  • heightStandards

    The distance measured above the finished floor or ground surface.

  • hepaNATSPEC

    High efficiency particulate air, using or containing a filter designed to remove 99.97% of airborne particles, measuring 0.3 μm or greater in diameter passing through it.

  • hf weldingNATSPEC

    The welding of polymer materials by heating them with high frequency electromagnetic waves.

  • high level interfaceNATSPEC

    Systems transfer information in a digital format using an open system interface.

  • high pressure decorative laminates (HPDL)NATSPEC

    Panels consisting of core layers impregnated with phenolic and/or aminoplastic resins and a surface layer(s) impregnated with aminoplastic resins (mainly melamine resins).Sheets consisting of a decorative face and layers of fibrous sheet material (e.g. paper) impregnated with thermosetting resins and bonded together under heat and pressure of at least 5 MPa.

  • high riseNATSPEC

    a multistory building with storeys exceeding an effective height of 25 m

  • high risk areasStandards

  • high stress seal or reseal (HSS)NATSPEC

    A bituminous seal or reseal treatment which may be a single/single or double/double seal, but with a polymer modified binder (PMB) to improve seal performance in areas of high traffic loading and stress.

  • high voltageNATSPEC

    Exceeding low-voltage.

  • high wind areasStandards

    areas in which the basic design wind velocity is modified for terrain and height in accordance with AS/NZS 1170.2 or AS 4055 to give wind classifications N3 or greater

  • high-build low profile latex coatingNATSPEC

    A water based coating designed to be used over textured coatings to increase the exposure performance of the system.

  • hillNATSPEC

    Isolated three-dimensional topographic feature standing above the surrounding plains having slopes < 5%.

  • hip roofNATSPEC

    A roof with four sloping (pitched) surfaces, pyramidal in shape, and with level eaves all round. A hip roof on a rectangular plan has two triangular sloping roofs at the short sides (hip ends) and two trapezoidal sloping roofs at the long sides.

  • hoardingsNATSPEC

    Freestanding (rectangular) signboards, and the like, supported clear of the ground.

  • hobStandards

    the upstand at the perimeter a shower area

  • hold pointAUS-SPEC

    A mandatory verification position in the contract beyond which work cannot proceed without the designated authorisation.


    Hold point The activity cannot proceed without the approval of the contract administrator. Consider including this Optional text if applicable. Hold point: Contract administrator intervention of this sort should be minimised, to avoid blurring of responsibilities, to increase precision in documentation, to expedite the works, to avoid an adversarial position and to accord with principles of quality assurance and risk allocation. In quality assurance terms, approval is a hold point rather than a witness point - too many approvals may bog the project down.

  • hoodStandards

    A component part of a local exhaust system intended for collecting effluent. 

  • horizontal alignmentNATSPEC

    The bringing together of the straights and curves in the plan view of a carriageway. It is a series of tangents and curves that may or may not be connected by transition curves.

  • horizontal exitBCA (NCC)

    means a required doorway between 2 parts of a building separated from eachother by a fire wall. 

  • hot layerStandards

    A buoyant layer of hot smoky grass contained by a ceiling or roof above it, and characterized by a relatively clear smoke-free zone beneath it. 

  • hot waterStandards

    water at or above 60℃

  • hot-dip galvanizedNATSPEC

    Zinc coated to AS/NZS 4680 after fabrication with coating thickness and mass to AS/NZS 4680 Table 1.This applies to galvanizing after fabrication. Galvanized sheet metal and similar materials are covered by 0183 Metals and prefinishes.

  • house energy rating softwareBCA (NCC)

    means software accredited under the Nationwide House Energy Rating Scheme and is limited to assessing the potential thermal efficiency of the dwelling envelope. 

  • house only barrierStandards

    A barrier that restricts access from the house to the pool, using child-resistant doorsets and windows. 

  • house plus barrierStandards

    A barrier that restricts access from the house to the pool, using child-resistant doorsets and windows, and adjoining properties to the perimeter barrier. 

  • house signageNATSPEC

    Internal and external project specific signs.

  • humidifierStandards

    a device for adding moisture to air to raise its humidity NOTE: humidifiers are of several types, including steam, spay, atomizing and boiling water

  • humidifier feverStandards

    a form of allergic reaction caused by inhalation of allergens of microbial origin arising from the wetted surface of equipment, such as humidifiers

  • hydrostatic pressureStandards

    the pressure exerted by a fluid due to its own weight. The normal predicted pressure for a given depth, or the pressure exerted per unit area by a column of freshwater from sea level to a given depth

  • hypersensitivty pneumonitisStandards

    respiratory illness usually caused by inhalation of the spores or antigens of various different types of microorganisms; also known as 'extrinsic allergic alveolitis'


  • identifiable lotStandards

    a batch of tiles or accessories of the same type, profile and colour, produced in a single shift, on a particular date, and at essentially the same time

  • if requiredNATSPEC

    A conditional specification term for work which may be shown in the documents or is a legislative requirement.


    Industrial Foundation Classes (ISO 16739). An open file format developed and maintained by buildingSMART for the exchange of information enhanced models.

  • ignitability indexStandards

    For assigning group numbers by prediction, the reciprocal of time to ignition, expressed in reciprocal minutes.

  • illuminanceBCA (NCC)

    means the luminous flux falling onto a unit area of surface. 

  • illuminance (Standards)Standards

    The luminous flux arriving at a surface, divided by the area of the illuminated surface. Unit: lux (1x). Symbol: E. NOTE: 1 1x = 1 1m/m2.

  • illuminated signsNATSPEC

    Signs consisting of cabinets enclosing a light source, illuminating translucent face panels bearing the specified signage.

  • illumination power density (W/m²)BCA (NCC)

    means the total of power that will be consumed by the lights in a space, including any lamps, ballasts, current regulators and control devices other than those that are plugged into sockets outlets for intermittent use such as floor standing lamps, desk lamps or work station lamps, divided by the area of the space. 

  • immediate supports (cladding)BCA (NCC)

    Those supporting members to which cladding is directly fixed (e.g. battens, purlins, girts, studs).

  • impact soundNATSPEC

    Sound caused by impacts on building structure. Typical sources include footsteps, dropped objects on horizontal surfaces and the slamming of doors.

  • imported topsoilNATSPEC

    Similar to naturally occurring local topsoil, suitable for the establishment and ongoing viability of the selected vegetation, free of weed propagules and of contaminants, and classified by texture to AS 4419 Appendix I, as follows:Fine: Clay loam, fine sandy clay loam, sandy clay loam, silty loam, loam.Medium: Sandy loam, fine sandy loam.Coarse: Sand, loamy sand.

  • imposed actionNATSPEC

    A variable action resulting from the intended use or occupancy of the structure.

  • inadequate foundation materialNATSPEC

    Material beneath or adjacent to the proposed drainage structures with insufficient strength to support the structure and loads on the structure, or material with characteristics that would adversely affect the performance or construction of the drainage structure.

  • incandescent lampNATSPEC

    Lamps covered in AS 4934.2 including both tungsten filament and tungsten halogen types.

  • inclined liftBCA (NCC)

    means a power-operated device for raising or lowering people within a carriage that has one or more rigid guides on an inclined plane. 

  • incoming busbarsNATSPEC

    Busbars connecting incoming terminals to line side terminals of main switches.

  • individual air-handling systemStandards

    An air-handling system that is only capable of recycling return air to the fire compartment from which it is drawn. 

  • indoor airStandards

    Air inside the enclosure under consideration. 

  • indoor poolStandards

    A pool that is fully enclosed within a residential building or by a separate building. 

  • indoor/outdoor poolStandards

    A pool that is partly enclosed by a building and partly an outdoor pool.

  • industrialNATSPEC

    Areas within 1 km of major industrial complexes producing significant acidic pollution.NOTE: There are only a few such regions in Australia; for example around Port Pirie.

  • industrial work areaStandards

    an area from which the public is generally excluded, and in which there may be an increased risk of slipping on the pedestrian surface due to a high incidence of substances such as grease oil, water, foodstuffs, food residues, dust, flour or vegetable waste

  • inert catchmentStandards

    a rainwater collection area whose dominant material has little or no effect on the chemical composition of rainwater draining from itNOTE: dominant materials include acrylic, fiberglass, aluminum/zinc and aluminum/zinc/magnesium alloy-coated steel, glass, glazed tiles, unplasticized polyvinyl chloride and prepainted metal

  • infillStandards

    Typically a solid or mesh panel that prevents a person or material from falling through guardrailing. 

  • infillStandards

    Typically a solid or mesh panel that prevents a person or material from falling through gaurdrailing. 

  • infill balustradesStandards

    Balustrades in which the supported glass resists an infill pressure and/or point load applied to the glass panel.

  • infill slabStandards

    slab cast on the ground between walls

  • infiltration airStandards

    Air (other than supply air and make-up air) that enters an enclosure or an air-handling system in an uncontrolled manner. 

  • ingress protectionNATSPEC

    IP, IP code, IP rating and similar expression have the same meaning as IP Code in AS 60529.

  • initial sealNATSPEC

    An application of a sprayed seal to a prepared basecourse which has not been primed. It is intended to adhere to the base, whilst providing a temporary wearing course for traffic.

  • initial sealAUS-SPEC

    An application of a primerbinder with a cover aggregate to a prepared base. 

  • initial treatmentNATSPEC

    An application of a prime (prime coat) or initial seal to a prepared basecourse.

  • insert bathStandards

    a bath where the bath lip is installed onto a horizontal plinth or surface

  • insertion pointNATSPEC

    The point on an object used to place it into a model.

  • inspection and test planAUS-SPEC

    The document identifying the required inspections and tests of the works. It includes verification check points designated as Hold point, Witness point and Review point.

  • inspection and test plans (ITP)NATSPEC

    A series of formal inspection and test plans, prepared by the coating contractor to reflect the specific inspection and testing that will be carried out on the surface preparation, coating application and the record keeping tasks to be undertaken.

  • inspection zoneStandards

    an unobstructed space over which termites have to cross or pass in order to gain access to a building or structure and, as a consequence, reveal their presence during visual inspection

  • installationNATSPEC

    the portion of a sprinkler system downstream from and inclusive of a control assembly

  • installationStandards

    mounting plant, equipment and controls, securing in position, connecting up to components of a system for subsequent commissioning of the plant and the associated system

  • installerStandards

    the person or organization that contracts, or agrees to, the supply equipment, to carry out an installation or to modify an existing installation

  • instructionNATSPEC

    A document that specifies the key steps and sequence in the manufacture/construction for an activity and what materials and equipment will be used to achieve the required standard.

  • insulating glass unit (IGU)Standards

    Two or more panels of glass spaced apart and factory sealed with dry air (hermetically) or specials gases int he unit cavity. Often abbreviated to IGU or referred to as the unit.

  • insulationBCA (NCC)

    in relation to an FRL, means the ability to maintain a temperature on the surface not exposed to the furnace below the limits specified in AS 1530.4.

  • integrated management manualNATSPEC

    A document setting out the general policies, procedures and practices of an organisation.

  • integrated management systemNATSPEC

    The organisational structure, responsibilities, procedures, processes and resources to make sure that the product or service meets requirements.

  • integrated TGSIsStandards

    A series of TGSIs in a defined pattern of the same colour and material as the underlying surface.

  • integrityBCA (NCC)

    in relation to an FRL, means the ability to resist the passage of flames and hot gases specified in AS 1530.4.

  • interconnectable smoke alarmStandards

    smoke alarm that can be interconnected with other compatible smoke alarms to provide a common alarm condition warning

  • intermediate postsNATSPEC

    Fence posts positioned at regular, equally spaced intervals between corner and/or end posts, to provide support for the fencing material.

  • internal partitionStandards

    An interior dividing wall or such portion of an interior dividing wall that is not a door, side panel, shopfront or atrium wall.

  • internal wallBCA (NCC)

    excludes a common wall or a party wall.

  • intra-pavement drainsNATSPEC

    Drainage of pavement layers of a flexible pavement on steep grades and sag curves where water flows are likely to be more parallel than transverse to road alignment. The subbase material is a macadam crushed rock or open graded asphaltic concrete.

  • introduced outdoor airflowStandards

    Air introduced to an air-handling system via an outdoor air intake. 

  • investigative inspectionNATSPEC

    Any method of root inspection that involves the washing away of all or portions of the soil from the rootball to expose a section or all the roots.

  • isolation barrierStandards

    A fence that isolates all unrelated pool ancillary structures from the pool area. 


  • jambStandards

    a vertical side-framing member

  • joinery doorNATSPEC

    A door leaf with either stiles and rails, or stiles, rails and muntins, framed together. A joinery door may also incorporate glazing bars.Louvred door: A joinery door with framed openings filled in with louvre blades.Panelled door: A joinery door with framed openings filled in with panels including glass.

  • joint groupStandards

    The classification assigned to a timber species or species group for the purpose of calculating joint capacity. As defined and applied in AS 1720.1.

  • joint group (standards)Standards

    The classification assigned to a timber species or species group for the purpose of calculating joint capacity. NOTES: 1. Unseasoned timber species or species groups are classified into six joint groups (i.e., J1 to J6). Seasoned timber species or species groups are classified into six joint groups (i.e., JD1 to JD6). 2. The joint group classifications for a range of timber species or species groups are given in Tables H2.3, H2.4, and H3.1, Appendix H for hardwoods and softwoods. 3. joint group is defined for the purpose of this Standard only; the classifications are not necessarily applicable for proprietary fasteners (e.g., multi-toothed nailplates). 

  • jointsNATSPEC


  • k factorStandards

    a constant that defines the pressure and flow characteristics of a sprinkler, as determined by the formula

  • kerbStandards

    A side barrier to a trafficable surface, including walkways and ramps.

  • kerbStandards

    A side barrier to a trafficable or accessible pedestrian surface.

  • kerb rampStandards

    An inclined accessway with a length not greater than 1520 mm and a gradient not steeper than 1 in 8, located within a kerb.

  • kerbs and channels (gutters)NATSPEC

    Includes all forms of concrete channels (gutters), dish drains and mountable median and barrier kerbing.

  • kitchen exhaust hoodStandards

    A component part of a kitchen exhaust system, intended for collecting the heat, fumes and other aerosols arising from cooking appliances, where such installation is required by the NCC. 

  • kneeStandards

    The major truss joint formed where the sloping top chord meets the horizontal top chord of the truncated truss. 

  • known historyNATSPEC

    Supplier documentation, demonstrating and enabling verification that the product was grown by essentially the same processes and under essentially the same system of control.

  • kvsNATSPEC

    The flow rate of water in m3/h through a fully open control valve that creates a pressure drop of 1 bar across the valve.


  • lacing wireNATSPEC

    Wire used to assemble and interconnect empty units to close and secure rock-filled units or used as internal stiffeners.

  • ladder - rung-type ladderStandards

    A structure comprising a stile or stiles and rungs on which a person may stand om or step in, ascending or descending. 

  • ladder - step-type ladderStandards

    A structure comprising stiles and treads on which a person may stand on or step in, ascending or descending, and which also incorporates handrails. 

  • ladder cageStandards

    A fixed enclosure that encircles the climbing space of a ladder. 

  • ladder flightStandards

    The continuous part of a fixed ladder between- a) Arrival and departure levels, in the case of ladders without platforms;b) Arrival or departure levels and the nearest platform; orc) Successive rest platforms. 

  • lag distanceNATSPEC

    Horizontal distance downwind, required for the effects of a change in terrain roughness on wind speed to reach the height being investigated.

  • laminated glassStandards

    A composite material consisting of two or more sheets of glass permanently bonded together by a plastic interlayer material.

  • laminated safety glassStandards

    Laminated glass that satisfied the relevant requirements for a safety glazing material in accordance with AS/NZS 2208.

  • lamp power density (W/m²)BCA (NCC)

    means the total of the maximum power rating of the lamps in a space, other than those that are plugged into socket outlets for intermittent use such as floor standing lamps, desk lamps or work station lamps, divided by the area of the space. 

  • landformNATSPEC

    The type and shape of terrain, usually including topography, geological characteristics, coastlines, rivers and water bodies.

  • landingStandards

    A resting place on a path of travel.

  • landingStandards

    A flat or crowned surface with a gradient not steeper than 1 in 40, e.g. a rest area on a ramp, stairway or walkway.

  • landing (standards)Standards

    A level area that provides access to a stairway or ladder, or is located at an intermediate level in a system of stairways or ladders. 

  • landslipStandards

    foundation condition on a sloping site where downhill foundation movement or a failure is a design consideraton

  • large culvert unitNATSPEC

    Culvert unit with a span exceeding 1200 mm up to 4200 mm and a height from 1200 mm up to 4200 mm.

  • large displacement pilesStandards

    performed or cast in place pile, generally with a solid cross-section dimension of at least 300 mm, installed by driving, screwing, pushing, vibrating or similar methods, which cause a displacement such that significant stresses are induced in the surrounding soils, which may increase the load capacity of the pile and cause displacement of the surrounding soils

  • large treeNATSPEC

    A tree grown in a container not less than 20 L or ex-ground with a minimum rootball diameter of 400 mm.

  • latchStandards

    A self-latching mechanism that prevents the opening of a closed gate or door without activation of its release device. 

  • latch handleStandards

    The operating device (e.g. knob, lever) that effects the retraction of the latch bolt. 

  • latent cooling capacityStandards

    amount of latent heat that the equipment can remove from the conditioned space in a defined interval of time NOTE: latent cooling capacity and room dehumidifying capacity are expressed in units of watts

  • latent heat gainBCA (NCC)

    means the heat gained by the vapourising of the liquid without change of temperature. 

  • lateral braceStandards

    An out-of-plane member connected to a chord or web of a truss and intended to resist out-of-plane buckling forces. NOTE: Also known as a web brace, lateral tie, lateral restraint, chord tie or binder. 

  • latex extensible wall coating (or membrane coating)NATSPEC

    A non-aggregate flexible watertight finish.

  • lattice towersNATSPEC

    Three-dimensional frameworks comprising three or more linear boundary members interconnected by linear bracing members joined at common points (nodes), enclosing an open area through which the wind may pass.

  • layNATSPEC

    The manner, direction and pitch in which the strands are laid around the centre of a rope, or in which the wires are laid around the central strand. Construction of steel rope is designated by two numbers. The first indicates the number of strands that make up the rope, the second number describes the number of wires that make up each strand.

  • layered objectsNATSPEC

    An object typically constructed from one or more layers of materials to form a building system. Typically these are "system" objects, provided by the BIM authoring system without fixed geometry, where the user can modify the layers and thickness but the geometry is created on placement in the model.

  • leadlightStandards

    A panel of individual glass pieces within a framework of lead, copper, zinc or brass cames, made in the traditional manner of small panes.

  • leakage airStandards

    Air (other than exhaust air return air and relief air) that escapes from an air-handling system in an uncontrolled manner. 

  • least sensitive orientationStandards

    point of rotation, relative to airflow, about the vertical axis, where a detector produces the maximum response threshold value

  • legibility distanceNATSPEC

    The maximum distance that the various types of traffic control signs or devices can clearly be seen under normal operating conditions and where there is no restriction to the line of sight.

  • legionnaires' diseaseStandards

    a potentially fatal illness characterized by pneumonia and caused by infection with legionella bacteria species, commonly L.pneumophila. The incubation period of the disease is from 2 to 10 days, and the attack rate is low. Symptoms include an abrupt onset of high fever, non-productive cough, chills, headache and muscle pain

  • length (of a compression member)Standards

    the actual length of an axially loaded compression member, taken as the length centre-to-centre of intersections with supporting members, or the cantilevered length in the case of a freestanding member

  • length of superelevation developmentNATSPEC

    The transition of crossfall from a normal roadway on straight alignment to that of a fully superelevated crossfall on a circular curve.

  • level of serviceNATSPEC

    A qualitative measure describing operational conditions within a traffic stream such as speed and travel time, freedom to manoeuvre, traffic interruptions, comfort, convenience and safety and their perception by motorists and/or passengers.

  • levels of gloss finishNATSPEC

    When the specular direction is 60 degrees, surfaces with the following specular gloss reading is defined as follows:Full gloss: Over 85 gloss units.Gloss: Over 50 and up to 85 gloss units.Semi-gloss (satin): Over 20 and up to 50 gloss units.Low gloss (low sheen): Over 5 and up to 20 gloss units.Flat finish (matt): Up to 5 gloss units.

  • libraryNATSPEC

    A collection of reusable BIM objects stored as separate files that are used to facilitate the use of standardised designed or manufactured elements and objects over a project or series of projects.

  • liftStandards

    Force acting at 90° to the wind stream; see also drag.

  • lightNATSPEC

    See  window light

  • light source efficacyBCA (NCC)

    means the luminous flux of a lamp or the total radiant flux in the visible spectrum weighted by the spectral response of the eye, divided by the electric power that will be consumed by the lamp but excluding ballast and control gear power losses. 

  • lightweight constructionBCA (NCC)

    means construction which incorporates or compromises- a) sheet or board material, plaster, render, sprayed application, or other material similarly susceptible to damage by impact, pressure or abrasion; or b) concrete and concrete products containing pumice, perlite, vermiculite, or other soft material similarly susceptible to damage by impact, pressure or abrasion; or c) masonry having a thickness less than 70mm. 

  • limit stateStandards

    any limiting condition beyond which the structure ceases to fulfil its intended function. 

  • limit statesNATSPEC

    States beyond which the structure no longer satisfies the design criteria.NOTE: Limit states separate desired states (compliance) from undesired states (non-compliance).

  • limit states, serviceabilityNATSPEC

    States that correspond to conditions beyond which specified service criteria for a structure or structural element are no longer met.NOTE:  The  criteria  are  based  on  the  intended  use  and  may  include  limits  on  deformation, vibratory response, degradation or other physical aspects.

  • limit states, stabilityStandards

    states that correspond to the loss of static equilibrium of structure considered as a rigid body

  • limit states, ultimateNATSPEC

    States associated with collapse, or with other similar forms of structural failure.NOTE: This generally corresponds to the maximum load-carrying resistance of a structure or structural element but, in some cases, to the maximum applicable strain or deformation.

  • lining paper (wall liner)NATSPEC

    A thick, plain wallcovering, available in a variety of weights, installed under the decorative wallpaper as a preparatory or foundation layer to cover wood panelling, or smooth out rough, damaged or textured walls. They are generally applied horizontally over grooved panelling and vertically on concrete blockwork. They may also be installed horizontally instead of vertically to hide seams and be used instead of a primer/sealer.

  • lippageNATSPEC

    Height deviation between adjacent units.

  • liquid appliedNATSPEC

    A water-based formulation which cures to form an elastomeric membrane. Urethane modified acrylics have better resistance to ponding. Products include acrylics, modified polyurethanes (water-based), polyuria and modified cementitious systems.

  • listedStandards

    sprinkler equipment or materials that are demonstrated to meet the requirements of AS 4118 or have been tested in a specified manner and found suitable for useNOTE: various organizations produce lists of equipment suitable for use in fire sprinkler systems. The means for identifying listed equipment may vary with each organization concerned with product evaluation. Some organizations do not recognize equipment as listed unless it is also labelled. For identifying and nominating a product as listed, reference should be made to the method used by the organization that has listed the equipment

  • live partStandards

    a conductor or conductive part intended to be energized in normal use, including a neutral conductor and conductive parts connected to a neutral conductorNotwithstanding the above, for the purpose of this Standard, the following are not considered live parts:(a) earthing conductors(b) the MEN connection and the neutral bar or link at which the MEN connections made(c) the sheath of an MIMS cable and associated conductive fittings used as a combined neutral and protective earthing conductor in an ESR system(d) conductive supports and enclosures associated with unprotected consumer mains which are earthed in accordance with AS/NZS 3000

  • loadNATSPEC

    A single truckload of concrete comprising one or more batches.

  • loadStandards

    The value of a force appropriate to an action.

  • loadStandards

    the value of a force appropriate for an action

  • load bearing construction (straw bale)NATSPEC

    Also known as Nebraska style where straw bale walls support the load from the roof and upper floor(s) without a structural frame.

  • loadbearingBCA (NCC)

    means intended to resist vertical forces additional o those due to its own weight. 

  • loadbearing - non-loadbearing wallStandards

    A wall that supports neither roof nor floor loads but which may support ceiling loads and act as a bracing wall. a non-loadbearing external wall may support ceiling and lateral wind loads. 

  • loadbearing wallStandards

    A wall that supports roof or floor loads, or both roof and floor loads. 

  • loadbearing wall (2870)Standards

    wall imposing a load on the footing greater than 10 kN/m, when factored in accordance with Clause 1.4.2

  • local airStandards

    Enclosure air that passes through a local air-cleaning unit and returns to the same enclosure. 

  • local bucklingStandards

    a mode of buckling involving plate flexure alone without transverse deformation of the line or lines of intersection of adjoining plates

  • local exhaustStandards

    Extraction of objectionable or hazardous effluent close to the source and discharging to atmosphere.

  • local (government) authorityNATSPEC

    A body established for the purposes of local government by or under a law applying in a state or territory.

  • lock functionNATSPEC

    For the purposes of this worksection, the general definitions given in AS 4145.1 Appendix E apply.

  • longitudinal linemarkingNATSPEC

    All lines that are generally parallel to the traffic flow, such as centre, lane, edge, turn, continuity and transition lines and outline markings.

  • lotNATSPEC

    A lot consists of any part of the works which has been constructed/manufactured under a continuous operation of uniform conditions and is essentially homogeneous with respect to material and general appearance. The whole of the work included in a lot is of a uniform quality without obvious changes in attribute values.

  • lotAUS-SPEC

    Any part of the works that has been constructed/manufactured under a continuous operation of uniform conditions and is homogeneous with respect to material and general appearance.

  • lot-packageAUS-SPEC

    One or more work lots of the same work kind collated under the same inspection and test plan.

  • louvreStandards

    a window unit comprising a series of blades of glass or other material lapping each other

  • louvres - continuousNATSPEC

    Louvres that run continuously past, and are supported by, concealed framing or brackets.

  • louvres - horizontalNATSPEC

    Louvres that span between frames stiles, mullions or vertical supports.

  • louvres - verticalNATSPEC

    Louvres that span between frame heads and sills, or horizontal supports.

  • low density soilNATSPEC

    Soil for use on an artificial base material, e.g. roof top garden or large landscape containers. Such soils will usually be blends of mineral and organic compounds, and will typically have:Bulk density: 0.3 to 0.6 Kg/L.Organic matter: 10% to 40% by mass.

  • low gradient flow diversion (drainage) techniqueNATSPEC

    A flow diversion drain, channel or bank with a gradient sufficiently low to maintain subcritical flow along its length.

  • low level interfaceNATSPEC

    Systems transfer information via terminals and voltage free contacts.

  • low voltageNATSPEC

    Exceeding extra-low voltage, but not exceeding 1000 V a.c. or 1500 V d.c.

  • low-rise platform liftBCA (NCC)

    means a power-operated device for raising or lowering people with limited mobility on a platform, that is controlled automatically or by the application of constant pressure to a control. 

  • low-rise, low-speed constant pressure liftBCA (NCC)

    means a power operated low-rise, low-speed device for raising or lowering people with limited mobility on a carriage that is controlled  by the application of  constant pressure to a control. 

  • LuminaireStandards

    Equipment that houses the lamp(s) and directs the light in desired directions. it includes items necessary for fixing, protecting and operating the lamp(s). 

  • luminanceStandards

    The physical quantity corresponding to the brightness of a surface ( e.g. a lamp, luminaire, sky or reflecting material) in a specified direction. It is the Luminous intensity of an area of the surface, divided by that area. Unit: candela per square metre (cd/m2). Symbol: L. 

  • luminance contrastBCA (NCC)

    means the light reflected from one surface or component, compared to the light reflected from another surface or component. 

  • luminance contrastStandards

    The amount of light reflected from one surface or component, compared to the amount of light reflected from the background or surrounding surfaces.

  • luminance factorStandards

    The ratio of luminance of a surface to that of a perfect reflector, identically illuminated.

  • luminous fluxStandards

    A measure of quantity of  light. For a lamp or luminaire, it normally refers to the total light emitted. Unit: lumen (lm) 

  • luminous intensityStandards

    The concentration of luminous flux emitted in a specified direction. Unit: candela (cd). Symbol: l. 

  • luxury vinyl tilesNATSPEC

    Vinyl tiles which uses photographic encapsulation to replicate natural floor finish such as stone and wood.


  • main circuit supply busbarsNATSPEC

    Busbars connecting incoming functional unit terminals, or incoming busbars where no main switches are included, to outgoing functional unit terminals or outgoing functional unit tee-offs.

  • maintenanceNATSPEC

    Work that is carried out to preserve an asset, to allow for its continued use and function over its designed service life.

  • major exhaust systemStandards

    An exhaust system (other than a car park exhaust system) installed as a stand-alone system or in conjunction with a recycle or supply system and having total aggregate opening area exceeding 0.1m2 from a fire compartment into a separate shaft or duct within a shaft. 

  • major supply systemStandards

    A supply system (other than a car park supply system) installed as a stand-alone system or in conjunction with recycle or exhaust systems and having an inlet total aggregation opening area exceeding 0.1m2 into a fire compartment from a separate shaft or duct within a shaft. 

  • major systemNATSPEC

    The network of planned and unplanned drainage routes providing safe, well-defined overland flow paths for rare and extreme storm runoff events. It includes roads, natural channels, streams, culverts, community retention/detention basins and other facilities.

  • make-up airStandards

    Replacement air for smoke exhaust systems introduced below the hot layer, usually at ambient temperature/density. 

  • make-up air (standards)Standards

    Air that enters an enclosure or an air-handling system in a controlled manner but not by direct mechanical means. 

  • mandrelNATSPEC

    A short length of smooth pipe of internal diameter 20 mm - 30 mm greater than the external diameter of the slotted pipe being enclosed by filter fabric.

  • mansard roofStandards

    A roof with two slopes on all four sides, the lower slope steeper than the upper slope.NOTE: A mansard roof with the upper slopes less than 10° may be assumed to be flat topped.

  • mantelpieceStandards

    the ornamental structure above and about a fireplace, usually having a shelf (mantelshelf) or projecting ledge

  • mantelshelfStandards

    the projecting part of a mantelpiece

  • manufacturerStandards

    An organization or individual who manufactures any part of the doorset used in a fire-resistant doorset. 

  • manufacturer (standards)Standards

    An organization or individual who manufactures the fire-resistant roller shutter. 

  • manufacturers’ and suppliers’ recommendationsNATSPEC

    Recommendations, instructions, requirements, specifications (and similar expressions) provided in written or other form by the manufacturer relating to the suitability, use, installation, storage and/or handing of a product.

  • manufacturer’s recommendationsNATSPEC

    Recommendations, instructions, requirements, specifications (and similar expressions) provided in written or other form by the manufacturer and/or supplier relating to the suitability, use, installation, storage and/or handling of a product.

  • marineNATSPEC

    Areas from 100 m up to 1 km from a non-surf coast and from 1 km up to 10 km from breaking surf.NOTE: the distances specified are from the mean high-water mark. Sheltered bays such as Port Phillip Bay and Sydney Harbour are considered to be non-surf coast.

  • masonryNATSPEC

    A preformed component, intended for use in masonry construction, either with or without mortar joints.

  • masonry (standards)Standards

    Stone, brick, terracotta block, concrete block, or other similar building unit material, or a combination of thereof, assembled unit-by-unit to form a wall, pier, shaft, chimney or other part of a building. 

  • masonry veneerStandards

    construction consisting of a loadbearing frame clad with an outer leaf of masonry

  • massive timberBCA (NCC)

    means an element not less than 75mm thick as measured in each direction formed from chemically bonded laminated timber and includes: a) cross laminated timber (CLT)b) laminated veneer lumber (LVL)c) Glued laminated timber (Glulam)

  • match (pattern match)NATSPEC

    The point where the design matches at the seams.

  • material design / formulationNATSPEC

    A statement outlining the specific material critical components which forms the basis for QA testing and verification, including any on site dilution or manufacturer recommendations as to use and handling of the product prior to application.

  • material r-valueNATSPEC

    The thermal resistance (m2.K/W) of a component calculated in conformance with AS/NZS 4859.1 clause Material R-Value does not include air space or surface resistances.

  • matv (Master Antenna Television)NATSPEC

    System that primarily provides access to terrestrial television signals but may also carry radio services. Terrestrial signals may be distributed at their original frequency or shifted to a more convenient frequency. In-house services may also be provided by modulating base band signals from an appropriate source.

  • maximum differential footing movementStandards

    maximum movement of a footing relative to a straight line joining the ends of the footing system or, in the case of double curvature, joining the points of contraflexure

  • maximum flow rate of the systemStandards

    the maximum flow rate of the system occurs at the point of intersection of the maximum water supply curve and the hydraulically most favourable system requirement curve when the hydraulic characteristics are represented in accordance with the requirements of Clauses 12.7 and 12.9

  • maximum retained water levelStandards

    the point at which surface water will start to overflow out of the shower area

  • maximum thicknessStandards

    The thickness of a panel of glass at the maximum thickness tolerance.

  • mayStandards

    Indicates an option. 

  • may (standards)Standards

    indicates the existence of an option. 

  • mechanical fasteningStandards

    component used to install a roof, e.g. nails, screws, clips, and flexible pointing material in accordance with AS 4046.8

  • mechanical services switchboard (MSSB)Standards

    The mechanical services switchboard supplied by mains or emergency power, which may incorporate a motor control centre (MCC).

  • medical breathing airNATSPEC

    For the purposes of this worksection medical breathing air and medical air have the same meaning.

  • meeting railsStandards

    horizontal intermediate sash members that meet when the widow is closed such that they combine to act in unison

  • meeting stilesStandards

    The abutting vertical members in a pair of doors. NOTE: This excludes astragals. 

  • meeting stilesStandards

    vertical intermediate sash members that meet when the window is closed such that hey combine to act in unison

  • meltNATSPEC

    A public domain gating terminal.

  • memberStandards

    A single structural element, including truss chords and webs. 

  • membraneNATSPEC

    A thin and flexible sheet of fabric material.

  • membraneStandards

    a barrier that is impervious to moistureNOTE: a barrier may be a single or multi-part system

  • membraneStandards

    an impervious barrier to moisture, which can be sheet or liquid applied.NOTE: a membrane can have many parts but only one layer

  • membrane linerNATSPEC

    The waterproof barrier between the water and the substrate and as follows:Seamless membrane liners: Low VOC emitting, single component, self curing liquid polymers applied directly to concrete or masonry substrates as a seamless film.Sheet membrane liners: Ultra-violet resistant, flexible sheet membranes installed on concrete, masonry or stable soil substrates and with seams lapped and sealed.

  • membrane plateNATSPEC

    A metal plate that clamps the corner of a membrane to its support structure, or a pair of plates that clamp a membrane corner between them and are then attached by a hinged fitting to the support structure.

  • membrane, externalStandards

    a membrane that is installed behind the wall sheeting or renderNOTE: usually external membranes are performed trays or sheet material systems

  • membrane, internalStandards

    a membrane that is installed to the face of the wall sheeting or renderNOTE: usually internal membranes are liquid systems applied in situ

  • membranes (waterproof)NATSPEC

    Impervious barriers to liquid water which may be:Installed below floor finishes.Installed behind the wall sheeting or render and termed External.Installed to the face of the wall sheeting or render and termed Internal.Applied in liquid or gel form and air cured to form a seamless film.Applied in sheet form with joints lapped and sealed.

  • mesuring ionization chamber (MIC)Standards

    a laboratory instrument used to measure the effect of smoke on the current flow within an ionization chamber

  • metadataNATSPEC

    The term for the collection of properties, names, or data associated with an object, element or file. (Can also be known as Attributes, Parameters and Properties).

  • metal faced boardNATSPEC

    Sheet metal (usually stainless steel) adhesive fixed to moisture resistant particleboard.

  • metal oxide varistorsNATSPEC

    Semiconductors that protect electronic components and systems from transient voltage.

  • metallic-coatedNATSPEC

    Steel coated with zinc or aluminium-zinc alloy as follows:Metallic-coated steel sheet: To AS 1397. Metal thicknesses specified are base metal thicknesses.Ferrous open sections zinc coated an in-line process: To AS/NZS 4791.Ferrous hollow sections zinc coated by a continuous or specialised process: To AS/NZS 4792.AS 1397 covers a wide range of finishes, coating grades and materials. It is used throughout the building industry for cold-formed sections such as studs, ceiling sections and roofing products. Specifications to AS 1397 should preferably include the base metal thickness and coating designations e.g. 1.6 mm galvanized grade G2 steel with Z275 coating.AS/NZS 4791 and AS/NZS 4792 exclude electrogalvanized (zinc plated) steel.

  • MezzanineBCA (NCC)

    means an intermediate floor within a room. 

  • MGP grade timberStandards

    A stress grade of timber for which the specific suite of characteristics values given in Table H3.1, Appendix , are applicable. NOTE: MGP grades are assigned to seasoned softwood timber graded in accordance with AS/NZS 1748.

  • microsurfacingNATSPEC

    A laboratory designed mixture of polymer modified asphalt emulsion, aggregate, water, mineral filler, and other additives, which is capable of being spread in variably thick layers for rut-filling and correction courses, and for wearing course applications where good surface texture is required to be maintained throughout the service life. Microsurfacing is cured using a chemically controlled curing process.

  • mildNATSPEC

    Areas more than 50 km from the coast, and not classed as industrial, which are subdivided as follows:(a) Mild-tropical - areas more than 50 km from the coast and falling within the tropical climatic zone.(b) Mild-temperate - areas more than 50 km from the coast and falling within the temperate climatic zone.(c) Mild-arid - Areas more than 50 km from the coast and falling within the arid climatic zone.

  • mine subsidenceStandards

    settlement, curvature, tilt and lateral strain, either individually or in combination, produced at the surface as a result of underground mining

  • mineral fillerNATSPEC

    A fine material, the majority of which passes a 75 µm sieve, derived from aggregate or other similar granular material.

  • minimum gap sight distanceNATSPEC

    Critical acceptance gap that drivers are prepared to accept when undertaking a crossing or turning manoeuvre at intersections.

  • minimum illuminance (at a point)Standards

    The maintained illuminance provided at any time on a horizontal plane and at floor level, at any of the grid points for which illuminane calculations or measurements are conducted to assess compliance with this standard. 

  • minimum thicknessStandards

    The thickness of a panel of glass at the minimum thickness tolerance.

  • minor exhaust systemStandards

    An exhaust system having a total aggregate opening area from a fire compartment not exceeding 0.1m2 into a separate shaft or duct within a shaft. 

  • minor roadNATSPEC

    All roads which become part of the public road system and are supplementary to arterial and sub-arterial roads. Minor roads may include local sub-arterial roads, collector roads, local roads, and access streets. The terminology of road hierarchy may be different in different states. Refer to the relevant State Road Authorities for more information https://www.australia.gov.au/information-and-services/transport-and-regional/roads-and-road-transport/authorities

  • minor supply systemStandards

    A system delivering air from a separate shaft or duct within a shaft via a total aggregate opening area into a fire compartment not exceeding 0.1m2. 

  • minor systemNATSPEC

    The gutter and pipe network capable of carrying and controlling flows from frequent runoff events. It includes kerb and channels, inlet structures, open drains and underground pipes and on-site detention facilities.

  • mirrorStandards

    A piece of glass silvered on one side.

  • mixNATSPEC

    The proportions of component materials in a quantity of concrete.

  • mixAUS-SPEC

    The proportions of component materials in a quantity of slurry seal or microsurfacing treatment mixture.Mix design: The designed proportion of component materials comprising the surfacing treatment mixture.Production mix: Mix produced in the plant and delivered to the site in a workable condition suitable for stockpiling, spreading and compaction.

  • mix designAUS-SPEC

    The designed portion of constituent materials comprising the type and source of components, target grading, binder content and volumetric properties of the mix.

  • mixed constructionStandards

    building consisting of more than one form of construction

  • mobile shelvingNATSPEC

    Shelving or storage unit fitted with wheeled traction system. Mobile shelving is also referred to as compactus shelving.

  • moderateNATSPEC

    areas with light industrial pollution or very light marine influence, or both.NOTE: Moderate areas include built-up areas within 50 km of the coast